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  • 1 & 2 Samuel - Anabaptistwiki
    in 1 2 Samuel From Anabaptistwiki Jump to navigation search Home A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviations Glossary This page under development Retrieved from http www anabaptistwiki org mediawiki index php title 1 26 2 Samuel oldid 15686 What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version

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  • 1 & 2 Kings - Anabaptistwiki
    in 1 2 Kings From Anabaptistwiki Jump to navigation search Home A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviations Glossary This page under development Retrieved from http www anabaptistwiki org mediawiki index php title 1 26 2 Kings oldid 15687 What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version

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  • 1 & 2 Chronicles - Anabaptistwiki
    E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviations Glossary 1 2 Chronicles by August H Konkel Believers Church Bible Commentary This page under development Recommended Essays in the Commentary edit Methodology in Kings and Chronicles Theology of Chronicles War in Chronicles August H Konkel Retrieved from http www anabaptistwiki org mediawiki index php title 1

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  • Ezra - Anabaptistwiki
    IP address Log in Ezra From Anabaptistwiki Jump to navigation search Home A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviations Glossary This page under development Retrieved from http www anabaptistwiki org mediawiki index php title Ezra oldid 12799 What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link

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  • Nehemiah - Anabaptistwiki
    IP address Log in Nehemiah From Anabaptistwiki Jump to navigation search Home A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviations Glossary This page under development Retrieved from http www anabaptistwiki org mediawiki index php title Nehemiah oldid 13067 What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link

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  • Esther - Anabaptistwiki
    J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviations Glossary Ruth Jonah Esther by Eugene F Roop Believers Church Bible Commentary This page is under development Recommended Essays in the Commentary edit The Interpreting Community of Faith in Ruth Jonah Esther Invitation to Comment edit To recommend improvements to this article click here Eugene F Roop Retrieved from http www anabaptistwiki

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  • Job - Anabaptistwiki
    additions and expansions in chapters 22 28 and 32 37 Of prime importance is Job s relationship with God The narrator describes Job as a man blameless and upright one who feared God and turned away from evil Job 1 1 NRSV cf God s similar descriptions in 1 8 2 3 The reader is provided the basis on which the whole book depends a righteous man suffers The reader will not get an answer to the question Why do the righteous suffer The book in effect poses another question Is it possible to serve God without expecting a reward The accuser in chapters 1 2 satan a title not a name believes that every person has a price and the only reason Job serves God is because God has protected him and rewarded him God on the other hand believes in the devotion of Job for its own sake That is God bets on humanity and the accuser bets against humanity Summary and Comment edit Structure and Prologue edit The organization of the book has a framing prose narrative chapters 1 2 which introduce Job and his suffering and 42 7 17 resolution and Job s final years The central poetic section is inaugurated by the lament of Job in chapter 3 and concludes with the speeches of God and brief responses from Job in 38 1 42 6 The first lament is followed by three cycles of speeches in which a friend speaks and Job responds Cycle I chapters 4 14 Cycle II chapters 15 21 Cycle III chapters 22 27 In the final cycle the speech patterns break down the harshest accusations are made and arguments become confused The three friends Eliphaz Bildad and Zophar speak in each of the first two cycles but Zophar vanishes from the third The friends begin with gentle persuasion but end with intense accusations about Job s sins All three represent the doctrine of divine retribution with a variety of nuances in their positions If there is any progression in their speeches it is in emotional intensity and not in new argument A fourth friend speaks in chapters 32 37 followed by the speeches of God in chapters 38 41 Dialogue with Friends edit The conflict in the book occurs because the friends believe that one can only speak about God in muted tones while Job following the psalmists bursts forth with angry complaint Job s accusatory cry against God and his friends disturbs pious views of how one should pray and what one should do in moments of distress Job displays a striking frankness in his prayer life and in his discourse with his friends who believe that a wise man would never act in this way cf the first speech of Eliphaz in chs 4 5 with the speech of Job in 6 7 The greatest disruption comes in the third cycle of speeches where the arguments are not clearly delineated As often happens in extended conversations the clarity

