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  • Chapter 6: Lie Detection in the Courts: The Vain Search for the Magic Bullet - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    error rate statistics are suspect because the scientific community is nowhere close to agreeing on how one properly establishes the base measure for determining the reliability of the polygraph To devise an experiment in which one set of subjects is told to lie and the other set of subjects is told to tell the truth is one thing to recreate the real life conditions that would allow for a true test of the polygraph is quite something else Whether any sound basis exists on which one can assert anything useful about the reliability or unreliability of the polygraph is uncertain Courts being conservative and skeptical by nature have largely tended to exclude polygraph evidence But that has not stopped the government the military some private industry and much of the public generally from accepting the polygraph as reliable so great is the desire for a magic bullet that can instantly distinguish truth from falsehood Even the courts while excluding polygraph evidence from the courtroom have sometimes approved its use by the police on the cynical basis that it really does not matter whether the polygraph actually detects lying so long as people believe that it does if a subject believes that a polygraph actually works he or she will be motivated to tell the truth and confess The hypocrisy of this argument is staggering the argument in effect is that even if the truth is that polygraph tests are at best error prone the police and other authorities should lie to people and encourage them to believe that the tests are highly accurate because this lie will encourage people to tell the truth Even on these terms moreover experience in my own courtroom suggests that the use of polygraphs is much more likely to cause mischief or worse than to be beneficial Let me give just one example The Millenium Hotel is situated next to Ground Zero A few weeks after the attack on the Twin Towers hotel employees were allowed back into the hotel to recover the belongings of the guests who had had to flee the premises on September 11 and one of the hotel s security guards reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI that he had found in the room safe on the fiftieth floor in a room occupied by a man named Abdullah Higazy a copy of the Koran and a pilot s radio of the kind used to guide planes from the ground The FBI quickly discovered that Higazy was a former member of the Egyptian Air Force now resident in Brooklyn but when they questioned him he denied ever having a pilot s radio Hypothesizing that he was lying to cover up his use of the radio to guide the terrorist pilots to the Twin Towers the FBI arrested Higazy and brought him before me on a material witness warrant At the hearing Higazy repeatedly asked to be given a polygraph test to establish that the radio was not his I explained to him that polygraph tests were too unreliable to be admitted in court Nevertheless after the hearing Higazy over his own lawyer s recommendation asked the FBI to give him a polygraph test The FBI brought Higazy alone into the polygraph testing room explaining that his lawyer could not be present because it would upset the balance of this delicate test Over the next three hours the FBI agent administering the test repeatedly told Higazy that he was not being truthful Finally Higazy by now hysterical blurted out that maybe the radio really was his At that point the FBI stopped the test and told the lawyer that Higazy had confessed and would be charged at a minimum with making false statements to the FBI and possibly with aiding and abetting the attack on the Twin Towers a capital offense The next day based on the prosecutor s flat statement that Higazy had confessed I ordered Higazy detained without bail and he was shortly thereafter formally charged with lying to the FBI Three days later an American Airlines pilot contacted the Millennium Hotel and asked if he could get back the pilot s radio he had left there on September 11 It quickly developed that the radio was indeed his and had never been in Higazy s room or possession The Millennium security guard had made up the whole story about finding the radio in Higazy s room apparently because he wanted revenge for 9 11 on anyone who had Arab ancestry The government dropped the charges against Higazy and prosecuted the security guard instead who pled guilty to lying to the FBI For my part I ordered an investigation by the government into the circumstances of the FBI s polygraph testing the result of which was a report assuring me that the manner and mode of Higazy s polygraph examination was consistent with standard FBI practice I am not sure whether this means that the FBI really believes in its polygraph results despite their inaccuracy or whether the FBI simply uses the façade of polygraph testing to try to elicit confessions Either way but for a near miracle Mr Higazy might likely now either be rotting in prison or facing execution Why have I spent so much time describing the evils of polygraphs when the primary topic of this volume is the brave new world of brain scanning I believe that many of the same evils are likely to result from the use of brain scanning to detect lies unless we are very very careful If anything the potential for mischief is even greater because while polygraphy was largely developed by technicians brain scanning as a means of detecting lies is said to be the product of studies by honest to goodness real life neuroscientists But the credentials of the scientists should not obscure the shakiness of the science 7 A basic problem with both polygraphy and brain scanning to detect lying is that no established standard exists for

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=1177 (2016-02-13)
