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  • Collective Bargaining | AAUP
    in February when a superior court in the Virgin Islands affirmed that faculty at UVI are eligible for collective bargaining The ruling came after a five year struggle with a hostile administration In fall 2003 the UVI faculty reestablished its chapter of the AAUP and within a few months a majority of the faculty had joined the chapter Read more about Victory on the Horizon Fighting Back Negotiating under the Radar Preserving contract language is far more important than fighting for insignificant pay increases Read more about Fighting Back Negotiating under the Radar Pay Raises for Nebraska Faculty Upheld Faculty at the University of Nebraska at Omaha received good news this month when Nebraska s Commission on Industrial Relations upheld an arbitrator s decision to award 3 8 percent annual pay raises for the next two years to faculty in the AAUP collective bargaining chapter there The commission also upheld an increase in employer paid life insurance benefits The university s board of regents had appealed the arbitrator s decision and the administration had proposed raises of 2 9 percent and 2 5 percent in the next two years Read more about Pay Raises for Nebraska Faculty Upheld Contract Gains for Part Time Chapter The Suffolk Affiliated Faculty SAF AAUP part time faculty chapter signed its first contract with Suffolk University this June bringing a welcome conclusion to three year long negotiations The chapter has much cause to celebrate The Suffolk administration acceded to part time faculty members demands that they be compensated for extra classroom time that was a consequence of a course credit restructuring plan this resulted in 30 to 45 percent pay raises between 2007 and 2010 with annual increases of 3 5 percent in subsequent years Read more about Contract Gains for Part Time Chapter Interview by Marc Bousquet with Kevin Mahoney MB Tell me about APSCUF contract provisions 11 G and 11 H KM Article 11 G speaks to the conversion of a full time faculty member into a tenure track faculty member while Article 11 H is geared toward the conversion of an FTE temporary faculty line into a tenure track line The former places the emphasis on the individual faculty member the latter seeks to prevent systemic staffing of particular areas of the curriculum by temporary faculty members MB How do they work in practice Read more about Interview by Marc Bousquet with Kevin Mahoney Negotiated Conversions Living with Uncertainty As a group college teachers are replaceable parts and when one of us is replaced perhaps the only thing it is possible to say with confidence about the new model is that she will cost less Anyone looking at higher education today can see that the tuition and fees college students pay keep outpacing inflation But fewer notice that college teachers compensation plays almost no role in these increasing costs and may actually have a dampening effect After all an ever more contingent faculty means a cheaper faculty Read more about Negotiated Conversions

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/import-tags/collective-bargaining (2016-02-13)
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  • Committee on Representation of Economic and Professional Interests | AAUP
    Shared Governance Contingent Faculty Positions Faculty Compensation Copyright Distance Ed Intellectual Property Accreditation Sexual Harassment Assault Academic Research Civility Conflicts of Interest Collective Bargaining Hiring and Promotions Discrimination Diversity Affirmative Action Ethics Faculty Work Workload Family Work Grading Graduate Students The Academic Bill of Rights Minority Serving Institutions Post Tenure Review Retirement Sexual Diversity Gender Identity Teaching Evaluation Tenure Women in Higher Education Reports Publications AAUP Policies Reports Academe Economic Status Report Compensation Survey Bulletin of the AAUP The Redbook Journal of Academic Freedom AAUP Bookstore News AAUP in the News AAUP Updates For the Media Get Involved Upcoming Events Local Toolkit Issue Campaigns Find Chapters Conferences Start a Chapter I Need Help With Workplace Issues Understanding Terms and Abbreviations Responding to Financial Crisis You are here Home Committee on Representation of Economic and Professional Interests Statement on Collective Bargaining Report addressing collective bargaining as an effective instrument for achieving the basic AAUP objectives of protecting academic freedom establishing and strengthening institutions of faculty governance providing fair procedures for resolving grievances promoting the economic well being of faculty and other academic professionals and advancing the interests of higher education Read more about Statement on Collective Bargaining Statement on Academic Government

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/import-tags/committee-representation-economic-and-professional-interests (2016-02-13)
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  • Contingent Appointments and the Academic Profession | AAUP
    tenure track Faculty points out faculty with non tenure track appointments serve with their academic freedom in continuous jeopardy It is therefore not surprising the statement notes that the more cautious among them are likely to avoid controversy in their classrooms and thus to deprive their students of that quintessential college experience Equity among Academic Colleagues Inequities begin in the appointment process Appointments of full time tenure track faculty typically follow rigorous national searches which include a review of the candidate s scholarly record an assessment of teaching potential and consideration of other attributes by faculty in the department offering the appointment Contingent faculty by contrast are often appointed in hurried circumstances Department chairs select likely candidates from a local list reviewing their curricula vitae and perhaps their past student evaluations Faculty in most contingent positions are rarely reviewed and evaluated during their appointments and little care is taken to enhance their professional development and advancement In many institutions evaluations are the responsibility of the busy dean or chair who appointed the individual and may be neglected unless complaints or problems arise By contrast in other institutions contingent faculty are constantly evaluated sometimes by faculty members with much less experience or even by graduate students Economic differences provide an even sharper contrast between part time contingent faculty and tenured faculty While part time faculty who teach in professional and vocational schools or programs are likely to hold full time positions outside the academy those who teach in core liberal arts fields such as English foreign languages history and mathematics are more likely to rely on their teaching for their livelihood This means that a sizeable corps of college teachers lacks access to employment benefits including health insurance and retirement plans 26 To support themselves part time faculty often must teach their courses as piecework commuting between institutions preparing for courses on a grueling timetable striving to create and evaluate appropriately