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  • Education and a Civil Society: Teaching Evidence-Based Decision Making - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    Events Fellowships Overview Visiting Scholars Program Hellman Fellowship in Science and Technology Policy Policy Fellowship in the Humanities Education and the Arts Policy Fellowship in Global Security and International Affairs The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Submit a Question Date 12 5 2012 Name Email Needed only if you expect a reply Subject Message Home Publication Overview Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Education and a Civil Society Teaching Evidence Based Decision Making Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Education and a Civil Society Teaching Evidence Based Decision Making Authors Eamonn Callan Tina Grotzer Jerome Kagan Richard E Nisbett David N Perkins and Lee S Shulman Published by American Academy of Arts and Sciences Cambridge MA 02138 2009 Order from the Academy Or download the PDF Table of Contents Acknowledgments Introduction Lee S Shulman Chapter 1 Decision Making and Its Development David N Perkins Chapter 2 Can Reasoning Be Taught Richard E Nisbett Chapter 3 Is Critical Thinking a General Talent Jerome Kagan Chapter 4 Teaching Evidence Based Citizenship Eamonn Callan Chapter 5 Learning to Reason about Evidence and Explanations Promising Directions in Education Tina Grotzer Suggestions for Further Reading Contributors Find Dædalus Issues View

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/publication.aspx?d=339 (2016-02-13)
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  • Using Imaging to Identify Deceit: Scientific and Ethical Questions - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Submit a Question Date 12 5 2012 Name Email Needed only if you expect a reply Subject Message Home Publication Overview Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Using Imaging to Identify Deceit Scientific and Ethical Questions Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Using Imaging to Identify Deceit Scientific and Ethical Questions Authors Emilio Bizzi Steven E Hyman Marcus E Raichle Nancy Kanwisher Elizabeth A Phelps Stephen J Morse Walter Sinnott Armstrong Jed S Rakoff and Henry T Greely Published by American Academy of Arts and Sciences Cambridge MA 02138 2009 Order from the Academy Or download the PDF Table of Contents Introduction Imaging Deception Emilio Bizzi and Steven E Hyman Chapter 1 An Introduction to Functional Brain Imaging in the Context of Lie Detection Marcus E Raichle Chapter 2 The Use of fMRI in Lie Detection What Has Been Shown and What Has Not Nancy Kanwisher Chapter 3 Lying Outside the Laboratory The Impact of Imagery and Emotion on the Neural Circuitry of Lie Detection Elizabeth A Phelps Chapter 4 Actions Speak Louder than Images Stephen J Morse Chapter 5 Neural Lie Detection in Courts Walter Sinnott Armstrong Chapter 6 Lie

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/publication.aspx?d=342 (2016-02-13)
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  • The Media in Society - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Home American Institutions and the Public Good Project List The Media in Society The Media in Society 2005 2010 The role of a free and effective press in a democracy and its impact on public policy are at the center of this study which includes an exploration of news reporting in two areas how information about science and technology is diffused through the media and the quality and effectiveness of business reporting and analysis with particular attention to how varied media inform the public about economic policy issues The study considers the impact of new technologies and evolving patterns of news consumption on the economic models that have long supported traditional print and broadcast media and the changing nature of journalism in today s digital world Funding for this project comes from the Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands Related Publications Published from year 1800 1899 1900 1976 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 thru year 1800 1899 1900 1976 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Type All publication types Bulletin i i Bulletin i Dædalus i i Dædalus i Annual Report Books Newsletter Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications Spotlight SUSSTAIN Article Title and Synopsis To Order Science and the Media American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2010 Donald Kennedy and Geneva Overholser authors Buy from the Academy Free Download PDF document Summary While the digital revolution has changed the nature of news distribution it has not diminished the need for ambitious accurate

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/Research/researchproject.aspx?d=65 (2016-02-13)
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  • Corporate Responsibility: Beyond Regulation - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    to have been badly eroded as egregious instances of corporate misconduct have come to light Moreover various professions relied upon to help ensure ethical corporate behavior have disappointed the public with some of their members themselves implicated in corporate misconduct The initial phase of the corporate responsibility project included two workshops held in 2003 The first which took place at the House of the Academy focused on a paper by John Reed regarding values and corporate responsibility The second workshop a series of panel discussions held in New York City considered the responsibilities of six professional and profession like roles auditor lawyer journalist investment banker corporate director and regulator in relation to corporate conduct The participants in each of the two workshops included both academics and practitioners The final product of this project phase is a book titled Restoring Trust in American Business which includes the papers presented at both workshops as revised by their authors written commentaries submitted by other participants and the project steering committee s own consensus statement and policy recommendations The committee circulated its findings to the corporate community to regulators and legislators and to the broad public Corporate Responsibility Steering Committee Martin Lipton cochair Wachtell Lipton Rosen Katz Jay Lorsch cochair Harvard Business School Larry Sonsini cochair Wilson Sonsini Goodrich Rosati William Allen New York University Center for Law and Business John Biggs New York City Margaret Blair Vanderbilt University School of Law Richard Buxbaum Boalt Hall School of Law James Cochrane New York City Michael Gellert Windcrest Partners Amory Houghton Jr US House of Representatives Rakesh Khurana Harvard Business School Douglass North Washington University in St Louis Geneva Overholser University of Missouri School of Journalism John Reed New York City Mark Roe Harvard Law School Felix Rohatyn New York City Gerald Rosenfeld Rothschild North