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  • Chapter 7: Neuroscience-Based Lie Detection: The Need for Regulation - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    lie about something In Langleben s three studies they were told to lie when they saw a particular playing card projected on the screen inside the scanner In Kozel s work perhaps the least artificial of the experiments subjects were told to take either a ring or a watch from a room and then to say in the scanner that they had not taken either object Note how different this is from a criminal suspect telling the police that he had not taken part in a drug deal or for that matter from a dinner guest praising an overcooked dish The experimental subjects are following orders to lie where nothing more rides on the outcome than in some cases a promised 50 bonus if they successfully deceive the researchers We just do not know how well these methods would work in settings similar to those where lie detection would in practice be used Finally and perhaps most worryingly as with the polygraph countermeasures could make fMRI based lie detection ineffective against trained liars And countermeasures are easy with fMRI One can ruin a scan by movement of the head or sometimes of just the tongue Or more subtly as the scanner is detecting patterns of blood flow associated with brain activity one can add additional brain activity What happens to these results if the subject when answering is also reciting to himself the multiplication tables We have no idea The few published papers that have looked at individuals have claimed accuracy rates of about 70 to around 90 percent in detecting lies These results not substantially different by the way from reported results with the polygraph must be taken with a grain of salt We just do not know how reliably accurate fMRI based lie detection will be with diverse subjects in realistic settings with or without countermeasures For now at least based on the peer reviewed literature the scientific verdict on fMRI based lie detection seems clear interesting but not proven NEUROSCIENCE BASED LIE DETECTION THE LAW In spite of this lack of convincing proof of efficacy at least two companies in the United States No Lie MRI and Cephos Corp are offering fMRI based lie detection services They can do this because of the near absence of regulation of lie detection in the United States In general the use of lie detectors is legal in the United States The polygraph is used thousands of times each week for security screenings in criminal investigations as part of the conditions of release for sex offenders The device can be used even more broadly subject to almost no regulation with one major exception employers The federal Employee Polygraph Protection Act EPPA of 1988 forbids most employers from forcing job applicants and most employees to take lie detector tests and from using the results of such tests As a result no American can today legally face as I did a polygraph test when applying at age twenty one for a job as a bartender at a pizza parlor Some employers are granted exceptions notably governments and some national security and criminal investigation contractors The act s definition of lie detection is broad although No Lie MRI has frivolously argued that EPPA does not apply to fMRI The act also exempts the use of polygraphs not other forms of lie detection on employees in some kinds of employer investigations subject only to some broad rights for the employees About half the states have passed their own versions of this act applying it to most or all of their state and local employees Some states have extended protections against lie detection to a few other situations including in connection with insurance claims welfare applications or credit reports A few states have required the use of lie detection in some settings such as investigations of police officers Almost half of states have a licensing scheme for polygraph examiners A few of these statutes may effectively prohibit fMRI based lie detection because they prohibit lie detection except by licensed examiners and provide only for licensing polygraph examiners not fMRI examiners No state however has yet explicitly regulated neuroscience based lie detection One site for the possible use of lie detection technology is particularly sensitive the courtroom Thus far fMRI based lie detection has not been admitted into evidence in court The courts will apply their own tests in making such decisions However the eighty plus years of litigation over courtroom uses of polygraph evidence might provide some useful lessons The polygraph is never admissible in U S courtrooms except when it is Those exceptions are few but not trivial In state courts in New Mexico polygraph evidence is presumptively admissible In every other American state and in the federal courts polygraph evidence is generally not admissible Some jurisdictions will allow it to be introduced to impeach a witness s credibility Others will allow its use if both parties have agreed before the test was taken that it should be admitted This willingness to allow polygraph to be admitted by the parties stipulation has always puzzled me should judges allow the jury to hear as scientific evidence the results of palm reading or the Magic Eight Ball if the parties stipulated to it At least one federal court has ruled that a defendant undergoing a sentencing hearing where the death penalty may be imposed is entitled to use polygraph evidence to try to mitigate his sentence 8 U S courts have rejected the polygraph on the grounds that it is not acceptable scientific evidence For many years federal and state courts used as the test of admissibility of scientific evidence a standard taken from the 1923 case Frye v United States 293 F 1013 DC Cir 1923 which involved one of the precursors to the polygraph Frye which required proof that the method was generally accepted in the scientific community was replaced in the federal courts and in many state courts by a similar but more complicated

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=1178 (2016-02-13)