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  • Psalms - Anabaptistwiki
    life When life s circumstances do not meet the expectations of the covenant the psalmist reminds God to be faithful as promised In the individual lament the psalmist typically addresses God directly crying out O LORD e g Ps 13 1a The complaint often in the form of a question How long describes a situation that runs counter to the promised blessing Ps 13 1 2 Typically the complaint involves a description of personal suffering the threat of an enemy and or a failure on the part of God to live up to divine promises of presence and blessing Laments are characterized by a plea a direct appeal to God for deliverance Look answer give in 13 3 4 Often the psalmist issues a statement of confidence I trust in 13 5 Finally praise concludes the lament psalm I will sing the LORD s praise in 13 6 Additional individual laments include Psalms 3 4 5 25 28 77 120 and 141 over 40 in all Variations on the form are frequent Often the order outlined following Psalm 13 is disrupted perhaps by the intensity of the situation The conclusion of the lament with the statement of confidence and the expression of praise is somewhat surprising though characteristic of all laments but one Ps 88 alone does not conclude with either confidence or praise or both The source of this conclusion may be 1 an expression of the intense faith of the one who prays 2 a testimony added by the petitioner after the prayer has been answered or 3 an oracle spoken by a priest or prophet within the temple worship event Community Lament Community laments follow the theology form and function of the individual lament As suggested by their designation these laments are prayers that use the first person plural we Most of them appeal for God s revival or renewal in a time of national crisis Many of these perilous situations seem to be times of domination by military enemies destruction of the temple or exile Like the individual laments communal laments often follow a different sequence of the elements than the Psalm 13 model Many also seem to combine forms including thanksgiving or praise either before or after the lament Scholars debate which of the psalms should be included in a list of communal laments but they often include Psalms 44 60 74 79 80 83 85 90 The imprecatory psalms are a distinct type of lament characterized by their attitude that invoked divine judgment on enemies of the psalmist and hence enemies of God While the imprecatory psalms with their curses and wishes of evil on their enemies are troubling to Christian peacemakers the theology behind them is closely related to that of the other laments The psalms assume that God is sovereign and that God opposes evil They also stop short of engaging in the acts of war against the enemy leaving that in the hands of the sovereign God The complaint in the imprecatory psalms describes the acts of injustice committed by the evildoers The plea is for God to repay the evildoers as they deserve In their passion to see justice restored these psalmists graphically describe the judgment that would suffice to satisfy their sense of loss Psalm 88 is unique among the laments in that it does contain a word of hope or trust Psalm 109 is the longest and among the most graphic of the imprecatory psalms Psalm 137 famously asks God to dash the empire s babies against the rocks Other psalms classified as imprecatory include 35 69 83 and 140 Zenger Thanksgiving Song Thanksgiving songs generally follow a simple format introduced by a vow to give thanks followed by the body which relates a story of deliverance from a perilous situation and conclude with a summary thanksgiving statement Thanksgiving songs mirror laments The lament is a prayer for God to rescue an individual or a community from disaster usually concluding with a statement of hope or praise The thanksgiving song is written from the perspective of a person who has experienced God s salvation after crying out with a lament like complaint and plea for help The story usually includes a description of the problem a report of the prayer of lament and thanksgiving for the answer to prayer Again scholars differ when compiling lists of thanksgiving songs but often include Psalms 75 107 and 124 among the community thanksgiving songs and Psalms 18 21 30 34 92 116 118 and 138 among the individual songs of thanksgiving Psalm 116 illustrates the genre well Verses 1 2 confess that the psalmist loves the Lord because he has heard and responded Verse 3 describes the peril as a near death experience Verses 10 11 follow the complaint form In verse 4 the psalmist records the plea Verses 5 8 include a description of God s saving activity Verse 9 is a vow to respond faithfully to God s saving acts Verses 12 19 describe the psalmist s inner reflection regarding an appropriate response to saving act and a vow to give thanks with sacrificial offerings The psalm concludes with the exclamation Hallelujah Hymn of Praise The hymn of praise follows a simple basic format Often the hymn begins and ends with a brief call to praise with the body describing the qualities of God that are praiseworthy The hymn differs from the thanksgiving song in that the hymn focuses more exclusively on praise and rarely narrates a saving event in the way that a thanksgiving song does The hymn of praise describes things as they ought to be offering hope for those in distress but more obviously celebrating the goodness and greatness of God Psalm 117 illustrates the