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/Research/researchproject.aspx?d=67 (2016-02-13)
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  • Emerging Voices - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    Policy Fellowship in the Humanities Education and the Arts Policy Fellowship in Global Security and International Affairs The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Submit a Question Date 12 5 2012 Name Email Needed only if you expect a reply Subject Message Home Publication Overview Dædalus Emerging Voices Dædalus Spring 2009 Emerging Voices Published by MIT Press Cambridge MA 2009 Order from the Publisher Table of Contents Forward The presidential debates as political ritual David Greenberg Health media global inequalities Hsuan L Hsu and Martha Lincoln What does it mean to be an American Sarah Song Anti intellectualism as romantic discourse Jennifer Ratner Rosenhagen The intellectual foundations of the modern American fiscal state Ajay K Mehrotra Pragmatism the lessons of experience John Jacob Kaag The rise fall of New Left urbanism Christopher Klemek Risking Ralph Ellison Jason Puskar Risking American archaeology Native America Chip Colwell Chanthaphonh Competing organizational interests Soviet WMD expertise Sharon K Weiner Rebalancing American foreign policy Paul K MacDonald The threat of sexual violence during the American Civil War Crystal N Feimster poetry From Speaking In The Fall Arda Collins Divinity Matthew Dickman excerpts from Discipline Dawn Lundy Martin Ophelia To The Court

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/publication.aspx?d=743 (2016-02-13)
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  • What does it mean to be an American? - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    those seeking to become citizens must demonstrate basic knowledge of U S government and history A newly revised U S citizenship test was instituted in October 2008 with the hope that it will serve in the words of the chief of the Office of Citizenship Alfonso Aguilar as an instrument to promote civic learning and patriotism 9 The revised test attempts to move away from civics trivia to emphasize political ideas and concepts There is still a fair amount of trivia How many amendments does the Constitution have What is the capital of your state The new test asks more open ended questions about government powers and political concepts What does the judicial branch do What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful What is freedom of religion What is the rule of law 10 Constitutional patriots would endorse this focus on values and principles In Habermas s view legal principles are anchored in the political culture which he suggests is separable from ethical cultural forms of life Acknowledging that in many countries the ethical cultural form of life of the majority is fused with the political culture he argues that the level of the shared political culture must be uncoupled from the level of subcultures and their prepolitical identities 11 All that should be expected of immigrants is that they embrace the constitutional principles as interpreted by the political culture not that they necessarily embrace the majority s ethical cultural forms Yet language is a key aspect of ethical cultural forms of life shaping people s worldviews and experiences It is through language that individuals become who they are Since a political community must conduct its affairs in at least one language the ethical cultural and political cannot be completely uncoupled As theorists of multiculturalism have stressed complete separation of state and particularistic identities is impossible government decisions about the language of public institutions public holidays and state symbols unavoidably involve recognizing and supporting particular ethnic and religious groups over others 12 In the United States English language ability has been a statutory qualification for naturalization since 1906 originally as a requirement of oral ability and later as a requirement of English literacy Indeed support for the principles of the Constitution has been interpreted as requiring English literacy 13 The language requirement might be justified as a practical matter we need some language to be the common language of schools government and the workplace so why not the language of the majority but for a great many citizens the language requirement is also viewed as a key marker of national identity The continuing centrality of language in naturalization policy prevents us from saying that what it means to be an American is purely a matter of shared values Another misconception about constitutional patriotism is that it is necessarily more inclusive of newcomers than cultural nationalist models of solidarity Its inclusiveness depends on which principles are held up as the polity s shared principles and its normative substance depends on and must be evaluated in light of a background theory of justice freedom or democracy it does not by itself provide such a theory Consider ideological requirements for naturalization in U S history The first naturalization law of 1790 required nothing more than an oath to support the U S Constitution The second naturalization act added two ideological elements the renunciation of titles or orders of nobility and the requirement that one be found to have behaved as a man attached to the principles of the constitution of the United