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  • Appendix II: Key Issues for the Back-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    likely to exist and be operational within this time period a shortage of conventional reprocessing or in the future advanced chemical partitioning capacity is not likely to become a bottleneck 64 Individua l polic y decision s t o develo p indigenou s enrichmen t an d conventiona l reprocessin g or i n th e future advance d chemica l partitionin g capabilitie s ca n b e viewe d o n a case by cas e basi s an d d o no t hav e long ter m implications Siting new enrichment facilities or conventional reprocessing or advanced chemical partitioning facilities outside the current locations may send a negative signal encouraging other states to pursue these technologies Thus analyses of potential indigenous fuel cycle facilities while necessarily constrained by local conditions must take the global context into account 65 A s a credibl e long ter m interi m storag e progra m i s developed th e geographi c locatio n fo r fina l disposa l ca n remai n i n th e explorator y stage an d th e schedul e fo r ultimat e disposa l ca n b e deferred Because long term but interim storage is a viable technology there are many credible scenarios for multinational storage as a relatively long term endeavor eighty to one hundred years However the siting of a long term interim storage facility is likely to be inextricably linked to the identification of and early and positive dialogue with stakeholders on a final disposal site or sites Therefore long term interim storage can be an operative current term back end approach with the full acknowledgment that progress toward establishing a final disposal site or sites cannot be deferred indefinitely Evolvin g a viabl e multilatera l nuclea r fue l supplie r regim e mus t tak e int o accoun t existin g fue l suppl y arrangements There are existing relationships among nuclear fuel suppliers and their customers some of these relationships include conventional reprocessing possibly in the future advanced chemical partitioning and MOX services The prospect of rolling back such services is bleak Furthermore the existing actors in the current fuel supply regime are likely to be key players in any future fuel cycle regime Thus their buy in to any proposed evolution of the international fuel supply market will be essential for successful and practical implementation of any such new regime ENDNOTES 52 On an individual statebystate basis some of these propositions may be at variance with policy considerations that a state may adopt to hedge future supply interruptions 53 The 2010 edition of the so called Red Book the authoritative biennial report produced jointly by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the IAEA estimates the identified amount of conventional uranium resources According to the Red Book worldwide uranium resources production and demand are all increasing Total identified uranium resources will last for

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=1016 (2016-02-13)
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  • Appendix III: Civil Back-End Fuel Technologies—Pursuit of the Closed Fuel Cycle - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    that of France At Ozersk the Mayak facility processes used fuel using the PUREX technology and has a yearly capacity of 400 tons 75 Currently it employs only 25 percent of its capacity 76 The site produces uranium that is used in Russia s nuclear reactors that is the WER 440 MWe LWR plants two of which are located in Ukraine in its nuclear icebreaking ships and in the fast neutron reactor Beloyarsk 560 MWe The Mayak facility does not function on a scale large enough to deal with the used fuel from the thirtyone operating nuclear power plants in Russia or those in Ukraine however Russia intends to expand its PUREX process use built up stores of plutonium for MOX fuel production and incorporate fast breeder reactors back into the nuclear program 77 According to a recent calculation there are upwards of 80 tons of plutonium stored in Russia for reuse 50 tons of reactor grade and 34 tons of weapons grade 78 The old site of a second never completed conventional reprocessing plant in Zheleznogorsk has become a storage location in addition to the Mayak facility for most of the used fuel in Russia typically fuel is transported there after an initial on site cooling period in pool storage A dry storage facility is under construction on the Mayak site as well and will increase the available storage capacity by 8 600 tons 79 To support the increase in nuclear energy production geological repository siting is now under way in Russia United Kingdom The United Kingdom has been treating used fuel from both its advanced gas cooled reactors and its Magnox reactors to make MOX fuel While there are no plans to pursue a breeder reactor program in the state there is significant interest in processing the 100 tons of stored plutonium into MOX fuel for later generation reactors Facing pending closure the fuel fabrication plant at Sellafield is currently used for export fuel and until recently U K authorities held that it was not economical to make MOX for domestic use 80 The United Kingdom already has two types of conventional reprocessing plants located at Sellafield Magnox and THORP with capacities of 1 500 and 900 tons of fuel per year respectively 81 Magnox fuel is uranium metal fuel as opposed to uranium oxide contained in magnesium alloy 82 The processes used for THORP and Magnox recycling differ because of the composition of the used nuclear fuel but they result in a similar separation of uranium plutonium and the remaining fissile waste 83 To create a long term fuel cycle strategy the United Kingdom has tried to engage the public as much as possible It has no plans for geological storage repositories but is looking into siting intermediate storage facilities for the current used fuel and the future used fuel Japan The national policy in Japan even though it is not operating a conventional reprocessing plant of its own has always been to extract the maximum amount

