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  • How Does Gender Affect the Careers of Humanities Majors? - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    the men The men who hold an advanced degree are 1 7 times more likely to be in legal occupations than the women 17 4 of the men compared with 10 1 of the women Among holders of advanced degrees in the humanities in the 35 54 age group the women earn 18 000 less than the men or earn about 80 of what the men earn The AAUW s fall 2015 report The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap notes that in 2014 women working full time in the United States typically were paid just 79 percent of what men were paid 3 The Humanities Indicators data on the pay gap based on a subpopulation disaggregated by both level of education and chronological age as a proxy for level of experience appear to align with that 79 0 figure which is based on pay to all women working full time regardless of their level of experience or education The Humanities Indicators data likewise seem decently aligned with the gender pay gap for graduates in all age groups with terminal bachelor s degrees in humanities and liberal arts 7 000 that the Georgetown Center for Education and the Workforce cites in What s It Worth The Economic Value of College Majors 2011 the first of its series of reports on earnings of college graduates broken out by disciplines 136 In percentage terms a 7 000 gender pay gap corresponds with women earning 86 0 of what men earn That 86 0 figure makes sense in relation to the figures from the Humanities Indicators and the 79 0 figure from the AAUW report given that gender pay gap within the humanities and liberal arts that the Georgetown Center reports lumps together less and more experienced members of the workforce but excludes those who hold degrees beyond the BA The two new indicators let us see how disparities in occupations and earnings that the Georgetown Center studies have documented between the humanities and other fields also appear within the humanities All these reports prompt important questions about the way gender inflects the choices individuals make at critical junctures of their lives and the degree to which personal agency or the power of social roles and institutions holds sway in motivating and determining what end up being called our personal choices Visitors to the Humanities Indicators may find themselves wondering whether to adopt the optimistic view that the gap for more recent college graduates will stay small and even be made to shrink under conditions where policy and practice are advancing toward increasing equity Or should one instead take the pessimistic view that the pay gap will gradually increase for these younger members of the workforce repeating the earnings disparities characteristic of their elders most of whom presumably earned their bachelor s degrees decades ago And if the gender pay gap contracts will it do so because median earnings for women catch up to men s even as median earnings for men

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=22027 (2016-02-13)
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  • Looking Beyond Earnings as a Measure of the Humanities - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    reports for instance it warrants remembering that the fields used toward the tabulation of what counts as humanities or substantial humanities content by sheer need of data management include some but not other disciplines Yet the amount of humanities content at any given college school or program is constantly changing How do we capture in numbers the many ways in which all that we define as humanistic is connecting and mobilizing the next generation What would happen to the results derived from the list of tabulated disciplines 3 if they included the medical humanities environmental humanities programs in business ethics studies in law or anthropology with strong humanistic content or computer science courses that focus on the storytelling features of video game design When team taught courses such as The Chemistry of Art or The Brain on Music are taught by faculty members from two different disciplines are they included in this inventory Metrics isolate units in a world that is increasingly mobile merging and to use a term coined by media scholar Henry Jenkins and his team spreadable These are exciting times And the importance of this period in history is hailed in academia the business industry grant giving institutions and society at large through terms such as immersion integration collaboration or innovation Might our reliance on data points interfere with the advancements of an age yearning for a new frame of reference Consider for instance a recent New York Times article titled The Creative Apocalypse That Wasn t This fascinating take on the present and future careers of a rising creative class suggests that the technological and economic trends that are blurring the lines between consumption and production are allowing more individuals to make a good living from what they love to do In fact this piece suggests that we are witnessing the rise of an entrepreneurial environment with incredibly interesting ramifications for the arts and humanities as professional fields How do we account for this increasing group of self employed individuals who may or may not have gained a degree in a core humanities discipline in college yet indicate that there is an exciting future ahead And how can we do a better job capturing this future for the humanities If particular sound bites of data are singled out or used at face value to present the truth of the current condition of the humanities as this most recent example from MarketWatch titled These College Majors Are Dying readily underscores then we run the risk of building unstable scaffoldings for the educational structures of tomorrow To mobilize the humanities means that we are hoping to affect the future by presenting a snapshot of today When data alone are used to code and assign priorities and resources they can limit our ability to imagine our tomorrow 4 What is a measured fair way to draw conclusions from measurements The humanities themselves are a framework for answering that question We have a social responsibility to reshape what really counts