States 14 This attachment requirement was revised in 1940 from a behavioral qualification to a personal attribute but this did not help clarify what attachment to constitutional principles requires 15 Not surprisingly the attachment to constitutional principles requirement has been interpreted as requiring a belief in representative government federalism separation of powers and constitutionally guaranteed individual rights It has also been interpreted as disqualifying anarchists polygamists and conscientious objectors for citizenship In 1950 support for communism was added to the list of grounds for disqualification from naturalization as well as grounds for exclusion and deportation 16 The 1990 Immigration Act retained the McCarthy era ideological qualifications for naturalization current law disqualifies those who advocate or affiliate with an organization that advocates communism or opposition to all organized government 17 Patriotism like nationalism is capable of excess and pathology as evidenced by loyalty oaths and campaigns against un American activities In contrast to constitutional patriots liberal nationalists acknowledge that states cannot be culturally neutral even if they tried States cannot avoid coercing citizens into preserving a national culture of some kind because state institutions and laws define a political culture which in turn shapes the range of customs and practices of daily life that constitute a national culture David Miller a leading theorist of liberal nationalism defines national identity according to the following elements a shared belief among a group of individuals that they belong together historical continuity stretching across generations connection to a particular territory and a shared set of characteristics constituting a national culture 18 It is not enough to share a common identity rooted in a shared history or a shared territory a shared national culture is a necessary feature of national identity I share a national culture with someone even if we never meet if each of us has been initiated into the traditions and customs of a national culture What sort of content makes up a national culture Miller says more about what a national culture does not entail It need not be based on biological descent Even if nationalist doctrines have historically been based on notions of biological descent and race Miller emphasizes that sharing a national culture is in principle compatible with people belonging to a diversity of racial and ethnic groups In addition every member need not have been born in the homeland Thus immigration need not pose problems provided only that the immigrants come to share a common national identity to which they may contribute their own distinctive ingredients 19 Liberal nationalists focus on the idea of culture as opposed to ethnicity or descent in order to reconcile nationalism with liberalism Thicker than constitutional patriotism liberal nationalism Miller maintains is thinner than ethnic models of belonging Both nationality and ethnicity have cultural components but what is said to distinguish civic nations from ethnic nations is that the latter are exclusionary and closed on grounds of biological descent the former are in principle open to anyone willing to adopt the national culture 20 Yet the civic ethnic distinction is not so clear cut in practice Every nation has an ethnic core As Anthony Smith observes M odern civic nations have not in practice really transcended ethnicity or ethnic sentiments This is a Western mirage reality as wish closer examination always reveals the ethnic core of civic nations in practice even in immigrant societies with their early pioneering and dominant English and Spanish culture in America Australia or Argentina a culture that provided the myths and language of the would be nation 21 This blurring of the civic ethnic distinction is reflected throughout U S history with the national culture often defined in ethnic racial and religious terms 22 Why then if all national cultures have ethnic cores should those outside this core embrace the national culture Miller acknowledges that national cultures have typically been formed around the ethnic group that is dominant in a particular territory and therefore bear the hallmarks of that group language religion cultural identity Muslim identity in contemporary Britain becomes politicized when British national identity is conceived as containing an Anglo Saxon bias which discriminates against Muslims and other ethnic minorities But he maintains that his idea of nationality can be made democratic in so far as it insists that everyone should take part in this debate about what constitutes the national identity on an equal footing and sees the formal arenas of politics as the main though not the only place where the debate occurs 23 The major difficulty here is that national cultures are not typically the product of collective deliberation in which all have the opportunity to participate The challenge is to ensure that historically marginalized groups as well as new groups of immigrants have genuine opportunities to contribute on an equal footing to shaping the national culture Without such opportunities liberal nationalism collapses into conservative nationalism of the kind defended by Samuel Huntington He calls for immigrants to assimilate into America s Anglo Protestant culture Like Miller Huntington views ideology as a weak glue to hold together people otherwise lacking in racial ethnic or cultural sources of community and he rejects race and ethnicity as constituent elements of national identity 24 Instead he calls on Americans of all races and ethnicities to reinvigorate their core culture Yet his cultural vision of America is pervaded by ethnic and religious elements it is not only of a country committed to the principles of the Creed but also of a deeply religious and primarily Christian country encompassing several religious minorities adhering to Anglo Protestant values speaking English maintaining its European cultural heritage 25 That the cultural core of the United States is the culture of its historically dominant groups is a point that Huntington unabashedly accepts Cultural nationalist visions of solidarity would lend support to