format of the praise hymn The first verse calls on the nations and the peoples to praise the Lord The body of verse 2 praises God s mercy and faithfulness The psalm concludes with the one word call to praise Hallelujah Among the hymns are Psalms 33 95 100 103 104 111 113 114 117 145 150 Enthronement psalms follow the hymnic form with a distinct and unique content that praises the Lord as king Yahweh s kingship is linked to creation and his victory over the powers of chaos and to historical salvation of the people of God through the Lord s action as Divine Warrior In Psalm 93 the Creator King theme is in the fore In Psalms 47 and 99 the Lord is king over the nations Psalms 96 97 and 98 praise King Yahweh for his rule both over creation and over the nations The Lord is King on Zion Zion Songs share some of the characteristics of the hymnic form and the enthronement theme King Yahweh creator and defender of order in the world guarantees the values of justice evident in the historical theology of the exodus Zion the court of God s rule symbolizes security and refuge for the needy particularly the poor Zion songs critique the pretensions of Judah s monarchy Ollenburger Zion songs include Psalms 46 48 76 84 87 and 122 Hebrew Poetry edit The psalms employ several stylistic characteristics that have been linked to ancient Hebrew poetry Although the puzzle of whether Hebrew poetry uses meter and rhythm remains unresolved there is something approaching consensus about several other poetic features Prominent among these is the use of parallelism One organizational scheme identifies synonymous antithetical formal and climactic rhetorical forms Bandstra 406 Synonymous parallelism restates the thought in the second line as in Psalm 35 1 Contend O LORD with those who contend with me fight against those who fight against me In antithetical parallelism the notion of the first line is stated in opposite terms in the second line as in Psalm 1 6 For the LORD watches over the way of the righteous but the way of the wicked will perish Psalm 14 2 has been cited as an example of formal parallelism the two lines of the couplet contain only one complete thought The LORD looks down from heaven on humankind to see if there are any who are wise who seek after God Psalm 29 1 is an example of climactic parallelism in which the second line echoes part of the first line then adds something to complete the thought of the first Ascribe to the LORD O heavenly beings Ascribe to the LORD glory and strength Alphabetic acrostics are used in several psalms a verse or section begins with letters of the Hebrew alphabet from beginning to end This may serve as a mnemonic device or simply embellish the psalm Among the acrostic psalms are Psalms 9 10 34 37 and 119 The changes in language form and pronunciation obscure the question of how sounds serve as poetic devices While it is not evident that rhyming the end of phrases is characteristic of any Hebrew poetry the use of unusual sounds to create word plays alliteration and assonance is likely Summary and Comment edit The theology of the book of Psalms is rooted in the understanding that the Lord God is sovereign over creation and history who provides care for the people of God Among the multitude of terms used to communicate about and with God King is a preferred image to refer to God s sovereignty God is celebrated as Creator who continues to provide abundant blessing through God s control of nature As sovereign of history God the King acts as Deliverer Warrior and Judge vindicating the righteous and executing judgment on those who choose evil God s gift of the Torah guides people to distinguish between right and evil The God who provides and cares for the righteous is Shepherd Refuge Strength Light Fortress Redeemer Book 1 Pss 1 41 edit Psalms 1 2 introduce the Psalter Psalm 1 contrasts the way of righteousness with that of the wicked The righteous are those who delight in and meditate on the Torah The Lord watches over the righteous and blesses them with abundant life Psalm 2 addresses the kings of the nations warning them to turn their rebellion against the sovereignty of God and the king that God installs on Zion into service and fear Psalms 1 2 are framed with blessings for those who keep Torah and those whose refuge is the Sovereign One Most of the rest of Book 1 is composed of personal laments As noted above the theology of the lament is based on faith that God will honor covenant the blessings promised in the introduction Those who keep the Torah and take refuge in the Sovereign One will live an abundant life When life s circumstances do not meet the expectations of the covenant the psalmist reminds God to be faithful as promised Anabaptist martyrs found reassurance in the lament psalms Barbelken Goethals was burned as a heretic in 1570 She cited the hope of Psalm 3 6 in a letter from prison before her execution Waltner 43 Along with the many laments of David Book 1 features psalms with particularly arresting theological insights Psalm 8 a hymn of praise addressed to the Lord asks a question about the relative place of humankind relative to the cosmos The psalmist answers surprisingly Humanity is more closely related to God than to anything else in creation This relationship is the basis of praise to the Lord Psalms 9 10 form a single acrostic poem combining praise with lament The theme of sovereign Yahweh s justice is central The marginalized will find that Yahweh is their refuge 9 7 10 as the Lord takes vengeance on greedy