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  • Appendix IV: The Increasing Role of China - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    the AREVA EPR models as well as two Chinese designs CPR1000 and CPN1000 93 The three state owned companies leading China s nuclear renaissance are the China National Nuclear Corporation CNNC China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company CGNPC and China Power Investment Corporation CPIC The State Nuclear Power Technology Company SNPTC is working closely with Westinghouse but does not yet have licenses to build or operate in China CNNC dominates the industry with its monopoly on nuclear project construction companies and ownership of fuel cycle facilities China does not have enough domestic uranium to support its growing consumption the government uses the fact that the indigenous supply is limited to justify its pursuit of a closed fuel cycle 94 The projected volumes of used fuel resulting from their increased capacity will exceed the cooling and storage facilities available see Table 3 95 In anticipation of the imminent overflow China is strategizing the future of its fuel cycle A recent study estimates that China will have enough storage space for the coming decades 96 however in order to have proposals passed and infrastructure built to meet its storage needs many years of advance planning are necessary China intends to model its fuel cycle on France India Japan Russia and the United Kingdom according to Gu Zhongmao of the China Institute for Atomic Energy CIAE That is China will pursue a closed fuel cycle Unlike some other states China has few environmental groups to oppose conventional reprocessing and as a nuclear weapon state under the NPT is relatively immune to complaints about proliferation The new site chosen to pursue back end processing will include a used fuel pool to help accommodate additional waste in the near term 97 Table 3 The Current Status of Used Fuel Storage at PWRs in China NNP Name Unit No Date of First Connection to the Grid Spent fuel storage method On site fuel storage capacity Year when storage capacity is expected to fill up Qinshan 12 15 1991 Dense pack wet Pool size expansion 35 years 2025 Daya Bay Unit 1 Unit 2 08 31 1993 02 07 1994 Wet storage 10 years 2003 2004 Qinshan Phase II Unit 1 Unit 2 02 06 2002 03 11 2004 Dense pack Wet storage 20 years 2022 2024 LingAo Unit 1 Unit 2 02 26 2002 09 14 2002 Dense pack Wet storage 20 years 2022 2022 Qinshan Phase III Unit 1 Unit 2 11 19 2002 06 12 2003 On site wet dry storage 40 years 2042 2043 Tianwan Unit 1 Unit 2 05 12 2006 05 14 2007 Wet storage 20 years 2026 2027 Newly planned reactor designs include a twentyyear onsite spent fuel storage capacity Source Yun Zhou China s Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Current Practices and Future Strategies Energy Policy 39 7 July 2011 4360 4369 Reprinted with permission from Elsevier http www journals elsevier com energypolicy China is also negotiating with AREVA over the construction of an 800 MT yr COEX coextraction facility to