challenging assignments and making enormous sacrifices to maintain interaction with their students A large gap in working conditions exists even between the most experienced part time faculty members and newly appointed tenure track faculty members Contingent faculty both part and full time are constantly confronted with reminders of their lack of status in the academic community The isolation of contingent faculty from opportunities to interact with their tenured or tenure track colleagues and to participate in faculty governance professional development and scholarly pursuits promotes divisions and distinctions that undermine the collegial nature of the academic community Taken together these inequities weaken the whole profession and diminish its capacity to serve the public good Integrity of Faculty Work Higher education achieves its unique standing in our society because it is characterized by original research teaching that is grounded in scholarly disciplines and service to the larger community all supported and protected by academic freedom Institutions rely on the professional responsibility of the faculty to maintain a strong commitment to student learning and to the development of scholarship Indeed the Association s founding statement the 1915 Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure 27 describes the public purposes of a college or university as teaching scholarship and service The relative emphasis placed on teaching scholarship and service by a faculty member varies according to the terms of his or her appointment and academic discipline and the type of institution at which he or she works But although emphases vary these functions are not completely divisible Faculty work cannot be sliced cleanly into component parts without losing the important connections that make up the whole For example while teaching may be the primary mission of certain types of institutions or programs teaching faculty recognize the need to engage in scholarly work in order to remain current and effective as teachers in their respective disciplines Similarly research universities support original research but research faculty typically share new information and insights with the university community by teaching in a graduate program and by consulting with academic colleagues In all types of institutions faculty share a responsibility for academic decision making Faculty participation in governance structures is an essential feature of higher education ensuring that programs and courses are of high quality and are academic in nature Faculty also serve the university or college in many ways such as by acting as faculty advisers to student organizations providing information to prospective students and their parents and supporting student activities Finally the university s ability to be of service to the community at large depends on the availability of faculty to share their academic knowledge outside of academe Services ranging from providing economic development advice to local governments and community organizations to advising local schools on college preparatory courses tie the university or college to the larger community and help to inform the institution s research and teaching functions Tenured and tenure track faculty are expected to engage to some extent in teaching scholarship and service and their salaries and teaching loads reflect that expectation Faculty holding contingent appointments on the other hand are rarely compensated for time spent on shared governance or other service The professional development and scholarly accomplishments of contingent faculty are often viewed as irrelevant or simply ignored To maintain the quality of higher education faculty must stay in contact with other scholars in their disciplines Contingent appointments frustrate such involvement and hamper original research because they are unstable and because they rarely include institutional support for scholarly activities and professional development Scholarship requires continuity It is particularly difficult for faculty members with contingent appointments to engage in scholarly work when the conditions of their appointments vary from year to year or even term to term Access to scholarly resources such as libraries collections or laboratories varies widely with different types of appointments Even full time non tenure track appointments arguably more stable than part time appointments leave little time for scholarly development because faculty with these appointments tend to teach many more classes than tenured or tenure track faculty In doctoral institutions full time non tenure track faculty teach 50 percent more hours than tenure track faculty and in other four year institutions 15 percent more 28 To support the essential mission of higher education faculty appointments including contingent appointments should incorporate all aspects of university life active engagement with an academic discipline teaching or mentoring of undergraduate or graduate students participation in academic decision making and service on campus and to the surrounding community Faculty who are appointed to less than full time positions should participate at least to some extent in the full range of faculty responsibilities For all faculty members in contingent positions this participation should be supported by compensation and institutional resources and recognized in the processes of evaluation and peer review Academic Freedom Academic freedom in colleges and universities is essential to the common good of a free society Academic freedom rests on a solid base of peer review and as such is the responsibility of the entire profession The profession protects academic freedom through a system of peer review that results in institutional commitment to faculty members Faculty peers make careful judgments in the appointment process conduct ongoing reviews that may lead to reappointments and make evaluations that may determine the completion of the probationary period and the beginning of continuous tenure Individual faculty members can exercise their professional inquiry and judgment freely because peer review affirms their competence and accomplishments in their fields By contrast the attenuated relationship between the contingent faculty member and his or her department or institution can chill the climate for academic freedom Currently neither peer review nor academic due process operates adequately to secure academic freedom for most contingent faculty members The lack of adequate protection for academic freedom can have visible results Contingent faculty may be less likely to take risks in the classroom or in scholarly and service work The free exchange of ideas may be hampered by the specter of potential dismissal or nonrenewal for unpopular utterances In this chilling atmosphere students may be deprived of the robust debate essential to citizenship They may be deprived of rigorous and honest evaluations of their work Likewise faculty may be discouraged from explorations of new knowledge and experimentation with new pedagogies Perhaps most important institutions may lose the opportunity to receive constructive criticism of academic policies and practices from a significant portion of the academic community