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=21965 (2016-02-13)
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  • Rediscovering the Vitality of the Humanities Not-for-Profit Sector - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    have recommitted to the project of excavating their own histories digging deeper to find relevance with contemporary audiences and identifying new methods for engagement along the way 3 Just as house museums are rethinking their roles and functions the conversation has engulfed all history organizations thanks in part to the crucible of the Great Recession History organizations are working harder than ever to matter They are working across disciplines on programming and education collaborating with artists offering spaces for civic conversations and literacy programs providing major resources for K 12 educators engaging with community groups on social justice projects and tying their ventures to economic development projects These shifts in the scope of work being done by history organizations remind me that all of the categories in this HI report ought to be problematized from time to time To see how revenues and other numbers have changed for humanities organizations over time is indeed useful but the real story is in what we are becoming as organizations right now ENDNOTES 1 Government Doubles Official Estimate There Are 35 000 Active Museums in the U S Institute of Museum and Library Services May 19 2014 http www imls gov government doubles official estimate aspx 2 Felicia M Sullivan Nancy N Conner Kei Kawashima Ginsberg Peter Levine and Elizabeth Lynn Humanities at the Crossroads The Indiana Case Study Survey Report Indianapolis Indiana Humanities January 2014 The Humanities at the Crossroads Initiative received support from the Carnegie Corporation the Lilly Endowment the MacArthur Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities 3 Lisa Junkin Lopez Introduction Open House Reimagining the Historic House Museum The Public Historian 37 no 2 May 2015 11 September 25 2015 Missing Pieces of the Humanities Not for Profit Sector posted by Carole E Rosenstein The IRS Form 990 data used by the Humanities Indicators HI to produce this valuable report have two strengths first they provide an excellent tool for creating benchmarks to track the health and growth of the not for profit humanities subsector over time second they help to show how the humanities fare in comparison More September 25 2015 Missing Pieces of the Humanities Not for Profit Sector posted by Carole E Rosenstein The IRS Form 990 data used by the Humanities Indicators HI to produce this valuable report have two strengths first they provide an excellent tool for creating benchmarks to track the health and growth of the not for profit humanities subsector over time second they help to show how the humanities fare in comparison to the broader universe of not for profits However it is important to recognize that these data do not capture a complete picture of humanities activity They are data on not for profits and thus do not include for profit or public sector humanities Neither do they include humanities activities within other parts of civil society such as those sponsored by religious institutions or by associations that fail to formally incorporate as not for profits Moreover these data

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=21941 (2016-02-13)
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  • Are Certifications and Degrees Sufficient Measures of Teacher Qualification? - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    for their lives in the world September 24 2015 What History Teachers Really Need to be Prepared posted by Nancy McTygue According to the new indicators approximately three quarters of secondary level students take history from teachers without a major and credential in the field This is not a cause for alarm Our students deserve qualified teachers but undergraduate majors and formal credentials are but a small part More September 24 2015 What History Teachers Really Need to be Prepared posted by Nancy McTygue According to the new indicators approximately three quarters of secondary level students take history from teachers without a major and credential in the field This is not a cause for alarm Our students deserve qualified teachers but undergraduate majors and formal credentials are but a small part of what new teachers need to be successful In 1989 I was given my first teaching assignment in a suburban high school in California I was assigned to teach three periods of 20th Century World History and two periods of US History Although it was years before No Child Left Behind s designation I was considered to be highly qualified given my BA in political science minor in history a year of student teaching and two state teaching credentials in social science and government Despite these official qualifications like most first year teachers I was woefully unprepared and wildly overconfident in both my content knowledge and ability to teach adolescents I was a week ahead of my students in their textbooks and tried new and often random strategies in a desperate and ultimately futile quest to first manage the classroom and hopefully at some point long in the future actually teach my students something As in most other states history teachers in California are encouraged to get a social science credential in order to be licensed to teach a variety of subjects within the social studies realm With my social science credential for example I m qualified to teach history US world and every period from early man to the present government psychology economics geography sociology world religions ethnic studies etc Although the majority of secondary social science classes are actually history there are many sections of other courses offered within the social studies area With limited positions available candidates who can teach multiple subjects are considered much more competitive because administrators can use them to fill a number of spots on their master schedule Simply put a teacher with a history only credential will struggle to find work After more than a decade of classroom teaching I was more qualified I better understood the discipline and my efforts to teach history were generally more successful That improvement was the result of significant practice research and working with more talented practitioners Would it have been helpful to have taken more history classes as an undergraduate Perhaps but even if I had majored in history I doubt I would have been substantially more prepared on that first day Learning history