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  • Contributors - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    graduated from Stanford University in 1974 and from Yale Law School in 1977 He served as a law clerk for Judge John Minor Wisdom of the United States Court of Appeals and for Justice Potter Stewart of the United States Supreme Court He began teaching at Stanford in 1985 Steven E Hyman is Provost of Harvard University and Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School From 1996 to 2001 he served as Director of the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH the component of the U S National Institutes of Health charged with generating the knowledge needed to understand and treat mental illness He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences He is Editor of the Annual Review of Neuroscience Nancy Kanwisher is the Ellen Swallow Richard Professor in the Department of Brain Cognitive Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT and Investigator at MIT s McGovern Institute for Brain Research She held a MacArthur Fellowship in Peace and International Security after receiving her Ph D She then served for several years as a faculty member of the psychology departments at the University of California Los Angeles and Harvard University Her research concerns the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying visual experience using fMRI and other methods She received a Troland Research Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1999 a MacVicar Faculty Fellow Teaching Award from MIT in 2002 and the Golden Brain Award from the Minerva Foundation in 2007 She was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2005 and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009 Stephen J Morse is Ferdinand Wakeman Hubbell Professor of Law and Professor of Psychology and Law in Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania Trained in both law and psychology at Harvard he is an expert in criminal and mental health law His work emphasizes individual responsibility and the relation of the behavioral and neurosciences to responsibility and social control He is currently Legal Coordinator of the MacArthur Foundation Law and Neuroscience Project and he co directs the Project s Research Network on Criminal Responsibility and Prediction He is currently working on a book Desert and Disease Responsibility and Social Control He is a founding director of the Neuroethics Society and prior to joining the Penn faculty he was the Orrin B Evans Professor of Law Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences at the University of Southern California Elizabeth A Phelps received her Ph D from Princeton University in 1989 served on the faculty of Yale University until 1999 and is currently the Silver Professor of Psychology and Neural Science at New York University Her laboratory has earned widespread acclaim for its groundbreaking research on how the human brain processes emotion particularly as it relates to learning memory and decision making Dr Phelps is the recipient of the 21st Century Scientist Award from the James S McDonnell Foundation and a Fellow of

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=1179 (2016-02-13)
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  • Media, Business, and the Economy - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    about the economy and how can that role be improved The group realized that any discussion of how the media cover economics cannot be separated from the economics of the media business Shrinking advertising revenues are placing unprecedented pressures on daily newspapers magazines and television news all of which have reduced the resources devoted to newsgathering and reporting And traditional audiences increasingly are seeking information from Internet based new media The Academy study on the Media Business and the Economy which draws from an earlier Academy project on Corporate Responsibility in America was launched during a period of relative prosperity and stability in the world s financial markets Today the global economy is far less settled making the need for sound economic information even more crucial This collection of papers illuminates three key factors in understanding the role of a changing media amid a changing economy Princeton economist Alan Blinder explores what Americans already know about economic policy and how the media contribute to that understanding His paper Popular Opinion about Economic Policy The Role of the Media is based on work Blinder conducted with his colleague Alan Krueger at Princeton University Since the Blinder Krueger data were collected in 2003 there is evidence that the Internet has gained considerably on traditional media as a major source of news economic and otherwise Veteran financial journalist Jeffrey Madrick describes the evolution of his craft over the past 30 plus years in a paper titled Credulity in Business Journalism A History of the Business Press Since the 1970s Primarily a print editor and reporter Madrick desires healthier skepticism from his compatriots lamenting that many in the financial press act more like cheerleaders than watchdogs to the detriment of solid financial reporting and a well informed public Lou Ureneck a former daily newspaper

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/Research/researchproject.aspx?d=619 (2016-02-13)
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  • Reflecting on the humanities - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    more apparent Humanists now have a new sense of their undertaking Acknowledging problems in their situation and their practices they discover and embrace fresh possibilities Accustomed to asking large questions humanists requested to reflect on their enterprise ask them They offer provocative answers that often lead to further questions We read that humanistic knowledge is the necessary foundation of a democratic society it can even provide a valuable basis for a career in business We learn that the humanities reflect their times even as they bring the past to bear on the present To think of the extreme imaginative poverty of a world without literature reveals something of what the humanities do Historians continue to find themselves under great pressure but an evolving postmodern perspective might help them Such observations suggest the range of concerns touched on here Arguably as significant and as important as the content of these essays is their tone The sense of assurance conveyed by the reflections here contrasts with the atmosphere of the memorable volume published in 1997 What s Happened to the Humanities edited by Alvin Kernan which suggested how much had gone wrong Some of the difficulties identified by the writers in Kernan s book have actually worsened Thus Harriet Zuckerman and Ronald Ehrenberg examining the current state of funding for the humanities in a thoughtful well documented essay conclude that there is some cause for pessimism and much that