To secure academic freedom for the entire profession and to ensure the highest quality in teaching and research the responsibilities of faculty peers in the appointment and evaluation of colleagues for contingent faculty positions should resemble those for appointments on the tenure track Faculty members appointed and reappointed to contingent positions should receive conscientious and thorough peer reviews in which they can demonstrate their effectiveness their successive reappointments would then validate their record of competence and accomplishments in their respective fields Resting securely on a base of peer review academic freedom is best guaranteed by tenure and academic due process We here affirm long standing Association policy that with carefully circumscribed exceptions all full time appointments are of two kinds probationary appointments and appointments with continuous tenure According to the joint 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure a fter the expiration of a probationary period teachers or investigators should have permanent or continuous tenure and their services should be terminated only for adequate cause or under extraordinary circumstances because of financial exigencies 29 For full time faculty the probationary period should not exceed seven years and those who are reappointed beyond seven years should be recognized as having the protections that would accrue with tenure termination only for adequate cause and with due process To protect academic freedom and to ensure the highest quality in college and university education colleges and universities need the stability of a tenured faculty The Association s 1993 report The Status of Non tenure track Faculty urges Whenever possible the regular academic instruction of students should be the responsibility of faculty members who are responsible for the curriculum and participate in the governance of the institution and to whom the institution is willing to make the commitment of tenure Where the ideal is not immediately reachable faculties and administrations should both adopt concrete plans to increase the proportion of positions that are protected by tenure and in the interim develop and implement practical safeguards for academic freedom for all faculty and assurances of conscientious peer review and continued employment of well qualified faculty in order to maintain the quality of the education offered at the institution This transitional phase should include at least these three elements Part and full time contingent faculty should be provided opportunities to move into tenured positions part or full time the requirements for which should be defined as always by faculty peers Part time faculty after a reasonable opportunity for successive reviews and reappointments should have assurances of continued employment For examples of measures that provide such assurances see the recommendations on tenure and academic due process in the following section of this report and the 1979 summary Academic Freedom and Due Process for Faculty Members Who Serve Less Than Full Time 30 Faculty and administrators should exercise great care in recruiting and appointing new faculty for any position to ensure that new faculty may have some prospect of eventually achieving tenure Finally it is important to note that tenure can be granted at any professional rank or without rank the Association does not link tenure with a particular faculty status The professor in a research university whose appointment includes a significant responsibility for original research should not be the sole or primary model for tenurable academic work A faculty member whose position focuses primarily on teaching supported by sufficient opportunity for scholarship and service is also engaged in tenurable academic work Just as there are different emphases in the range of faculty appointments in research universities comprehensive universities liberal arts colleges and community colleges all of which define tenurable faculty work so too there may be different models for tenurable faculty work within a single institution Recommendations on Faculty Work The work of faculty comprises an integrated whole segmenting that work threatens the quality of higher education undermines the reliability and effectiveness of academic decision making undercuts the necessary protections of academic freedom and imposes an unacceptable cost on student learning The increased reliance of the academy on faculty whose academic freedom is not protected diminishes the professional autonomy and the intellectual independence of all faculty essential elements of the mission of higher education Knowing from long experience that academic freedom thrives in a relationship of commitment and responsibility between faculty and their institutions the Association makes the following recommendations Faculty Work as an Integrated Whole Faculty appointments part or full time should be structured to involve at least to some extent the full range of faculty responsibilities including teaching activities both in and outside the classroom scholarly pursuits such as contributions to an academic discipline or maintenance of professional currency and service that ensures that academic decisions are well informed by the experience and expertise of all faculty and that the wider community shares in the benefits of the knowledge fostered by the university community Peer Review Collegial support of academic freedom for the profession requires conscientious and thorough reviews of the work of all faculty members including contingent faculty Reviews should be conducted by faculty peers and should be structured to permit faculty members to demonstrate their competence and accomplishments in their respective fields The records of reviews should validate faculty members effectiveness in their positions Appointment review and reappointment processes should incorporate accepted practices of academic due process and should give careful attention to the quality of education that the faculty member contributes to the institution Tenure and Academic Due Process Teaching scholarship and service must be protected by academic freedom and due process For faculty with full time appointments academic freedom must be protected by tenure following a reasonable probationary period For faculty with full time appointments regardless of their titles the probationary period should not exceed seven years In addition all part time faculty after appropriate successive reviews for reappointments should have assurance of continuing employment Such assurance can be provided through a variety of measures some of which were recommended by the Association in 1993 Examples include longer terms of appointment opportunities for advancement through ranks due process protections described below recognition of seniority such as first opportunities for reappointment and course selection conscientious peer evaluation earlier notices of reappointment and opportunities to appeal nonreappointment The Association affirms as partial protections of academic freedom for part time faculty the following specific due process provisions set forth in 1979 written terms and conditions of appointments modifications and extensions a written