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  • the Archimedes Palimpsest
    the 29th October 1998 The owner deposited the manuscript at The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore Maryland a few months later Since that date the manuscript has been the subject of conservation imaging and scholarship in order to better read the texts The Archimedes Palimpsest project as it is called has shed new light on Archimedes and revealed new texts from the ancient world These new texts include speeches by an Athenian orator from the fourth century B C called Hyperides and a third century A D commentary on Aristotle s Categories The project which is in its twelfth year has generated a great deal of public curiosity as well as the interest of scholars throughout the world All the raw imaging data as well as transcriptions of the unique texts in the manuscript have been published on the web The definitive account of the project and images and transcriptions of the unique texts in the manuscript have been published by Cambridge University Press and an exhibition about the project Lost and Found The Secrets of Archimedes opens at The Walters Art Museum on October 16 and runs through the end of the year All sorts of information about the

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Links Page the Archimedes Palimpsest
    us at the Exploratorium or online as we watch ancient text revealed and read for the first time in a thousand years Archimedes was one of the world s greatest scientific and mathematical minds His thoughts were inscribed on goatskin parchment but the letters and diagrams were scraped off and written over by Greek monks in the Middle Ages Now using an intense x ray beam generated at Stanford University s linear accelerator some of the original Greek text will be revealed for the first time in the modern world Watch Now Book TV on C Span William Noel Co author The Archimedes Codex In October of 1998 at an auction at Christie s in New York an anonymous American book collector purchased a 13th century prayer book for 2 million dollars The prayer book is a palimpsest a book that was written over older words that had been scrapped off the animal skin or parchment pages In this case the prayer book was written over 10th century manuscript copies of treatises by ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes 287 212BC The anonymous bidder deposited the manuscript with the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore and has funded a 10 year project to read the works under the prayer book Along with discovering lost works by Archimedes other ancient texts previously thought lost have been discovered Watch Now NPR All things Considered A Prayer Book s Secret Archimedes Lies beneath by David Kestenbaum July 27th 2006 Why would anyone pay 2 million for a tattered book of Christian prayers from 1200 A D The anonymous philanthropist who coughed up the sum in 1998 wasn t lured by the holy writings He was after the faint ink beneath mathematical theorems and diagrams from the Greek scholar Archimedes who lived more than 2 000 years ago It s the oldest known copy of his work but the writings were barely legible But now a new restoration technique may make it possible to recover all of Archimedes original text Listen Now PBS NOVA Infinite Secrets The Archimedes Palimpsest September 2003 Science and Nature BBC2 Archimedes Secret March 14 2002 Watch Now The Archimedes Codex the Many Layers of the World s Greatest Palimpsest Reviel Netz Stanford University The Archimedes Palimpsest is a 13th century Greek prayerbook in which just barely visible one can see traces of what it turns out is the oldest surviving evidence for the works of Archimedes Sold in auction 8 years ago for 2 million dollars this unique manuscript has been the subject of an intensive collaborative project involving both scientists and scholars from around the world How did the works of Archimedes get buried so deep What did we find as we uncovered them The talk leads through three major breakthroughs based on UV Light Multispectral Imaging and X Ray Fluorescence revealing Archimedes surprising insight into both finite and infinite methods which ultimately underlie the techniques used in deciphering him Watch Now X rays Reveal Archimedes Secrets Jonathan Fildes BBC News

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/links/ (2016-02-18)
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  • About the Archimedes Palimpsest
    the other treatises had survived through other manuscripts there is no other surviving copy of On Floating Bodies in Greek the language in which Archimedes wrote and there is no version in any language of The Method of Mechanical Theorems and of the Stomachion The Archimedes manuscript was used for the majority of the pages of the prayer book The Archimedes manuscript was written in the second half of the tenth century almost certainly in Constantinople In this short video clip Abigail Quandt Senior Conservator of Manuscripts and Rare Books at The Walters Art Museum turns some pages of the book It might surprise some people that Abigail is not wearing gloves Actually it makes conservation sense Her clean hands do no damage to the parchment and she can be more sensitive to the fragile folios if she is not wearing anything on them Another book they used we now know contained works by the 4th century B C Attic Orator Hyperides Prior to the discovery of the Hyperides text in the manuscript this orator was only known from papyrus fragments and from quotations of his work by other authors The Archimedes Palimpsest however contains 10 folios of Hyperides text Yet further books were used to make up the Palimpsest Fourteen folios come from an otherwise unknown third century commentary on Aristotle s Categories and 20 further folios come from four other books two of which have yet to be identified How Was it Made How does one make one book out of seven The answer is by palimpsesting them The wordPalimpsest comes from the Greek Palimpsestos meaning scraped again Medieval manuscripts were made of parchment especially prepared and scraped animal skin Unlike paper parchment is sufficiently durable that you can take a knife to it and scrape off the

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Google Book of The Archimedes Palimpsest
    manuscripts in the Archimedes Palimpsest before they were erased and written over This is what they look like once our imagers have made the prayer book disappear These are the oldest Google Books in the world and some of them entirely skipped the age of printing going from manuscript to digital image Look out for the diagrams the unique source for what Archimedes drew in the sand in Syracuse all

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/digital/google-book.php (2016-02-18)
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  • November 20 2008 Rescuing the Past Prayer Books Parchment and Multi Spectral Imaging Darwin Lecture Theatre UCL Gower Street London WC1E 6BT 1 15pm University College London Lunch Hour Lectures Chris Carey Please arrive early as places are limited Admittance is on a first come first served basis January 21 22 2009 Pseudo color enhanced x ray fluorescence imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest Uwe Bergmann and Keith Knox Invited talk