leads to uneasiness in the chronic underfunding experienced by the humanistic disciplines They do not expect matters to improve any time soon given that the benefits the academic humanities confer on society are not understood well enough by a sufficient number a problem that the present collection tries to address Libraries face crises not only of funding but of space of use and of accessibility Young academics have difficulty finding publishers and distinguishing themselves in a crowded profession Those professing the digital humanities find conventional departments reluctant to use scarce resources to explore potential new directions Nonetheless the writers of these reflections from various professional perspectives philanthropist university president provost former college president foundation executives leading members of the professoriate look to the future with hope and with imagination James O Donnell points out that there is every reason for pessimism about the future but also every reason for optimism He raises many questions pointing out the need for a combination of original work and imaginative presentation and he clearly believes such combination possible Edward Ayers calls on the humanities to put themselves in play at risk in the world Caroline Bynum imagines a way to combat excessive pressure on young academics by using insights gained from the recent studies of history as a discipline Kathleen Woodward describes the ways serious scholarship is brought to the wider public Communicating the excitement of intellectual possibility these essays dramatize the humanities inclusiveness the diversity of individual contributions suggests the range of approaches within the broad category of humanistic enterprise Don Randel claims as a domain

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=937 (2016-02-13)
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  • The public good: knowledge as the foundation for a democratic society - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    clear Even if we were content with this as our operating definition it would be insufficient as the foundation of a democratic society This has to do with our beliefs about the uses to which any kind of useful knowledge can be put The production of useful knowledge reached extraordinary heights in Germany in the second quarter of the twentieth century and in the former Soviet Union in the third in neither case did it provide a sufficient foundation for a democratic society In short useful knowledge can be employed in the commission of the most heinous crimes and in the maintenance of the most repressive governments There too are some kinds of knowledge that we believe should not be accumulated in the first place because they are nobody s business The right to privacy is fundamental and yet the invasion of that privacy is sometimes thought to be justified on grounds of the protection of our democratic society as we know only too well these days Another implication of the term knowledge in relation to the foundation of a democratic society is that knowledge and truth are somehow linked that is it cannot be knowledge in at least the instrumental sense if it is not true and subject to some reasonable verification Thus one should not lie Democracy fails if the citizenry is not told the truth We have too many cases readily at hand in which the citizenry simply has been lied to or in which powerful pressure has been placed on science to dilute or suppress altogether its public policy findings In a democratic society we must insist on living by prodigious honesties in the words of the poet Richard Wilbur Now we come closer to what is missing when we say that knowledge is the foundation of a democratic society The narrow instrumental view of knowledge that often dominates our thinking needs at a minimum to be expanded or supported by ideas and values about which we may also reason and which may even be thought useful but which are ultimately taken as axiomatic Ultimately the foundation of a democratic society is a shared commitment to a democratic society and all that it entails about the rights and duties of individuals This commitment to the rights of individuals arises not out of the application of instrumental reason to the production of knowledge it is more nearly a matter of faith or belief often in the face of cruel reality Above all this commitment is of a piece with love the manifest power of which I would decline to attribute to its mere usefulness This commitment leads us to the matter of the common good and its relationship to a democratic society Unfortunately that relationship is not unproblematic To the extent that democracy values indeed celebrates the rights of individuals to their own difference it makes more difficult widespread agreement about the commitment to any particular definition of the common good at least any definition that would

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=918 (2016-02-13)
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  • Apocalypse in the stacks? The research library in the age of Google - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    poorer institutions supplying the materials most urgently needed at a fraction of what complete subscriptions would cost Others are less generous Journal publishers which often began by offering free electronic access to institutional subscribers now tend to sell separate electronic subscriptions for which they charge as much as for print In 2007 Oxford University Press for example listed print and online subscriptions to the historical journal Past Present at 245 for institutions in the United States Institutions that wanted the journal in print or online only paid 234 no great savings there A few years ago Stanford University s library system considered moving all of its subscriptions to journals published by Elsevier the world s largest publisher in the sciences to electronic form only to discover that the price would be 90 percent of that for the printed journals and that the cost would actually rise if individual subscriptions were canceled More important still the money for electronic acquisitions and the computers and WiFi systems needed to access them comes not from pots of fairy gold but from the budgets once devoted to acquiring books and periodicals Similarly the expert