statement of reasons and an opportunity to be heard before a duly constituted committee prior to involuntary termination during a period of appointment access to a duly elected faculty grievance committee and a statement of reasons and a hearing before a duly constituted faculty committee for nonreappointment if the faculty member makes a prima facie case of an academic freedom violation or improper discrimination Shared Governance Curricular and other academic decisions benefit from the participation of all faculty especially those who teach core courses Governance responsibilities should be shared among all faculty at an institution including those appointed to less than full time positions Although part time faculty have proportionately less time available for governance responsibilities their appointments should provide for appropriate participation and compensation Faculty and administrators in each institution program or department should together determine the appropriate modes and levels of participation in governance for part time faculty considering issues such as voting rights representation and inclusion in committees and governance bodies with the primary aim of obtaining the best wisdom and cooperation of all colleagues in the governance of their institutions Participation in shared governance requires vigilant support of academic freedom and the protections of due process In order to protect the right and the responsibility of non tenured as well as tenured faculty to participate freely and effectively in faculty governance it is incumbent on all faculty to protect the exercise of academic freedom by their colleagues in faculty governance processes Compensation All faculty work should be compensated fairly Positions that require comparable work responsibilities and qualifications should be comparably compensated taking into account variations by discipline seniority and departmental priorities As the Association recommended in 1993 compensation for part time appointments including those in which faculty are currently paid on a per course or per hour basis should be the applicable fraction of the compensation including benefits for a comparable full time position 31 Although the variety of responsibilities and qualifications required of each position may make comparability difficult to determine it is the responsibility of duly constituted faculty bodies to meet this challenge Limitations of Contingent Appointments Recognizing that current patterns of faculty appointment depart substantially from the ideal the Association affirms its 1980 and 1993 recommendations that no more than 15 percent of the total instruction within an institution and no more than 25 percent of the total instruction within any department should be provided by faculty with non tenure track appointments For the long term good of institutions and their students the use of non tenure track appointments should be limited to specialized fields and emergency situations Faculty who hold such special and emergency appointments should have the protections of academic freedom due process and fair compensation as described above Special appointments refer for example to sabbatical replacements substitutes for leaves of absence or limited artist in residence appointments Special appointments should not exceed a small percentage of all faculty appointments and the Association s allowance for special appointments should not be construed as an endorsement of the thousands of full time non tenure track faculty appointments that now comprise over 30 percent of all full time faculty positions Flexible Scheduling Within the context of tenure a certain amount of flexibility in scheduling is an appropriate response to the needs of faculty at various career stages The Association affirms the recommendation made in the 1987 statement Senior Appointments with Reduced Loads 32 for opportunities for faculty member s to move from a full to a reduced load and back to full time status depending on the needs of the individual and the institution Modified appointments possibly with reduced workloads and salary but without loss in status might serve faculty members at various stages of life or career The Association s 2001 Statement of Principles on Family Responsibilities and Academic Work recommends among other accommodations for faculty who are new parents adjustments in the probationary period at the request of the faculty member 33 These recommendations speak to all faculty tenured tenure track and contingent They urge a renewal of the conception of faculty work as an integrated whole that fits with and supports the mission of higher education for the public good They urge an integration of principles of academic freedom and due process in the work of all faculty and recommend inclusion of all faculty in the academic work of the institution The Association recognizes the gap between these recommendations and current practices This gap must be bridged in two ways 1 by developing concrete mechanisms to integrate contingent faculty into the academic work of their institutions and to protect the academic freedom of faculty currently appointed to contingent positions and 2 by increasing the proportion of positions protected by tenure We offer below some practical guidelines for transitions to an improved ratio of tenured faculty Each plan for transition of course must be customized to a particular institution as developed by administrations and all faculty working together collegially Transition from Current to Best Practices Transitions happen gradually The professoriate s transition from a body composed mainly of full time tenure line faculty to a body composed mainly of contingent faculty occurred over several de cades Now some institutions seek to recover the stability and quality of instruction lost in that transition Some simply seek to improve the ratio of tenure line faculty in one or more departments Such changes do not have to be precipitate and jarring to institutions to students or to faculty members who were appointed on a contingent basis and have nonetheless tried to build an academic career Both faculty and administrators participated in the decisions that have resulted in heavy reliance on contingent faculty especially for undergraduate teaching Both faculty and administrators now share the responsibility for reducing such reliance while minimizing the costs of change to current contingent faculty A transition to a stable mostly tenured or tenure eligible faculty can be accomplished by relying primarily on attrition retirements and the appointment of more faculty to meet the needs of the increasing number of students expected in coming de cades Plans for conversion should be addressed by duly constituted faculty bodies that invite the participation of contingent faculty Instructional budgets of necessity compete for funds with other college and university priorities Students alumni parents and local legislators may be among the first to recognize the value of investments that strengthen the quality of undergraduate education and may assist in identifying the resources necessary for a transition For example in 2001 the California legislature passed a resolution to increase the percentage of tenured and tenure track