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  • Appendix V - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    have suggested that binding contracts for supply of the nuclear fuel required by the plant over a substantial portion of its life would be a necessary condition for financing the construction of new nuclear power stations This approach offers the following disadvantages It would likely require significant start up capital It would likely revert to a scheme that puts more emphasis on conventional reprocessing and recycling In our general opinion user or consumer states will put a value on the used fuel and will eventually want to burn the recycled MOX fuel It would require multiple bilateral and multilateral agreements and commitments likely calling for a new institutional entity to manage the leasing arrangements It would likely require protracted discussions to iron out all the contract and payment terms The discussions may take so long that by the time the agreements are ready to be implemented consumer states may have already locked themselves into fuel supply and conventional reprocessing contracts Concept 2 A Linear Model A Special Case for the Multilateral Fuel Lease Arrangement An alternative model that has received some attention is the linear model in this case a bundled fuel supplier AREVA offers bundled services including conventional reprocessing and recycling services Figure 3 This bilateral approach is more readily adapted to the current fuel supply regime This approach offers the following advantages Start up capital would likely not be a barrier to implementing this model It could encourage aspiring consumer states to make deals with existing suppliers which can supply fuel cycle services with economies of scale It could discourage developing states from building individual enrichment and conventional reprocessing facilities provided that all services are available For example if local waste disposal is not available waste would be returned It could require significantly less effort in negotiating a fuel regime framework because it typically involves a much smaller number of critical partners indeed it can be viewed as a relatively modest evolution of the existing already viable fuel supply network This approach offers the following disadvantages It would indirectly encourage adding conventional reprocessing capacity 109 The likely outcome is a short to intermediate term increase in the stocks of civilian separated plutonium It is not conducive to a flexible technology including advanced chemical partitioning if proliferation resistant and final disposal opportunities Thus it will prematurely shut off choices on advanced technology opportunities Figure 3 A Linear Model User nations denotes consumer states and fuel supplier nations denotes fuel supplier states Source Modified from Stephen Goldberg and James Laidler Financial Strategies for Future Reprocessing Facilities World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference April 6 2006 Reprinted with permission from the World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Industry representatives favorable view of the linear model is understandable as industry would not want to perturb any more than necessary the existing viable fuel supply network Furthermore one can see how preserving the existing industry contractual agreements would best serve regional storage arrangements ENDNOTES 101 The description provided below is largely along the lines of the

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  • Appendix VI - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    the domestic legal regulatory and commercial framework of a single state International Any activity involving participation by entities whether natural or legal persons or governments from more than one state could be considered international There are three possibilities and combinations could occur among all three 1 an arrangement conducted owned and managed by a fully international organization such as the IAEA 2 a wide spectrum of arrangements involving participation by differing entities commercial governmental or other that do not have a fully international character such as URENCO or EURODIF and 3 intergovernmental bodies that could own or manage arrangements between entities such as the IUC There are three subsets Multinational This term could be taken to mean an arrangement involving some form of participation by entities from several not just two states It does not differ significantly from the term international except that participation in a multinational arrangement might involve a narrower participation than a fully international or universal organization Multilateral Agreement A multilateral agreement is defined as a binding agreement between three or more parties concerning the terms of a specific circumstance The agreement could be structured in terms of investment management regulatory oversight or other matters Regional However various regions are defined this term implies that participation in an arrangement would be limited to entities from a coherent geographical area ENGAGEMENT Participation Utilities in nuclear consumer states as well as nuclear fuel suppliers and take back entities are key participants they can participate in a range of activities from providing a revenue source to partial ownership interest to concrete involvement in operation or facility management The various rights responsibilities and activities of participating entities must be defined Allowing participation by entities whether governmental private or other would be established based on set criteria Ownership Investment Any new fuel