time required to choose among the thousands of available databases add links to library web pages and guide faculty and students must be provided by a staff that is often declining in numbers The brilliant constellation of databases that dazzles any user of a modern library home page is a cost center as well as an asset one that takes up something like a third of any major library s budget This would not be so severe a problem if the printed book and journal were really the media equivalent of the whooping crane delicate and doomed In fact print is booming Print on demand technology has brought production costs down and Web based marketing has made it possible to locate buyers for books of very limited interest Thanks to these conditions the number of new books published in various ways is actually rising from one year to the next even as the prophets proclaim their disappearance According to R R Bowker a major source of bibliographic information American publishers brought out 276 649 new titles and editions in 2007 as compared with 274 416 in 2006 This increase is small though the total is staggering enough in itself Meanwhile the number of on demand and short run books rose from 22 000 to 134 773 making the projected grand total for 2007 411 422 American university presses alone are responsible for around 15 000 new titles a year Every research library tries to offer its readers a well chosen slice of this enormous pie But the logistics and economics of doing so are extraordinarily demanding Library budgets have long been under strain Journal prices have risen sometimes to stunning heights Elsevier charges more than 24 000 for a year s subscription to one journal Brain Science Over time the libraries that once offered comprehensive journal collections to faculty in all disciplines have had to drop many of their subscriptions sometimes for journals of interest to many professors Even so costs for the subscriptions that remain have risen so rapidly that little room is left for maneuver As the number of new books continues to increase the proportion of library resources available for buying them diminishes Research libraries most of which now spend in the vicinity of 40 percent of their budgets on monographs can no longer purchase all of the offerings from serious academic presses in North America Take into account the growth in publication overseas not only in Britain but in the Euro zone and in Asia as well as the fluctuations of exchange rates in recent years and the financial problems come into focus Tight though the financial constraints have become libraries still buy far more material than they can make available in the stacks Every year tons of books enter every major collection more than a mile s worth of new printed matter at Princeton s Firestone Library a staggering 5 2 kilometers at Oxford s Bodleian Finite libraries must find resources and space not only for the virtual resources on their web pages but also for these very heavy material books each of which must be checked in cataloged and put in place The new books enter the collection like a massive paper pile driver Compact shelving can hold them at bay for a time but in the end floors can support only so many books and campuses have only so much room for library additions Almost everywhere librarians must choose between two unsatisfactory possibilities One can move the older rarer books that are often the glory of a research collection into offsite storage in order to make room for the ephemera of hyperspecialized contemporary scholarship Or one can store the new books which are in fact the likeliest to be used especially by students and represent current developments in old fields and rising new ones while the holdings in the stacks gradually fall out of date and gather dust In either case browsing will become less and less rewarding over time This pressure seems very unlikely to abate Collections grow in a lumpy uneven way hard to predict and impossible to control But one rule of academic life in the humanities persists to win tenure at a college or university that sees itself as setting high standards one must normally publish a book even if it will find three hundred or fewer buyers and still fewer readers At the least one must publish articles in refereed journals So long as this system prevails and despite the noble efforts of the Modern Language Association leadership a few years ago to modify it it stands intact books and articles will continue to be written Holdings in most subject areas accordingly will grow and parts of them will have to be moved pushing one another around the library The vast American open stack collections functioned historically not only as repositories but as memory theaters for advanced graduate students and faculty Nowadays the spatial organization of books and journals shifts so often and so quickly that easy browsing has itself passed into the realm of memory Librarians in other words not only have to master an electronic universe that expands with stunning rapidity but must also manage a print world that continues to dismiss its obituaries as greatly exaggerated Many other factors contribute to making the head librarian s life difficult and at least one of them calls for comment here The cultural climate within universities and outside them has changed American libraries over the last century have built up not only vast general collections of circulating books and periodicals but also world class special collections ranging from the rarest of manuscripts and printed books to materials that were once seen as ephemera but now attract the interest of scholars children s books for example Many fields of scholarship now seen as vital from art history to East Asian studies are sustained at numerous universities by specially endowed separate collections Traditionally these collections grew not only piece by piece but also wholesale as alumni who bought books or manuscripts gave or sold their collections to their old universities A shared love of rare books and manuscripts provided an element of continuity in university life and promoted collaboration among librarians scholars and alumni University administrations made clear that they valued these activities not least for the international prestige that they conveyed just think of Yale s investment in James Boswell Special