proud prosperous deceitful violent enemies 10 2 9 16 18 In criticizing the atheism of false religious and political leaders of his day in True Christian Faith Menno Simons cited Psalm 14 Waltner 87 Psalms 15 and 24 are temple liturgies Both describe the righteous worshiper who has access to the cult It appears that Psalm 29 is the result of the reworking of an ancient Canaanite hymn that may have been used in Baal worship In reclaiming Psalm 29 the psalmist emphasizes that Yahweh this personal name for God is used eighteen times is powerful sovereign over the chaos of storm in the natural world and the one who blesses the people of God with strength and peace In addition to the creation Torah hymn Ps 19 Book 1 contains several wisdom psalms including Psalms 27 34 and 37 In each the psalmist reflects on the salvation of the Lord promised to those who delight in the Lord Psalm 34 is quoted sixteen times in Martyrs Mirror as testimony to the caring presence of God in times of trouble Waltner 183 Book 1 concludes with Psalm 41 a psalm that includes a blessing in verse 1 framing Book 1 with the blessing that begins the Psalter continues with the form of a lament 41 4 9 and ends with a benediction that brings Book 1 to a close Book 2 Pss 42 72 edit Book 2 begins with psalms identified with the sons of Korah 42 49 These include a range of genre Together Psalms 42 43 lament the psalmist s hopeless mourning A communal lament describes exile among the nations 44 11 12 Hymns celebrate divine kingship in Zion Pss 45 48 50 A wisdom psalm warns of the futility of seeking wealth Ps 49 All but four of the remaining psalms of Book 2 are ascribed to David and most of these are personal laments The superscription links Psalm 51 to David s adultery with Bathsheba David s appeal for forgiveness models confession an appeal for cleansing and commitment to living faithfully as a restored person Psalm 51 is the most familiar of seven penitential psalms Pss 6 32 38 51 102 130 143 Psalm 60 is an example of a communal lament In Psalms 65 68 national praise and petition predominate Psalm 72 is one of two psalms associated with Solomon cf Ps 127 The psalmist prays for a kingdom of shalom characterized by justice the king cares for the afflicted in 72 1 4 12 14 and prosperity nations serve him and the land yields its bounty in 72 5 11 15 17 Book 3 Pss 73 89 edit Book 3 opens with the psalms of Asaph Pss 73 83 and concludes with psalms of Korah Pss 84 85 87 88 David Ps 86 and Ethan Ps 89 Communal laments pervade Book 3 74 79 80 82 83 85 89 38 51 Communal themes are present in many of the other psalms in Book 3 including hymnic styles 75 77 81 84 87 a historical recital 78 and individual laments that may represent the concerns of the exiled community 86 88 The powerful rhetoric of strategically placed Psalm 73 introduces and gives focus to Book 3 Book 2 concludes with the hope of a successful monarchy The royal aspirations of Psalm 2 seem to be realized with the confident prayers of Psalm 72 with its hope for shalom justice and blessing The prayers of David end with optimism Psalm 73 opens with an aphorism confessing God s goodness to Israel and the righteous Immediately the mood shifts as the psalmist describes a situation in which injustice rules and the unjust prosper 73 2 14 The psalmist s faith is shaken nearly broken Verse 17 offers a pivotal perspective the sanctuary of God offers a renewed vision God alone is the psalmist s strength 73 26 the perverse will slip and fall 73 18 20 27 and goodness is found in God s presence 73 23 25 28 The brokenness experienced in the prosperity of the wicked Ps 73 2 14 is reflected in the communal laments which describe the despair of exile 74 4 11 79 1 11 80 5 6 12 13 82 8 83 2 8 85 1 5 89 38 51 The individual laments personify the terrors of exile 86 14 88 15 18 The hymnic elements anticipate restoration 75 6 8 10 76 6 10 77 13 14 81 13 16 and renewed life in Zion Pss 84 87 The historical recital seems to conflate national disaster preceding the monarchy with exile 78 56 64 the story of David s triumph seems to anticipate a renewed Zion 78 65 72 Book 3 concludes with recognition that the covenant promised in Psalm 2 has been destroyed 89 39 and with an appeal that God would remember the enemy s taunts 89 50 51 The benediction that concludes the book is uncharacteristically brief Book 4 Pss 90 106 edit Book 4 is the editorial center of the Psalter answering the questions raised in Psalm 89 Has Yahweh abandoned the covenant with Israel Will the exile as an expression of the Lord s wrath last forever Where is the love the Lord promised David The answer to these questions is that Yahweh is King The Lord who has been Israel s refuge for generations Ps 90 1 rules forever Ps 90 2 The prayer for restoration from exile 90 12 17 is ascribed to Moses not David indicating perhaps that the editors of the Psalter recognize that the monarchic experience has ended in failure Waltner 748 True the Lord is refuge shelter fortress Pss 90 92 94 The impact of the canonical editorial arrangement emphasizes even more emphatically that the Lord rules as King Pss 93 95 99 God s rule extends beyond Israel to the nations 96 4 10 99 1 and over the created order itself 93 3 4 95 3 5 96 10 13 97 1 2 98 7 9 God s rule brings holiness 93 5 99 salvation 95 1 96 1 3 98 1 3 judgment 96 10 13 98 9 99 4 vengeance 97 3 7 forgiveness 99 8 Israel responds to God the King with praise Pss 100 101 103 105 petition Pss

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