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  • New Members-Only Content | AAUP
    in Higher Education Reports Publications AAUP Policies Reports Academe Economic Status Report Compensation Survey Bulletin of the AAUP The Redbook Journal of Academic Freedom AAUP Bookstore News AAUP in the News AAUP Updates For the Media Get Involved Upcoming Events Local Toolkit Issue Campaigns Find Chapters Conferences Start a Chapter I Need Help With Workplace Issues Understanding Terms and Abbreviations Responding to Financial Crisis You are here Home January February 2015 Join the AAUP By joining the AAUP you help shape the future of our profession In addition there are practical benefits such as discounts insurance programs and a subscription to Academe including the annual report on faculty compensation Click here to read more about the benefits of an AAUP membership Learn more Current Issue Previous Issues Contact Advertising Submissions Subscriptions Check out the current issue Visit the Academe Blog The Academe Blog is an extension of the magazine exploring a wide range of topics including academic freedom governance of colleges and universities working conditions and more New Members Only Content By Edward J Graham Over the past year the AAUP has worked to strengthen the benefits and services offered to our members and chapters We now offer webinars throughout the academic year topics have included making formal information requests strengthening faculty handbooks good faith bargaining and working with the media Other resources include guidebooks on navigating faculty appointments on the Family and Medical Leave Act and on faculty handbooks as enforceable contracts In October each AAUP member was sent an e mail message with a unique username and password allowing access to members only content through the websites of the AAUP and the AAUP Collective Bargaining Congress In addition to guidebooks and recordings of previous webinars members can access toolkits designed to strengthen local chapters and help faculty organize

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/new-members-only-content (2016-02-13)
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  • New AAUP Advocacy Chapters | AAUP
    For the Media Get Involved Upcoming Events Local Toolkit Issue Campaigns Find Chapters Conferences Start a Chapter I Need Help With Workplace Issues Understanding Terms and Abbreviations Responding to Financial Crisis You are here Home January February 2015 Join the AAUP By joining the AAUP you help shape the future of our profession In addition there are practical benefits such as discounts insurance programs and a subscription to Academe including the annual report on faculty compensation Click here to read more about the benefits of an AAUP membership Learn more Current Issue Previous Issues Contact Advertising Submissions Subscriptions Check out the current issue Visit the Academe Blog The Academe Blog is an extension of the magazine exploring a wide range of topics including academic freedom governance of colleges and universities working conditions and more New AAUP Advocacy Chapters By Edward J Graham The AAUP is pleased to announce the formation of sixteen new advocacy chapters during the fall semester The new chapters in chronological order of formation are located at Lackawanna College Pennsylvania Seton Hall University New Jersey Nassau Community College New York Mills College California Aurora University Illinois Hartwick College New York Georgetown College Kentucky York College of Pennsylvania Ferrum College Virginia the Community College of Denver Southern University at Shreveport Louisiana University of Southern Maine Virginia Tech Gonzaga University Washington Valley Forge Military Academy and College Pennsylvania and Marywood University Pennsylvania The AAUP is the only national organization for university faculty cutting across disciplinary boundaries to advance values for the profession said Roseanne Mirabella president of the new Seton Hall chapter and chair of the university s department of political science and public affairs Active AAUP chapters serve the profession at more than 450 accredited colleges and universities While all AAUP chapters promote academic freedom shared governance and

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/new-aaup-advocacy-chapters (2016-02-13)
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  • Henry Reichman Becomes AAUP Foundation Chair | AAUP
    Help With Workplace Issues Understanding Terms and Abbreviations Responding to Financial Crisis You are here Home January February 2015 Join the AAUP By joining the AAUP you help shape the future of our profession In addition there are practical benefits such as discounts insurance programs and a subscription to Academe including the annual report on faculty compensation Click here to read more about the benefits of an AAUP membership Learn more Current Issue Previous Issues Contact Advertising Submissions Subscriptions Check out the current issue Visit the Academe Blog The Academe Blog is an extension of the magazine exploring a wide range of topics including academic freedom governance of colleges and universities working conditions and more Henry Reichman Becomes AAUP Foundation Chair By Edward J Graham The AAUP Foundation welcomes Henry Reichman as the new chair of the Foundation s board of directors Reichman a professor of history at California State University East Bay currently serves as first vice president of the AAUP and as chair of Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure Reichman has been involved in the AAUP s national leadership since 2011 when he was first elected to the AAUP s national Council from District I He has served the Association in numerous capacities including as one of four elected at large delegates to the Council s executive committee and as the AAUP s appointed delegate to the national Campaign for the Future of Higher Education He is now serving in his second term as the AAUP s first vice president The AAUP Foundation is still in its infancy Reichman said but it is poised to grow into a significant source of financial support for the principles that the AAUP has developed and defended for the past century I am excited and honored by the opportunity to

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/henry-reichman-becomes-aaup-foundation-chair (2016-02-13)
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  • The Professoriate Reconsidered | AAUP