immigration and immigrant policies that give weight to linguistic and ethnic preferences and impose special requirements on individuals from groups deemed to be outside the nation s core culture One example is the practice in postwar Germany of giving priority in immigration and naturalization policy to ethnic Germans they were the only foreign nationals who were accepted as permanent residents set on the path toward citizenship They were treated not as immigrants but resettlers Aussiedler who acted on their constitutional right to return to their country of origin In contrast non ethnically German guestworkers Gastarbeiter were designated as aliens Auslander under the 1965 German Alien Law and excluded from German citizenship 26 Another example is the Japanese naturalization policy that until the late 1980s required naturalized citizens to adopt a Japanese family name The language requirement in contemporary naturalization policies in the West is the leading remaining example of a cultural nationalist integration policy it reflects not only a concern with the economic and political integration of immigrants but also a nationalist concern with preserving a distinctive national culture Constitutional patriotism and liberal nationalism are accounts of civic solidarity that deal with what one might call first level diversity Individuals have different group identities and hold divergent moral and religious outlooks yet they are expected to share the same idea of what it means to be American either patriots committed to the same set of ideals or co nationals sharing the relevant cultural attributes Charles Taylor suggests an alternative approach the idea of deep diversity Rather than trying to fix some minimal content as the basis of solidarity Taylor acknowledges not only the fact of a diversity of group identities and outlooks first level diversity but also the fact of a diversity of ways of belonging to the political community second level or deep diversity Taylor introduces the idea of deep diversity in the context of discussing what it means to be Canadian Someone of say Italian extraction in Toronto or Ukrainian extraction in Edmonton might indeed feel Canadian as a bearer of individual rights in a multicultural mosaic But this person might nevertheless accept that a Québécois or a Cree or a Déné might belong in a very different way that these persons were Canadian through being members of their national communities Reciprocally the Québécois Cree or Déné would accept the perfect legitimacy of the mosaic identity Civic solidarity or political identity is not defined according to a concrete content but rather by the fact that everybody is attached to that identity in his or her own fashion that everybody wants to continue that history and proposes to make that community progress 27 What leads people to support second level diversity is both the desire to be a member of the political community and the recognition of disagreement about what it means to be a member In our world membership in a political community provides goods we cannot do without this above all may be the source of our desire for political community Even though Taylor contrasts Canada with the United States accepting the myth of America as a nation of immigrants the United States also has a need for acknowledgment of diverse modes of belonging based on the distinctive histories of different groups Native Americans African Americans Irish Americans Vietnamese Americans and Mexican Americans across these communities of people we can find not only distinctive group identities but also distinctive ways of belonging to the political community Deep diversity is not a recapitulation of the idea of cultural pluralism first developed in the United States by Horace Kallen who argued for assimilation in matters economic and political and preservation of differences in cultural consciousness 28 In Kallen s view hyphenated Americans lived their spiritual lives in private on the left side of the hyphen while being culturally anonymous on the right side of the hyphen The ethnic political distinction maps onto a private public dichotomy the two spheres are to be kept separate such that Irish Americans for example are culturally Irish and politically American In contrast the idea of deep diversity recognizes that Irish Americans are culturally Irish American and politically Irish American As Michael Walzer put it in his discussion of American identity almost twenty years ago the culture of hyphenated Americans has been shaped by American culture and their politics is significantly ethnic in style and substance 29 The idea of deep or second level diversity is not just about immigrant ethnics which is the focus of both Kallen s and Walzer s analyses but also racial minorities who based on their distinctive experiences of exclusion and struggles toward inclusion have distinctive ways of belonging to America While attractive for its inclusiveness the deep diversity model may be too thin a basis for civic solidarity in a democratic society Can there be civic solidarity without citizens already sharing a set of values or a culture in the first place In writing elsewhere about how different groups within democracy might share identity space Taylor himself suggests that the basic principles of republican constitutions democracy itself and human rights among them constitute a non negotiable minimum Yet what distinguishes Taylor s deep diversity model of solidarity from Habermas s constitutional patriotism is the recognition that historic identities cannot be just abstracted from The minimal commonality of shared principles is accompanied by a recognition that these principles can be realized in a number of different ways and can never be applied neutrally without some confronting of the substantive religious ethnic cultural differences in societies 30 And in contrast to liberal nationalism deep diversity does not aim at specifying a common national culture that must be shared by all What matters is not so much the content of solidarity but the ethos generated by making the effort at mutual understanding and respect Canada s approach to the integration of immigrants may be the closest thing there is to deep diversity Canadian naturalization