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  • Appendix VII - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    U 238 and Pu 240 are fissionable but not fissile Fuel element fuel assembly fuel bundle A grouping of fuel rods pins plates or other fuel components held together by spacer grids and other structural components to form a complete fuel unit that is maintained intact during fuel transfer and irradiation operations in a reactor Fuel fabrication plant An installation for manufacturing fuel elements Geological repository Underground installation for the disposal of nuclear material such as used fuel and or high level and transuranic nuclear waste High enriched uranium HEU Uranium containing 19 8 percent or more of the isotope U 235 High level radioactive waste HLW Highly radioactive materials produced as a byproduct of the reactions that occur inside nuclear reactors HLW takes one of two forms used reactor fuel when it is accepted for disposal or second cycle aqueous rafinnate or other radioactive materials remaining after used fuel is reprocessed Isotope One of two or more atoms of the same element that has the same number of protons in its nucleus but different numbers of neutrons Isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers Lanthanides A series of chemical elements with atomic numbers from 57 to 71 Light water reactor LWR A power reactor that is both moderated and cooled by ordinary light water LWR fuel assemblies usually consist of clad fuel rods containing uranium oxide pellets of low enrichment generally less than 5 percent U235 or MOX having low plutonium content generally less than 5 percent There are two types of LWR boiling water reactors BWRs and pressurized water reactors PWRs Low enriched uranium LEU Enriched uranium containing less than 19 8 percent of the isotope U 235 Mixed oxide MOX A mixture of the oxides of uranium and plutonium used as reactor fuel for the recycling of plutonium in thermal nuclear reactors thermal recycling and for fast reactors Natural uranium Uranium as it occurs in nature having an atomic weight of approximately 238 and containing minute quantities of U 234 about 0 7 percent U 235 and 99 3 percent U 238 Natural uranium is usually supplied in raw form by uranium mines and concentration ore processing plants as uranium ore concentrate most commonly the concentrated crude oxide U3O8 often called yellow cake Nuclear fuel cycle The nuclear fuel cycle is a system of nuclear installations and activities interconnected by streams of nuclear material The characteristics of the fuel cycle may vary widely from state to state from a single reactor supplied from abroad with fuel to a fully developed system Such a system may consist of uranium mines and concentration ore processing plants thorium concentration plants conversion plants enrichment isotope separation plants fuel fabrication plants reactors used fuel conventional reprocessing or more advanced chemical partitioning plants and associated storage installations The fuel cycle can be open by direct disposal of used nuclear fuel or closed in various ways for example by the recycling of enriched uranium and plutonium through thermal reactors thermal recycle

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  • List of Acronyms - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    Magazine of the Academy Books Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Meetings Overview Induction 2015 Upcoming Meetings and Events Friday Forum 2015 2016 Schedule Past Meetings and Events Fellowships Overview Visiting Scholars Program Hellman Fellowship in Science and Technology Policy Policy Fellowship in the Humanities Education and the Arts Policy Fellowship in Global Security and International Affairs The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Home The Back End of the Nuclear List of Acronyms The Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle An Innovative Storage Concept List of Acronyms AIROX Atomics International Reduction Oxidation ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations BWR boiling water reactor CGNPC China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company CIAE China Institute for Atomic Energy CNNC China National Nuclear Corporation COEX coextraction CPIC China Power Investment Corporation ERDO European Repository Development Organization EU European Union GNEP Global Nuclear Energy Partnership GWday gigawatt day GWe gigawatt electric HEU high enriched uranium HLW high level radioactive waste IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IFNEC International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation IUEC International Uranium Enrichment Center KAERI Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute kWe kilowatt electric kWh kilowatt hour LEU low enriched uranium LWR light water reactor MOX mixed oxide

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  • Contributors - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    study on the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy the 2007 Poland nuclear energy study and the 2009 Jordan cogeneration study Previously he served in the U S government for more than three decades While at the Office of Management and Budget he received the Executive Office of the President s highest award for efforts to complete several major international nuclear nonproliferation agreements including the multibillion dollar U S purchase of highly enriched uranium extracted from Soviet nuclear weapons He is a Senior Fellow at the Energy Policy Institute at Chicago EPIC and is Research Coordinator for the American Academy s Global Nuclear Future Initiative James P Malone is Chief Nuclear Fuel Development Officer at Lightbridge In 2009 he retired after a decade with Exelon Generation Company where as Vice President of Nuclear Fuels he oversaw procurement for seventeen operating nuclear reactors and guided management of used fuel Before joining Exelon he served for ten years as Vice President and Senior Consultant at NAC International advising on fuel reliability and the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle While at NAC he worked on the international safeguards system for the Rokkasho Mura reprocessing plant in Japan Previously he worked at SWUCO Inc as a nuclear fuel broker a manager of technical services and finally as Vice President he also served as manager of economic analysis at Yankee Atomic He began his career in 1968 as an engineer in the utility reactor core analysis section of the Nuclear Engineering Department of United Nuclear Corporation He is a member of the American Nuclear Society and past Chairman of its Fuel Cycle Waste Management Division Robert Rosner is the William E Wrather Distinguished Service Professor in the Departments of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Physics at the University of Chicago where he also

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