    way to keep faculty up to date it does help Another idea drawn from Boyer s Scholarship Reconsidered creativity contracts met with moderate interest and strong agreement across groups Creativity contracts facilitate faculty members participation in a broader range of scholarly activities by engaging them in highly customized and continuously changing faculty roles Each group agreed that giving faculty members the ability to take on a variety of roles over the course of their careers rather than the narrower foci and largely unchanging roles that are a part of faculty work today is an important feature to consider for future faculty models We also found unified agreement about and moderate interest in the use of consortium agreements Such agreements allow neighboring institutions to create shared full time faculty positions for individuals who would otherwise be hired by multiple institutions in the consortium individually often on part time contracts The groups showed unified agreement and strong interest in measures that would grant greater flexibility to tenured and tenure track faculty members for example by allowing them to stop the tenure clock or to move to part time appointments to care for family members or attend to other personal situations that might arise We also found strong agreement and strong interest across groups in creating greater flexibility for faculty members to address personal needs on campus by offering access to services such as child care or meal plans All of the groups were unified in their agreement that encouraging interdisciplinary collaboration fostering connections between faculty members and the local community and creating new partnerships with industry business nonprofits and government were attractive ideas Reprofessionalization One particularly encouraging finding is that all of the groups acknowledged the need to maintain or restore the professionalism of the faculty Some of the highest levels of interest in proposals that the survey presented as well as the highest levels of agreement across groups were found in response to items concerning the improvement of status and professionalism across academic ranks The groups showed unified agreement and strong interest in ensuring that all faculty members have the same protections for academic freedom equitable compensation for performing similar duties and access to all of the information and tools needed to do their jobs There was also unified agreement on the attractiveness of proposals that would provide all faculty members with opportunities for promotion and ongoing professional development Although the findings from this section might seem intuitive the strong agreement about ensuring equitable status across faculty ranks often is not reflected in the current conditions experienced by non tenure track faculty particularly part time or adjunct faculty It is possible that in completing this section of the survey some participants gave what they believed to be the most socially desirable responses However when considered alongside the strong levels of interest demonstrated throughout in proposals to redesign parts of the current system that have perpetuated inequity it is reasonable to conclude that these responses reflect genuine concern about higher education s growing reliance on contingent labor and its implications for institutions the ability of all faculty members to do their jobs and the future of academic professionalism Many of the comments in the open ended response sections address the disconnect between the ideal of professionalism for all faculty members and the current reality Faculty members are concerned about what future changes to faculty roles might mean for them having thus far witnessed only the steady degradation of the academic profession Implicit in their comments is a distrust of proposals that come from the administration As shown in the two following comments the first from a tenured or tenure track professor and the second from a part time non tenure track instructor faculty members are open to new models but are cautious skeptical and sometimes cynical about whether administrators will make choices that will improve conditions rather than continue to degrade them These statements leave out the key question who determines the new standards At my university there is far too much distrust of the faculty on the board and in the upper administration to allow for significant faculty input in a renegotiation of workload The survey has presented lots of interesting possibilities for improving the teaching working environments in higher education Unfortunately administrators seem more bent on maintaining the status quo for their own benefit than improving the quality of their institutions After 20 years as an adjunct I look with dismay at the corporatization of the universities where profitability has displaced learning as their defining purpose It will not be easy to turn the ship around Why do our current practices fall so short of what so many respondents believe we should be doing Financial challenges or a lack of trust and cooperation among stakeholder groups may contribute to the gap but greater discussion and exploration of this issue across groups is needed A Look at Unions Collective bargaining agreements will constrain most public universities with unions making most of these options impossible Implementation of most of the issues presented in this study would require renegotiating faculty union contracts This is the overriding issue in our ability to change faculty workloads even if the majority of the faculty agree with a suggested change As the above comments both by deans suggest some administrators see unions as a major obstacle to change To test the validity of these perceptions we compared the responses of faculty members in collective bargaining units to the full sample of faculty members in our study Our findings suggest that negative views of unionized faculty are based on stereotypes rather than facts Unionized faculty members in our survey were not especially resistant to change indeed their views were not much different from those of faculty overall Although the collective bargaining process might add a layer of complexity to making decisions about faculty employment and contracts our survey responses indicate that the views of faculty members who are in collective bargaining agreements are not appreciably different from their

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/professoriate-reconsidered (2016-02-13)
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  • Improving the Legal Landscape for Unionization at Private Colleges and Universities | AAUP