faculty in the California State University system to 75 percent over an eight year period A system wide working group adopted a plan that outlined a goal of improving the ratio of tenured and tenure track faculty by 1 5 percent each year The plan anticipated that many faculty holding non tenure track lecturer positions would apply successfully for newly created tenure track positions and that the remaining replacements of lecturer positions with tenure track positions could be handled through attrition and retirements of lecturers To meet the goal the state undertook to conduct between 1 800 and 2 000 annual searches for new tenure track faculty The cost of recruiting appointing and compensating the new positions was estimated to be between 4 8 and 35 million in each of the eight years which reflected an increase of 0 18 percent to 1 3 percent in the system wide budget 34 At Western Michigan University the faculty successfully bargained for a contract that offered tenurable positions to a group of faculty specialists including health specialists and teachers in the College of Aviation Because the faculty union and the institution had moved incrementally toward this step first regularizing the positions by adopting position descriptions and promotional ranks and agreeing on some due process provisions and then offering job security with four year reviews the cost of the transition to the tenure track was negligible 35 These two examples demonstrate that institutions committed to high quality undergraduate education can plan appropriate steps to reduce their reliance on temporary faculty Preparation for a Transition We make the following recommendations for systems institutions departments or programs preparing to make a transition from an unstable academic environment characterized by overreliance on contingent faculty appointments to a stable academic environment characterized by a predominantly tenure line faculty Assess the current situation How many faculty members in each department are currently appointed off the tenure track How many of such appointments are needed to serve the long term best interests of the students and the institution The current ratio of contingent faculty to tenured and tenure track faculty should serve as a benchmark As a transition begins the institution or department should seek to reduce that ratio Define and describe the goal Faculty and administrators should consider the end result sought Different profiles of tenurable positions with varied emphases given to teaching research and service as integral parts of faculty work might suit the mission and work of different departments programs or institutions Each department program or institution should consider which profiles best fi t its long term needs For example the work of some tenured faculty particularly at the undergraduate level may emphasize teaching or service while the work of others may emphasize research and graduate education Some faculty may be eligible for tenure as specialists as clinical instructors or in other positions that vary from conventional faculty ranks of assistant associate and full professor To determine the number of tenured positions needed for each department program or institution faculty and administrators should begin with the premise that core and advanced courses should be taught by faculty who have the protection of academic freedom secured by tenure and academic due process as well as the ability to participate fully in their profession and in the collegial environment of the academy Duly constituted faculty bodies should determine the full complement of tenured and tenure track faculty needed in a department program or institution The number of tenure lines in the bud get of an institution or statewide system should reflect at least the number of faculty needed to teach the students enrolled in core and advanced courses offered on a continuing basis Bud get constraints and other concerns may prevent the immediate realization of a full complement of tenured faculty Nevertheless the goal should be defined Consider appropriate criteria for tenure A duly constituted body of faculty peers should determine tenure qualifications and requirements for each type of appointment When a position is made tenurable the relative emphasis on teaching scholarship and service necessary for that position and therefore the qualifications that should be emphasized in tenure criteria for that position may vary among departments and programs and among types of appointments Stabilize the situation Having made a commitment to reduce reliance on a contingent teaching force institutions should avoid appointing new contingent faculty during the transition New contingent appointments if any should be limited to candidates whose qualifications after a probationary period are likely to meet the institution s standards for tenure in the type of position being filled in anticipation of eventual tenure eligibility Such appointments should be made only in the context of a definite timetable coupled with the commitment of appropriate resources to convert the positions to tenure track positions Institutions should not rotate contingent faculty members through various types of appointments for the purpose of avoiding professional commitments to them Institutions should also avoid the proliferation of new types of contingent appointments and the proliferation of new names for existing types of appointments Such proliferation increases the instability of the faculty and damages the careers of individual faculty members who are rotated through a variety of non tenure track positions Design a deliberate approach Plans for a transition to a primarily tenured and tenure track faculty should be structured to ensure the least possible disruption to student learning and faculty careers A transition can be achieved through an incremental approach that relies in large part on the voluntary attrition of faculty holding contingent appointments Contingent faculty especially those who have been reappointed several times should be included in faculty decision making processes about the conversion of positions or the creation of new positions Faculty may determine that during a period of transition individuals currently holding teaching only positions or other positions not presently recognized as tenurable may be grandfathered into tenured or tenurable positions Based on their existing qualifications and consistently demonstrated effectiveness in their current work responsibilities full time non tenure track faculty who are reappointed for a period of time that is equivalent to the probationary period for tenure track faculty should be recognized as being entitled in their current positions to the protections that would accrue with tenure Part time faculty whose effective academic service and accomplishments lead to successive reappointments should be accorded assurances of continued employment See the recommendations on tenure and academic due process above When the grandfathered positions become vacant through attrition or retirement new candidates can be recruited according to qualifications that faculty peers determine are necessary in the long term for the tenure track positions When institutions create new tenurable