collections circulating and non circulating continue to grow and expand into new fields In every generation scholars and librarians realize anew that one decade s ephemera constitute the next decade s archive witness the splendid collection of science fiction at Syracuse University and the extensive archives of zines at Barnard and Buffalo each of them flanked by more traditional precious materials Meanwhile the history of books and readers an interdisciplinary field that came into being in the 1970s and 1980s has exploded Scholars and advanced students in many fields classics comparative literature English German history Romance languages have realized that they can learn an enormous amount from studying material texts the actual manuscripts and editions in which classic and non classic texts circulated Practitioners of this new form of scholarship have taught us how books took shape in scriptoria and printing houses traced the networks of agents and booksellers who brought them to the public and recreated from marginal annotations and other traces of many kinds the ways in which readers responded to the books before them Electronic media play a role in the history of books but the original manuscripts and early printed books play a bigger one Every one of them it turns out is distinctive thanks to the clues it offers about early owners and readers And they can t all be digitized University administrators praise interdisciplinary scholarship But they show less support for the centers where this new kind of interdisciplinary humanistic research takes place than did their predecessors who saw them simply as deposits of human culture at its best a generation or two ago Support for special collections rarely seems generous Recently the Stanford administration pressed to provide new space on campus and severely constrained by local zoning decided to demolish the library that had housed the university s superb East Asian collections and store the vast majority of the books and periodicals off site Faculty who protested were assured that the half million books in many languages would all be available in digital form a Micawberish promise at best given that some of the alphabets in question cannot as yet be reliably digitized and that copyright protection extends to Asia It is hardly in the national interest or Stanford s to make it harder to study Asia at the outset of the Chinese century Yet the decision made sense to administrators who had to be reminded by scholars and librarians that as an eloquent blog post put it I mmersion in a specialized library with a cohort of friends colleagues intellectual critics and others around you is an exceptionally good way to learn and to do research When shared public space with the resources at hand that enrich identify and contribute to the definition of that space is lost the public and private discourse that that space engenders is diminished Libraries then face enormous technical and economic pressures which are changing them in important and apparently irresistible ways any plan to reconfigure or rebuild great libraries must take the full range of factors into account Yet the transformation over the last three or four decades in the public that uses libraries has been even more dramatic or so at least much commentary suggests One shift seems particularly radical the move away from library research by natural scientists and most social scientists Forty years ago scientists natural and social alike still depended on libraries for journals which published up to date data and novel arguments In some fields such as mathematics monographs continued to be published even as they disappeared from others In most the article was the coin of the realm Whatever the preferred form of publication though library work remained a familiar daily routine for thousands of university professors research associates and graduate students whose professional interests were not in any central way humanistic or historical Between the 1960s and the present the system of scientific publication in quantitative fields has undergone a series of revolutions Circulated preprints made possible by the Xerox machine turned journals in many disciplines into archives rather than sources of fresh data And if the Xerox machine slew its thousands the computer slew its ten thousands In 1991 Paul Ginsparg created the arXiv preprint server for high energy physics Within a year arXiv became the standard mode for information diffusion in physics and it has since grown to include astronomy computer science mathematics nonlinear science quantitative biology and statistics doing to the photocopied preprint to say nothing of the formal journal what the power loom did to the previously dominant handloom The transformation is real In one natural science department at Princeton a colleague tells me all members as soon as they rise in the morning make a point of reading articles newly posted on the Web Later in the morning information about these and evaluations of their results circulate over coffee Data and theses move almost instantly from university to university and continent to continent From physicists to computer scientists those who work in quantitative fields have developed new routines of daily work They are utterly dependent on computer access to their virtual work space and many though not all declare themselves independent of material collections of books or journals In this new system so it seems libraries have lost their claim to be a universal good either in academic or in social communities Instead they serve for the most part a limited public and one with limited influence within the university practitioners of the humanities and the softer social sciences More than one great university has recognized this fact by renaming its main collection a humanities library Journal subscriptions that library budgets pay for remain vital for some sectors of the science community even if actual reading usually takes place on screen Some social scientists continue to be dedicated consumers and producers of books the best empirical work on the current condition of the academic research library has been done by the Chicago sociologist Andrew Abbott On the whole though humanists form the majority of those who still see the library as vital in their day to day working lives especially the smaller