    s decision the board can reinterpret the legal standards used to apply the decision The board explained the need for the new standard specifically highlighting as the AAUP had in our amicus brief the increasing corporatization of the university The NLRB recognized that since 1980 the growing ranks of administrators have increasingly imposed a business model on the university Indeed our experience applying Yeshiva has generally shown that colleges and universities are increasingly run by administrators which has the effect of concentrating and centering authority away from the faculty Under the NLRB s new standard a college or university claiming that faculty are managerial cannot rely on paper authority or make conclusory assertions that decisions or recommendations are generally followed The administration must prove that faculty exercise actual authority or that faculty recommendations must almost always be followed by the administration or routinely become operative without independent review by the administration In particular the NLRB will require that the administration prove faculty authority in fact over areas of policy making that affect the university as whole defined as academic programs enrollment management and finances The NLRB will also consider the extent of faculty authority over academic policy and personnel policies and decisions New Opportunities Where does Pacific Lutheran leave us on the application of Yeshiva The NLRB s new standard opens the door for increased unionization where shared governance has been undermined by corporatization Certainly administrators will be hard pressed to make any credible claim that non tenure track faculty are managerial as they are often excluded from faculty governance In view of the severe level of exploitation of many contingent faculty especially those in part time positions it is not surprising that there has been a spike in adjunct faculty unionization over the past year Pacific Lutheran allows tenure track and tenured faculty greater flexibility in using a variety of tactics to achieve effective faculty governance The NLRB s new legal standard puts administrations in a box that may work in the faculty s favor Where corporatization has reduced collective faculty autonomy through unilateral decision making by the administration faculty may have rights to unionize as professional employees under the NLRA moving from collective begging to collective bargaining If the institution claims that the faculty are excluded as managers from NLRA coverage the administration must prove that collective faculty authority is genuine independently exercised and controlling Either route leads to increased collective power for faculty Pacific Lutheran reveals the importance of having a broad vision of governance that includes faculty committees faculty senates and unions with the potential for the coexistence of these bodies Faculty should unionize where it is effective they should rely on faculty senates and other advocacy groups where they are most effective Faculty governance can coordinate among these institutional models to support individual and collective faculty interests broadly The Path Ahead Traveling these routes toward strengthened faculty governance will not be easy The legal landscape will remain precarious as challenges to the NLRB s Pacific

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/improving-legal-landscape-unionization-private-colleges-and-universities (2016-02-13)
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  • Academia, Academe, and Intellectual Property | AAUP
    that served to anchor fair use To fast forward the first issue in the one hundredth volume of Academe published in 2014 featured a piece by Rebecca Gould in which she memorialized programmer and open source activist Aaron Swartz who at the time of his suicide faced thirteen felony charges related in part to downloading and uploading copyright protected database mined books and articles to file sharing networks to declare opposition as he put it to this private theft of public culture A landmark piece appeared in the AAUP Bulletin in 1949 an address by Sam Bass Warner then the register of copyrights for the United States delivered at the Thirty Fifth Annual Meeting of the AAUP In Copyrights and the Academic Profession Warner briefly traced copyright law noting its emergence through the Statute of Anne in 1710 and its US codification in 1790 At the time that Warner delivered his address most work produced in Western Europe was immediately copyright protected upon its creation In the United States however registration was a separate act required to secure copyright protection In his address Warner argued for the value of not having automatically fixed copyright protection stating that I need not tell you how valuable it is to you and other scholars to have all these materials free from all restrictions rather than have them protected by copyright Warner also argued that the standard in the United States with its fixed and definite period of time to copyright expiration was preferable to Western Europe s life of the author plus fifty years hereafter Of course both aspects of US copyright law that Warner praised in 1949 were erased with the 1976 changes to copyright It is likely that Warner helped to foment opinions among AAUP leadership which resulted as one 1998 Academe article stated in the AAUP s playing a leading role in opposing the guidelines included in the legislative record of the 1976 Copyright Revision Bill because of their overly restrictive nature Warner previously a professor and a self proclaimed academic at heart described his professorial approach to copyrighting his work arguing that never to my knowledge has the copyright law helped me Instead of trying to prevent other people from reprinting what I have written I have always been delighted when they did so He admitted later in the address however that others may find more commercial value in their work and he encouraged the attendees to copyright it so that you rather than some literary pirate shall reap the monetary reward In offering advice for using the copyright protected property of others he told attendees to look for a copyright notification in a publication arguing that if one were absent you are safe in assuming that it is not under copyright and that you may lawfully copy from it There is the theoretical possibility that there may be an authorized edition with a copyright notice in it and that you are looking at a pirated edition but this possibility is so unlikely that you are justified in ignoring it His final advice to faculty members unable to assess whether or not a work was still copyright protected is to calculate the risk you are taking and then balance it against the value to you of the material you