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=21940 (2016-02-13)
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  • What Do Changes in the Intended Majors of College-Bound Seniors Portend for the Humanities? - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    a decline in the general liberal arts knowledge which provides students with critical thinking and writing skills useful in a variety of occupations In examining these concerns we found promising signs for both camps The findings from the Higher Education Research Institute and College Board from 2007 to 2014 show a modest decline in interest in majoring in the humanities among college freshmen and high school seniors Our approach was to mirror this analysis but stretch it back to the 1980s using nationally representative samples of college students and high school students collected by the National Center for Educational Statistics NCES Figure 1 using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study NPSAS and three samples from the NCES s Secondary Longitudinal Studies Program High School Beyond HS B National Educational Longitudinal Study NELS and the Educational Longitudinal Study ELS displays the share of freshmen at four year universities who declared a major in the humanities NPSAS data and the share of high school students who reported expectations of attending a four year school and studying the humanities HS B NELS and ELS data Although the percentage of students majoring in the humanities fluctuates in the short term the long term trend appears to be upward with 17 7 of freshmen at four year schools majoring in the humanities in 2012 compared to 12 9 in 1987 Among high school seniors interest in the humanities declined slightly from 1980 to 2006 but not by a statistically significant amount Figure 1 Proportion of College and High School Students Interested in Majoring in the Humanities Source Data comes from the following NCES datasets NPSAS HS B NELS and ELS We were also interested in whether the actual number of freshmen humanities majors was increasing or decreasing The nationally representative databases are designed to produce population estimates Since before the 1980s there has been a steady increase in the number of students attending four year colleges with a steep increase starting in the 2000s http nces ed gov programs digest d13 tables dt13 303 70 asp As shown in Figure 2 this growth also appears in the number of freshmen majoring in the humanities at four year schools more than doubling from 270 000 in 2004 to 580 000 in 2012 Although the percentage of freshman majoring in the humanities has fluctuated over the years and only shows a slight incline fig 1 the absolute number of students majoring in the humanities has increased drastically over the same period fig 2 Figure 2 Number of College Freshman Majoring in the Humanities Source Data comes from the following NCES dataset NPSAS The fluctuations in the share of students majoring in the humanities does present problems for administrators trying to divvy up resources across school programs Yet as Figure 2 shows the number of students who claim to be interested in humanities during their freshman year has been on the rise Other research has found a decline in the proportion of students graduating with a