positions in order to increase the proportion of tenured and tenure track faculty part and full time contingent faculty who have experience length of service and a record of accomplishments should be welcomed as applicants for such new positions Because some of these faculty may have been serving ably in similar positions for many years faculty peers should design an appropriate probationary period for tenure that takes into account their individual qualifications and experience Recognize costs and plan for necessary resources Just as overreliance on contingent faculty has long term costs to students and institutions transition to a full time tenured and tenure eligible faculty has immediate costs These costs represent an appropriate investment primarily in undergraduate education They are offset somewhat by the diminished administrative expense of handling high turnover among faculty teaching essential courses but nevertheless may be significant especially in times of tight budgets Converting full time non tenure track positions to tenurable positions represents the smallest increase in expenditures as the compensation for full time contingent faculty is only marginally less than for assistant professors overall But as noted earlier full time contingent faculty typically carry a heavier teaching load than assistant professors on the tenure track 50 percent heavier in research institutions 15 percent heavier in other four year institutions To integrate these positions fully into the profession these full time teachers would need to be relieved of some teaching duties to allow time for scholarship and service even if their positions continue to emphasize teaching as a primary activity However as is suggested by the examples of the California State University system and Western Michigan University incremental bud get increases may be sufficient to accommodate a conversion from contingency to stability Converting part time positions to full time tenurable positions presents a greater economic challenge Part time faculty are typically paid by the course at roughly half the cost of full time equivalent replacements 36 In addition the institution typically incurs little or no financial liability for employment benefits for part time faculty The costs of a transition toward full time tenure track appointments can be spread out over time by such incremental steps as restructuring per course appointments into fractional half time or full time appointments with proportionate pay and benefits Some part time appointments particularly of specialists and professional practitioners may be appropriate to continue over a long term In such cases tenure eligibility for the part time position with proportionate compensation should be considered Consistent with these recommendations there are at least two ways to begin a transition from an unstable academic environment characterized by over reliance on contingent faculty appointments to a stable academic environment characterized by a predominantly tenure line faculty One option is for institutions to convert the tenure eligible status of faculty members currently holding contingent appointments Another option is for the institution to create new tenure eligible positions recruiting broadly for these positions and gradually phasing out contingent positions Conversion of Status Faculty and administrators at an institution may consider changing the status of existing positions from non tenure track to tenure line The tenure line positions can be either part or full time depending on the needs of the department or program When status is changed the individuals holding the positions are offered a probationary period for tenure and the following guidelines should be followed Faculty should consider the work to be undertaken by those holding newly converted positions Formerly non tenure track positions may need to be restructured or rearranged to allow the faculty members in such positions to assume the full range of faculty responsibilities appropriate to the position and to be compensated and recognized for those responsibilities The experience and accomplishments of faculty members who have served in contingent positions at the institution should be credited in determining the appropriate length and character of a probationary period for tenure in the converted position If the requirements of the position change when it becomes a tenure line position the faculty member in the position should be given time and appropriate professional development support during a probationary period to enable him or her to meet the new requirements Creation of New Positions Faculty and administrators at an institution may decide to create new tenure track positions while reducing the number of new appointments of contingent faculty When this is done the following guidelines should be followed Faculty should reconsider the academic work to be undertaken by those holding both new and existing tenure line positions Faculty responsibilities may need to be restructured or rearranged in order to ensure that undergraduate as well as graduate courses are appropriately staffed When colleges and universities create new tenure track positions they should advertise widely to generate a diverse pool of applicants Experienced effective and qualified faculty members currently holding contingent appointments should be encouraged to apply for the new tenure track positions In the selection and appointment process faculty and administrators should recognize the value of continuity in teaching and familiarity with the institution s programs as desirable criteria Contingent faculty members should be given fair and careful consideration when new tenure eligible positions are created and their experience and accomplishments should be taken into account Certainly faculty charged with the selection of new colleagues should scrupulously avoid discrimination against applicants currently employed in contingent positions In the context of a transition faculty members who have served many years in contingent appointments should have the option of continuing in the same position with the same qualifications and responsibilities When institutions replace part time positions with full time positions and or contingent positions with tenure track positions they should create timetables that rely insofar as possible on attrition and voluntary terminations in order to introduce the least possible disruption in the work lives of contingent faculty members who have served the institution well over a period of years Plans for transition should be multi year plans including a realistic assessment of the resources needed to accomplish the change and the steps necessary to commit the appropriate resources Conclusion The integrity of higher education rests on the integrity of the faculty profession To meet the standards and expectations appropriate to higher education faculty need to incorporate teaching scholarship and service in their work whether they serve full time or less than full time The academic freedom that enlivens and preserves the value of academic work is protected by a responsible and reasonable commitment between the university or college and the faculty member For the good of higher education and