wish to copy In most cases I think your answer will be that you can find other and better material to copy The address by the US register of copyrights marked an important moment in the history of the AAUP and of this publication Many other moments constellate around it discussions of intellectual property appeared in the Bulletin and then in Academe in the 1950s and subsequent decades Not surprisingly these conversations peaked in the 1990s and the early 2000s in part because of three key changes first changes in digital technologies second transformations in distance education many of which were brought on by new technological means for course delivery and third revisions to copyright law many of which were likewise spurred by the vast technological changes brought about by the World Wide Web in the 1990s I encourage readers to linger over the work published in the Bulletin and Academe over the past hundred years and specifically to consider tracing the rich robust conversations debates and commentary on issues of copyright patents and more Some of the key pieces published in Academe in recent years are available on the AAUP s website at http www aaup org ip while older work is available through JSTOR and university libraries Intellectual Property at Risk In 1998 a subcommittee of the AAUP s Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure was formed to address intellectual property rights In a 1998 report the subcommittee provided five reasons why IP issues are complex in educational settings 1 Colleges and universities are at once major suppliers and consumers of intellectual property 2 The intellectual property created within colleges and universities is often the product of multiple creators who share other important relationships such as graduate student and supervisor 3 Both the creation and use of intellectual property within the academy are carried out by a diverse array of individuals 4 Creative activity within colleges and universities is supported by a variety of sources including direct government investment and private funds from endowments alumni foundations and business 5 The creation and use of intellectual property within colleges and universities are intrinsically related to the core activities of those institutions teaching research scholarship and service One of the key issues raised in the report related to who makes IP decisions The question resonates even more today given the current climate of budgetary constraints and declining state funding labor politics the corporatization of universities changes in faculty work distance education and new technologies In October 2013 the AAUP launched an intellectual property initiative identifying IP as including patents copyrights trademarks and trade secrets and arguing that IP rights are or should be a key concern of university faculty

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/academia-academe-and-intellectual-property (2016-02-13)
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  • The AAUP's Role in a Globalized, Competitive Higher Education Landscape | AAUP
    education institutions more elite while others seek to build brand new top universities from the ground up Saudi Arabia s King Abdullah University of Science and Technology is an example of the latter type of institution From its inception this university which opened in 2009 was designed to rival top tier institutions worldwide The university s vision and mission are global in scope and it has sought industry partners donors and diverse collaborators from the outset Strategy 2 Merging Universities In recent years university mergers have become an increasingly common strategy for enhancing the global competitiveness of individual institutions and national higher education systems University mergers are often tied to the parallel goal of working toward world class university status In some cases governments merge institutions specifically for this purpose as with Aalto University in Finland which resulted from the amalgamation of institutions as part of the government s overall plan to decrease its total number of universities from twenty to fifteen In South Africa thirty six higher education institutions were reduced to twenty three In this case racially segregated institutions were merged in the post apartheid era with the explicit goal of increasing their global competitiveness however merging institutions with contested historical legacies has proven enormously challenging Countries around the world are following this trend of focusing attention on a smaller number of institutions that combine the best most competitive elements Merger negotiations and attempts are ongoing in the United States as a recent newsworthy example the University System of Georgia has undertaken five mergers of ten institutions with a sixth scheduled for 2016 despite controversy and resistance from faculty staff and students Hypothetically merged institutions can be more efficient and economically viable though this is not guaranteed and potential complications such as the loss of jobs and merging existing institutional cultures must be considered closely prior to the merger Strategy 3 Making Quality Assurance a Priority Virtually every higher education system and institution worldwide emphasizes the need for quality Governmental or quasi governmental quality assurance bodies designed to regulate the higher education sector have become commonplace in many countries though with differing specifications based on national needs Quality is regulated through accreditation and international benchmarking in an effort to heighten the status of institutions and attract elite scholars from around the world Although the United States lacks a national quality assurance agency for higher education accreditation and quality control through various private entities often with a regional emphasis have long been key facets of higher education provision especially given that accreditation is linked with financial aid for students Indeed quality assurance has become a regional endeavor across the globe with several networks emerging in the past few decades including the Asian Pacific Quality Network and the Arab Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education Attempts have been made to establish broader international benchmarking standards through quality assurance mechanisms such as the International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education which seeks to highlight best practices among one hundred full and associate member states Despite the emergence of regional and international quality assurance bodies setting universal standards