group of humanists that librarians label a little worryingly heavy users most of whom are either faculty members or students completing dissertations Even committed humanists however often use the library in very different ways than their predecessors did and these changes too have had a powerful effect on the institution Forty years ago a scholar who wanted to do intensive research almost always spent part of his or her day physically in the library Copying machines were few and expensive and the glossy pages they produced were ugly and fragile More important the library held all the keys to the kingdom of information as well as the empire of texts in its stacks Bibliographies reference books critical editions journal articles the library housed all of them One had to go there not only to carry out a research project but even in order to plan it Most graduate students regarded the library as their central workplace and spent long days in its stacks and reading rooms But professors still active in research also spent hours in the library reading and taking notes on new periodicals and other essential materials that they could not borrow When opportunity allowed senior and junior scholars also spent real time working in non circulating collections like the New York Public Library the Newberry in Chicago and the Huntington in California libraries whose policies made contact among readers at different stages in their careers unavoidable In those days the library was something like a craft workshop for humanists Apprentices and masters carried out some of the same tasks side by side and learning to do research and write it up had a personal element In the 1980s and after the personal computer gave its owners a newly powerful tool one that could be used for the first time to compile materials store them and work them up into finished articles and books But the personal computer was an unwieldy beast and usually lived in an office or home study Over time more and more scholars made the room in which their PC glowed a permanent base camp for relatively quick incursions into the library As the computer developed more and more capabilities as it became the central device of scholarly communication and a node in worldwide information networks scholars became less and less likely to spend long periods in the library Why take notes by hand only to have to transcribe them on the keyboard Books could be taken out journal articles more and more could be downloaded Rare and unpublished texts could be scanned Professors even those who do the most intensive humanistic research became an unusual sight in library stacks Many other factors pushed or pulled the professoriate and almost all of them involved moving away from the library The floods of money for conferences and workshops humanities centers and visiting professorships that irrigated the humanities academy in the late 1980s and after cut into scholars time for home library visits The coffee shop usually in the last few years equipped with WiFi offered an alluring alternate workplace for those who accepted the laptop s promise of liberation from the messy desk and ringing phone And the rise of electronic resources completed the job Nowadays humanists in many fields can do rigorous well documented work without needing to consult a single physical journal or indeed a book Even those humanists who continue to use books and print periodicals intensively and many do generally carry them to their workplace Graduate students are more likely than professors to camp in libraries each of them making his or her laptop the center of a mobile study But they too now have previously inconceivable resources at their disposal on their own computers The results of all these developments are paradoxical Scholars and students demand and consume books and other print materials in great quantities greater than ever at my university and I am sure at many others The collective interest in scholarship and its results is more intense than ever and the big non circulating collections continue to attract plenty of readers especially though not only those to whom they provide fellowship support But the act of scholarship which used to be to some considerable extent public and

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=875 (2016-02-13)
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  • American Academy Studies in Global Security Series - American Academy of Arts & Sciences - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    Fellowship in Global Security and International Affairs The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Home Global Security and International Affairs Project List American Academy Studies in American Academy Studies in Global Security Series 2003 2007 Profound political economic environmental and technological changes now underway are shaping the prospects for peace and human well being in the coming decades Accommodating these changes will be the primary challenge of states nongovernmental organizations corporations and multilateral institutions Motivated by a concern for this process of transformation and international accommodation the American Academy of Arts and Sciences launched a book series in 2003 on global security issues The American Academy Studies in Global Security Series is edited by Carl Kaysen MIT John Steinbruner University of Maryland and Martin B Malin American Academy of Arts Sciences and is a project of the Committee on International Security Studies The series is published by The MIT Press Related Publications Published from year 1800 1899 1900 1976 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 thru year 1800 1899 1900 1976 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Type All publication types Bulletin i i Bulletin i Dædalus i i Dædalus i Annual Report Books Newsletter Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Spotlight SUSSTAIN Article Title and Synopsis To Order The Minimum Means of Reprisal China s Search for Security in the Nuclear Age MIT Press 2007 Jeffrey Lewis editor Buy from MIT Press Statehood and Security Georgia after the Rose Revolution MIT Press 2005 Robert Legvold and Bruno Coppieters editors

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/Research/researchproject.aspx?d=631 (2016-02-13)
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