policy is not so different from that of the United States a short required residency period relatively low application fees a test of history and civics knowledge and a language exam 31 Where the United States and Canada diverge is in their public commitment to diversity Through its official multiculturalism policies Canada expresses a commitment to the value of diversity among immigrant communities through funding for ethnic associations and supporting heritage language schools 32 Constitutional patriots and liberal nationalists say that immigrant integration should be a two way process that immigrants should shape the host society s dominant culture just as they are shaped by it Multicultural accommodations actually provide the conditions under which immigrant integration might genuinely become a two way process Such policies send a strong message that immigrants are a welcome part of the political community and should play an active role in shaping its future evolution The question of solidarity may not be the most urgent task Americans face today war and economic crisis loom larger But the question of solidarity remains important in the face of ongoing large scale immigration and its effects on intergroup relations which in turn affect our ability to deal with issues of economic inequality and democracy I hope to have shown that patriotism is not easily separated from nationalism that nationalism needs to be evaluated in light of shared principles and that respect for deep diversity presupposes a commitment to some shared values including perhaps diversity itself Rather than viewing the three models of civic solidarity I have discussed as mutually exclusive as the proponents of each sometimes seem to suggest we should think about how they might be made to work together with each model tempering the excesses of the others What is now formally required of immigrants seeking to become American citizens most clearly reflects the first two models of solidarity professed allegiance to the principles of the Constitution constitutional patriotism and adoption of a shared culture by demonstrating the ability to read write and speak English liberal nationalism The revised citizenship test makes gestures toward respect for first level diversity and inclusion of historically marginalized groups with questions such as Who lived in America before the Europeans arrived What group of people was taken to America and sold as slaves What did Susan B Anthony do What did Martin Luther King Jr do The election of the first African American president of the United States is a significant step forward A more inclusive American solidarity requires the recognition not only of the fact that Americans are a diverse people but also that they have distinctive ways of belonging to America ENDNOTES 1 For comments on

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/pubContent.aspx?d=744 (2016-02-13)
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  • ARISE: Advancing Research In Science and Engineering: Investing in Early-Career Scientists and High-Risk, High-Reward Research - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    in Science and Technology Policy Policy Fellowship in the Humanities Education and the Arts Policy Fellowship in Global Security and International Affairs The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Submit a Question Date 12 5 2012 Name Email Needed only if you expect a reply Subject Message Home Publication Overview Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications ARISE Advancing Research In Science and Engineering Investing in Early Career Scientists and High Risk High Reward Research Research Papers Monographs and Project Publications ARISE Advancing Research In Science and Engineering Investing in Early Career Scientists and High Risk High Reward Research Published by American Academy of Arts and Sciences Cambridge MA 2008 Order from the Academy Or download the PDF Table of Contents Acknowledgments Executive Summary Introduction Early Career Faculty Reasons for Concern Recent Trends NIH Recent Trends NSF Other Agencies Tracking Demographics of Early Career Researchers Summary Recommendations to Government Recommendations to Other Stakeholders Recommendations to Universities Recommendations to Private Foundations High Risk High Reward Research A Troubling Consensus NIH Pioneer Awards National Science Board Analysis Recommendations to Government Issues Common to Early Career and Transformative Research Stress on Peer Review System Recommendations to Government Recommendations to Universities

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/publication.aspx?d=375 (2016-02-13)
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  • Reflecting on the Humanities - American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    in Science and Technology Policy Policy Fellowship in the Humanities Education and the Arts Policy Fellowship in Global Security and International Affairs The Exploratory Fund Member Login User Name Password Forgot your password Submit a Question Date 12 5 2012 Name Email Needed only if you expect a reply Subject Message Home Publication Overview Dædalus Reflecting on the Humanities Dædalus Winter 2009 Reflecting on the Humanities Published by MIT Press Cambridge MA 2009 Order from the Publisher Table of Contents Reflecting on the humanities Patricia Meyer Spacks and Leslie Berlowitz The public good knowledge as the foundation for a democratic society Don Michael Randel The power of the humanities Richard J Franke Where the humanities live Edward L Ayers The humanities in the liberal arts colleges Francis Oakley The humanities social change Gerald Early A world without literature Michael Wood The Twelfth Day Rosanna Warren History now Caroline W Bynum Apocalypse in the stacks The research library in the age of Google Anthony Grafton The digital humanities James J O Donnell Performing the humanities Kay Kaufman Shelemay The future of the humanities in the present in the public Kathleen Woodward Recent trends in funding for the humanities Harriet Zuckerman and

    Original URL path: https://www.amacad.org/content/publications/publication.aspx?d=837 (2016-02-13)
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