across the globe remains an elusive goal and without clear measures of quality rankings have become the de facto global standard The absence of uniform regulated measures of quality complicates the notion of global competitiveness given that countries and higher education institutions are striving to achieve standards that have not been fully established or validated Furthermore national or global standards may or may not be feasible or useful though some argue that students in a globalized world must be able to accurately compare the quality of programs nationally and around the world Additionally globally comparable standards may serve as an inspiration for institutions and higher education systems striving to improve not only their status but also their offerings and quality Strategy 4 Internationalizing Universities Although higher education institutions around the world have historically had international connections Global Competition 2 0 is intensifying this drive According to education researcher Jane Knight of the University of Toronto increased competitiveness is a motivating factor for higher education leaders who are seeking to enhance their institutions international dimensions Through internationalization these leaders seek to draw elite international scholars and students enhance research capacities and augment reputations Attracting international students is a key part of this strategy By 2025 the number of students studying outside of their home countries is expected to rise to 8 million and countries are increasingly competing for these students The United States remains the top destination for international students followed by the United Kingdom Clearly internationalizing universities not only can help the bottom line thanks to increased international student fee revenue but it can also strengthen the stature of higher education institutions and systems Strategy 5 Increasing Cross Border Higher Education Cross border higher education also known as transnational or borderless higher education has become increasingly prevalent as a means of strengthening higher education institutions as key centers for international students and scholars Now that higher education has become a tradable commodity for member nations in the World Trade Organization under the General Agreement on Trade in Services countries are increasingly using cross border higher education ventures as strategies for global competition Several common types of cross border higher education curricular programs are depicted in t able 3 The reach of cross border higher education has increased with the rapid expansion of higher education around the world The United States is a key player in exporting higher education with more than eighty international branch campuses operated by US institutions according to the Cross Border Education Research Team of SUNY at Albany Elite institutions such as Yale University and New York University get most of the media attention but cross border higher education is alive and well at a diverse array of institutions including state universities and technical colleges Critics have raised questions about quality protections for academic freedom and labor and potential damage to institutional reputations nevertheless many institutions are using

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/aaups-role-globalized-competitive-higher-education-landscape (2016-02-13)
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  • Community Colleges in the AAUP | AAUP
    developments led to the emergence of a new concept community colleges were increasingly seen as less costly places where people of all ages could go to complete two years of college before transferring to four year institutions as juniors Roles of Community Colleges Community colleges today still serve students who are seeking terminal technical degrees These graduates can be found everywhere We find them in many health care fields and in well paying civil and mechanical engineering careers Alumni of community colleges work in the hospitality professions Graduates of community colleges are often fixing and servicing our automobiles Community college faculty teach many individuals who need basic educational skills just to reach the point of being a college student Many of our students go on to earn degrees from universities and colleges across the United States I am proud of every student who has crossed my path over the years I would not trade my career for any other but I am deeply concerned about the future of community colleges in this country For all of the great work that we do what a community college faculty member does for a living is not appreciated The first problem is identifying where we fit in the college model Full time faculty members at Cincinnati State have been part of the AAUP for more than twenty five years During this time our AAUP chapter has fought hard for shared governance academic freedom and tenure The Cincinnati State chapter has been true to AAUP principles but it is extremely difficult for a community college faculty group to carry on this fight Most community college faculty members have very little if any opportunity to form an AAUP collective bargaining chapter In the past the AAUP has been reluctant to organize community college chapters either the college was seen as too small to warrant spending much needed AAUP resources on organizing or sadly AAUP leaders saw community college faculty as akin to K 12 teachers rather than as colleagues in higher education As a result many community college faculty interested in unionization have not had an obvious choice of labor organization with which to affiliate The benefits and core academic rights derived from AAUP principles that I have enjoyed have resulted from my chapter s affiliation with the AAUP too few of my colleagues at other two year institutions are as lucky Unfortunately many of these colleagues are now facing careers in which they lack opportunities for participation in governance have no annual contracts and receive poor benefits It has been my mission since I became part of the AAUP leadership to help as many of my fellow community college faculty members as I can and the current AAUP leadership shares that goal I hope that the AAUP s strong support for community college faculty will continue throughout the organization s second century Persistent Challenges If the problems described above were the only ones that community colleges faced it might be possible to solve them

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/article/community-colleges-aaup (2016-02-13)
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