the good of society as a whole this commitment must be preserved for all faculty But the majority of faculty members now work without such a commitment from their institutions and therefore without adequate protection of academic freedom This report has identified some of the real costs of overreliance on part time and non tenure track faculty costs to the quality of student learning to equity among academic colleagues to the integrity of faculty work and to academic freedom These costs are now borne primarily by students and by contingent faculty In the long term however the cost of cutting corners on education will be borne by society as a whole as it gradually loses its independent academic sector For the good of institutions of the educational experiences of students and of the quality of education the proportion of tenured and tenure track faculty should be increased Institutions that are now experimenting with ways to increase the proportion of tenured and tenure track faculty are finding that the way back is complicated and somewhat treacherous The guidelines for transition presented here do not offer a complete blueprint they are intended instead as a beginning diagram or sketch to assist faculty and administrators who have made a commitment to change the structure of their faculty appointment and reappointment processes Many details described in this report are left to the judgment of faculty members working within their

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/report/contingent-appointments-and-academic-profession (2016-02-13)
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  • On Discrimination | AAUP
    Shirts and Gear Issues Academic Freedom Shared Governance Contingent Faculty Positions Faculty Compensation Copyright Distance Ed Intellectual Property Accreditation Sexual Harassment Assault Academic Research Civility Conflicts of Interest Collective Bargaining Hiring and Promotions Discrimination Diversity Affirmative Action Ethics Faculty Work Workload Family Work Grading Graduate Students The Academic Bill of Rights Minority Serving Institutions Post Tenure Review Retirement Sexual Diversity Gender Identity Teaching Evaluation Tenure Women in Higher Education Reports Publications AAUP Policies Reports Academe Economic Status Report Compensation Survey Bulletin of the AAUP The Redbook Journal of Academic Freedom AAUP Bookstore News AAUP in the News AAUP Updates For the Media Get Involved Upcoming Events Local Toolkit Issue Campaigns Find Chapters Conferences Start a Chapter I Need Help With Workplace Issues Understanding Terms and Abbreviations Responding to Financial Crisis You are here Home On Discrimination Download on discrimination pdf The statement that follows was adopted in October 1976 by the Association s Council Successive revisions were adopted by the Council in November 1994 and June 1995 The Association is committed to use its procedures and to take measures including censure against colleges and universities practicing illegal or unconstitutional discrimination or discrimination on a basis not demonstrably related to the

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/discrimination (2016-02-13)
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  • How to Recruit and Promote Minority Faculty: Start by Playing Fair | AAUP
    the belief that their own faculties often create the highest hurdles to minority faculty recruitment and retention What can be done to ensure that the rules are fair and fairly applied Before pursuing new programs that might be legally susceptible faculty members should first examine how they currently evaluate candidates for appointment and promotion The search process for new faculty members is a good place to begin Are your search committees given any training to broaden their perspectives or any resources to ensure that they are reaching out to the complete pool of potentially qualified applicants Do they advertise in journals and periodicals that make special efforts to reach minority graduate students and faculty Do they rely on some sort of ranking of graduate schools in evaluating candidates If so what is the basis of those rankings and how do historically black universities and other minorityserving institutions fare in them Such questions can yield surprising answers What about mentoring new faculty members Do your senior faculty members reach out to junior colleagues with different racial and ethnic backgrounds Do you communicate regularly with minority faculty members about the environment in your department campus or community Studies show that informal mentoring relationships usually develop between senior and junior colleagues who have much in common because people tend to seek out younger versions of themselves when imparting their wisdom and experience The traditional criteria applied in evaluations for promotion and tenure often appear to be neutral but in practice they can have a disparate effect on minority scholars In analyzing research for example reliance on narrow definitions of merit that emphasize publication in traditional journals may slight new or emerging areas of scholarship or practical applications of theory to reallife problems In weighing merit in teaching courses on ethnic studies or courses

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/issues/diversity-affirmative-action/resources-diversity-and-affirmative-action/how-recruit-and-promote-minority-faculty-start-playing-fair (2016-02-13)
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  • Building Better Scholarly Environments | AAUP
    been introduced to curricula and academic communities since my student days An example of diversity s contribution to the educational enterprise occurred this past spring when I taught a cultural psychology senior seminar at Macalester The planets were in harmonious orbit and the classroom experience came closer than usual to the ideal A few enthusiastic students even suggested that the class become a required course a rare recommendation among this individualistic cadre But it was the unique blend of students who illuminated and energized the class not me nor the curriculum for they brought multiple perspectives and expertise to a shared intellectual venture This group of twelve majors engaged in a capstone experience came together to explore the place of culture in psychology s theories and methods and to think creatively about the future of cultural psychology They were final semester seniors who had spent four years at our small Midwestern liberal arts college All had faced the complexities of diversity on campus in class and out and had become skilled at building constructive multicultural encounters To their readings assignments and discussions each brought a unique range of special interests and life experiences The twelve students came from nine U S states and two countries the Americans ranged from the first through the sixteenth generation since arrival They included African Americans 2 Asian Americans 3 of Japanese Korean and East Indian heritage Hispanic Americans 2 multi ethnic Americans 2 and European Americans 5 There was one international student and a wide variation by religion social class international experience and urban rural upbringing In this class the