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=21933 (2016-02-13)
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  • A Check-up on the Health of the Humanities in Higher Education - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    The future health of the humanities requires I think work along two tracks which many have already undertaken First those who care about humanities expertise at the level of the major and advanced degrees need to help diversify the professional pathways to which that expertise can lead Second even if the general education instructional faculty need not all be equipped with PhDs a situation that obtained in the first half of the twentieth century we ought to work on a stronger strategy of collaboration between those who work in the domains of humanities research expertise and those responsible for the general education curriculum Each of those branches of the humanities needs to nourish and support the other rather than working against one another Achieving this will require a re investment of those in the research domains in the question of general education and the creation of new forms of institutional partnership between four year and two year institutions April 10 2015 Humanities Remain Visible and Vital Part of Our Culture posted by Michael S Roth I sometimes joke that university presidents are congenital optimists When asked about difficult times presidents seem bound to smile talk about silver linings and things that make you stronger Few people like to wallow in bad news but we presidents seem predisposed for the sake of More April 10 2015 Humanities Remain Visible and Vital Part of Our Culture posted by Michael S Roth I sometimes joke that university presidents are congenital optimists When asked about difficult times presidents seem bound to smile talk about silver linings and things that make you stronger Few people like to wallow in bad news but we presidents seem predisposed for the sake of institutional reputation just to pretend it isn t there What me worry Is this why I finished the latest State of the Humanities Higher Education 2015 with more relief than anxiety Have I become one those administrators immune to bad news Or worse a Professor Pangloss After all if one measures the impact of the humanities by its share of majors things do look pretty bleak And the disparity between earnings for those who graduate with STEM degrees as compared to humanities diplomas although hardly surprising is a powerful reminder of who is and who isn t being rewarded in the current economic context But still I am struck by this The humanities share of bachelor s degrees earned as second majors was more than twice as large as that for first majors In 2013 approximately 25 of second majors were in the humanities 23 715 in all compared to 10 of first majors Skeptics may ring in that this is because it is easier to get that second major in a humanities field but this is just calumny Easier for whom Is it really so straightforward that a chemistry major will find a course in Italian poetry a breeze I don t think so There is no hard evidence that undergraduates major in economics

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=21716 (2016-02-13)
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  • A Question for Study:What Are the Humanities Good For? - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    piece College s Priceless Value February 11 2015 offered a compelling exposition of the transformative nature of engagement with the humanities the classroom delivery of a line from King Lear changed his life It did so of course as a crystalizing moment in a context of long term preparation and context setting It s a compelling story With due and great regard for these high road accounts of the significance of the humanities advocates must be able to address other ranges of concern as well What we need in order to make the broadest case for the humanities is the ability to talk convincingly both about such transformative moments as Bruni s with their enduring consequences in people s lives and also about benefits beyond intrinsic value and life changing epiphanies We need to be able to talk convincingly about the cultivation of transferable intellectual skills such as critical thinking and problem solving the development of intellectual agility the acquisition of broadened perspectives and capacities of empathy the growth of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity and the embrace of deliberative abilities and dispositions We need research based information about the lives and habits of people whose education has included significant engagement with the humanities Let me be clear the aim is not to show the value of research in the humanities It is to coordinate the pursuit of research on the effects of humanities education A well focused well coordinated research agenda aimed at detecting the effects of science education the Longitudinal Study of American Youth conducted by Jon Miller of the University of Michigan s Institute for Social Research has been active for decades supported by funds from the National Science Foundation Miller is now seeking to extend his agenda into the effects of humanities education In November 2014 he I Norman Bradburn of the University of Chicago s NORC Stephen Kidd of the National Humanities Alliance other humanities stakeholders and social science researchers with humanities interests met in Washington DC under the auspices of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to begin conceiving such an agenda There are many nascent projects analogous to Miller s The aim is to identify and organize them into a coherent mutually reinforcing pattern of inquiry This group offers the prospect of a sorely needed project to equip humanities advocacy a project that could equip advocates with data to augment the testimony of people like Bruni and facts about the improvement of society to add to the insights of people like Small and Brooks The humanities need this broader base Once it is available Phi Beta Kappa and many other advocates of the humanities will certainly use it It will be of telling use in our advocacy March 16 2015 Identifying Value for Humanities Advocacy posted by Stephen Kidd Several months ago I attended a White House ceremony hosted by First Lady Michelle Obama for the National Youth Arts and Humanities Program Awards honoring arts and humanities programs that engage underprivileged youth

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/research/dataForumEssay.aspx?i=21675 (2016-02-13)
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