whole was greater than the sum of its parts It was the collectivity of students that exponentially enhanced class discussion and contributed to better research for every member of the class For example the U S students of color helped us interpret and analyze readings pertaining to biculturalism The Latino students helped a European American design a study of learning at a Spanish immersion school in St Paul A Turkish international student made valuable contributions when we discussed another student s research on the significance of gendered features of the Japanese language Turkish lacks the kinds of grammatical gender marking found in Japanese and other languages spoken by class members Students with multiple cultures or origin introduced challenging perspectives on issues of cultural identity in the United States and on the process of cultural acquisition and enactment All students were able to contribute cogent original ideas and interpretations because their rich variety of experiences in varying geographical and multi cultural contexts created opportunities for nuanced comparative analyses Classroom encounters of these kinds did not occur at quality educational institutions when I was a student of social science Even when occasional non European Americans were in my classes they were there to learn Western models and methods not to teach and collaborate What a lost opportunity for everyone students faculty and researchers If challenges to affirmative action continue and if the academy is forced to

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/issues/diversity-affirmative-action/resources-diversity-and-affirmative-action/building-better-scholarly-environments (2016-02-13)
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  • Educational Benefits of Diversity | AAUP
    Post Tenure Review Retirement Sexual Diversity Gender Identity Teaching Evaluation Tenure Women in Higher Education Reports Publications AAUP Policies Reports Academe Economic Status Report Compensation Survey Bulletin of the AAUP The Redbook Journal of Academic Freedom AAUP Bookstore News AAUP in the News AAUP Updates For the Media Get Involved Upcoming Events Local Toolkit Issue Campaigns Find Chapters Conferences Start a Chapter I Need Help With Workplace Issues Understanding Terms and Abbreviations Responding to Financial Crisis You are here Home Educational Benefits of Diversity The AAUP s support for affirmative action stems from the well documented educational benefits of racial diversity in higher education Following are cites to some of the numerous studies and reports examining and supporting the benefits of racial diversity ACE AAUP Report Does Diversity Make a Difference Three Research Studies on Diversity in College Classrooms pdf University of Michigan research links The University of Michigan has collected numerous resources and research data on the benefits of diversity in higher education For links to this research visit http www umich edu Other References Chang M Witt D Jones J and Hakuta K Eds 1999 Compelling interest Examining the evidence of racial dynamics in higher education Washington DC American Educational Research Association Holzer H Neumark D 2000 Assessing affirmative action Journal of Economics Literature 38 483 568 Milem J F Hakuta K 2000 The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education In D Wilds Ed Minorities in higher education 1999 2000 Seventeenth annual status report Washington D C American Council on Education 39 64 Milem J F in press The educational benefits of diversity Evidence from multiple sectors In M Chang D Witt J Jones K Hakuta Eds Compelling interest Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in higher education Palo Alto CA Stanford University Press Terenzini

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  • On Professors Assigning Their Own Texts to Students | AAUP
    materials such as laboratory manuals that are sold to students Some professors place their works on electronic reserve making them freely available to students None of these practices is by itself cause for concern The right of individual professors to select their own instructional materials a right protected under principles of academic freedom should be limited only by such considerations as quality cost availability and the need for coordination with other instructors or courses Professors should assign readings that best meet the instructional goals of their courses and they may well conclude that what they themselves have written on a subject best realizes that purpose In some cases indeed students enroll in courses because of what they know about the professor from his or her writings and because they hope to engage in discussion with the professor about those writings in the classroom Because professors are encouraged to publish the results of their research they should certainly be free to require their own students to read what they have written At the same time however students in a classroom can be a captive audience if they must purchase an assigned text that is not available either on library reserve or on a restricted website Because professors sometimes realize profits from sales to their students although more often than not the profits are trivial or nonexistent professors may seem to be inappropriately enriching themselves at the expense of their students To guard against this possibility some colleges and universities have adopted policies meant to regulate the assignment of a professor s own works 1 At Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University materials written by faculty members and intended for purchase by students may not be assigned unless their use is first approved by the appropriate departmental collegiate and university level committees Faculty members at the University of Minnesota cannot personally profit from the assignment of materials to students without authorization of the department chair At Southern Utah University a department chair and dean must approve the assignment of faculty authored materials Approval by a faculty committee is required at Cleveland State University Faculty at North Dakota State University and the University of North Texas can assign their own works but are cautioned against retaining profits earned from sales to their students unless as the North Dakota policy states the text has become independently accepted in the field A variant of these policies requires professors to choose between contributing to a scholarship or library fund whatever profits are realized from the sale of materials to their own students or having the materials reviewed by a department committee or chair Another variant perhaps unique is the policy of the Department of Neurology at Case Western Reserve University Students in the residency program are given faculty authored textbooks free of charge Learned societies and professional organizations have likewise adopted policies to prevent professors from taking advantage of their students The American Political Science Association in its code of professional ethics states that teachers have

    Original URL path: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/comm/rep/owntexts.htm (2016-02-13)
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