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/lectures.html (2016-02-18)
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  • 13th century text hides words of Archimedes
    manuscript and four forged paintings of the Evangelists made in the 20th century covered some of its most important pages That was our worst nightmare said Abigail Quandt senior conservator of rare books and manuscripts at the Walters Art Museum Roger L Easton Jr a 56 year old imaging specialist at the Rochester Institute of Technology had just come off his success revealing hidden text in the Dead Sea Scrolls Christie s had commissioned him to make ultraviolet images of the palimpsest for the auction catalog and now he offered his help to the museum Easton and his colleagues began their work in 2000 They tinkered with different methods for capturing the image with the ultraviolet light which makes the parchment glow more whitish They then merged those images with another set taken under a tungsten light which enhanced the reddish hue of the Archimedes text The resulting pseudocolor image made it easier to distinguish the black prayer book writing from the burnt sienna words of Archimedes Using this painstaking method Easton and his team took two years to uncover another 15 of the text They were stymied in penetrating the rest Two more years passed before Stanford physicist Uwe Bergmann 43 read a magazine article about the Archimedes palimpsest that mentioned it had originally been written with iron gall ink One of Bergmann s projects at Stanford was investigating the process of photosynthesis in plants by using the synchrotron X rays to image small clusters of manganese atoms in spinach Why not find traces of iron in an ancient book he asked Bergmann sent an e mail to the Walters Art Museum and the museum agreed to a test Bergmann set up the palimpsest experiment at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Spread over an area the size of a football field the synchrotron is part of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center a Department of Energy facility set in the foothills of Menlo Park The synchrotron hurls electrons at near light speed forcing them to give off X rays as they veer around bends That X ray beam is channeled away into the laboratories Bergmann figured the powerful and precise beam could be used to make iron molecules fluoresce thus allowing him with a sensitive enough detector to pick up even the faintest traces of ink Bergmann first had to determine the exposure time Too much time and the powerful synchrotron X ray could damage the parchment Then they adjusted the intensity of the beam which could be so strong that it blinded the detectors that picked up the glow from the iron gall ink After two years of refining their technique Bergmann and his colleagues began the laborious process of imaging the palimpsest this summer Each side of a page mounted in frame that moved in front of the beam took 12 hours to record The machines processed the pages continuously for two weeks Beneath a moldy torn painting of St John emerged two layers of writing On the

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/links/news/latimes-1-5-07.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Modern Technology Reveals Ancient Science
    monk palimpsested the parchment he scraped away the Archimedes text cut the pages in half turned them sideways and copied Greek Orthodox prayers onto the recycled pages Adding further injury forgers in the early 20th century painted religious imagery on several pages in an attempt to elevate the manuscript s value The result was the near obliteration of Archimedes work except for the faintest traces of ink still embedded in the parchment In 1998 this unique manuscript was purchased by an anonymous collector at international auction who then entrusted it to the care of The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore Md for conservation and study Using modern imaging techniques that rely on visible and ultraviolet light the faint traces of remaining original ink yielded up most of the hidden text and brought to light stunning discoveries about Archimedes But certain pages resisted even the most intensive attempts at deciphering Paint and stains completely obscured a few remaining parts of the original text making it impossible to read using multispectral imaging It was here that the intense x ray beam produced at SLAC s Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory SSRL proved invaluable The x rays pass right through the grime and paint like a child s magic pen that reveals invisible ink We re getting a vastly better understanding of one of the greatest minds of all times said SSRL scientist Uwe Bergmann We are also showing it is possible to read completely hidden texts in ancient documents without harming them In March of this year experiments at SSRL revealed a previously indecipherable page of Archimedes On Floating Bodies for the first time The same experiments also brought to light the identity of the priest who erased the Archimedes texts His name was Johannes Myronas and he finished transcribing the prayers on

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/links/news/press-release-2006.html (2016-02-18)
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  • A Layered Look Reveals Ancient Greek Texts
    contemporary of Aristotle and Demosthenes he wrote speeches for himself and for others and spoke at important political trials In 322 B C Hyperides was executed by the Macedonians for participating in a failed rebellion It s a spotlight shining on an important moment in history said Mr Herrman currently a fellow at the National Humanities Center in Research Triangle Park N C Until the new leaves were found in the palimpsest most scholars believed only fragments of Hyperides survived beyond the Classical period The mystery of Archimedes treatise on combinatorics the Stomachion was solved in 2003 by deciphering the palimpsest Now W Robert Connor the president of the Teagle Foundation which provides education and financial resources for education called the discovery of new Hyperides text a tour de force of the first order A combination of high tech imagery and old fashioned deciphering sometimes letter by letter was used to resurrect the older text revealing a slice of Athenian history in the days after its devastating defeat by Philip II king of Macedonia and the father of Alexander the Great Mr Connor said The number of times you get a new text is very small Mr Connor a former professor of classics at Princeton said It s like hearing an old violin played at a superb level Cecil Wooten a professor of classics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill who attended a Hyperides presentation by Mr Herrman on Nov 13 called the discovery interesting and significant Although Hyperides is a very important fourth century Greek orator one of the canon of 10 we have very little of his speeches and much of that is fragmentary Professor Wooten said in an e mail message Michael Gargan a professor of Classics at the University of Texas at Austin said Every bit we get is important Mr Gargan a major scholar on ancient Greek law noted that Hyperides wrote many speeches and had a leading reputation in antiquity but only about six of his speeches survive This obviously will contribute a great deal more he said I eagerly await seeing the text In one recently discovered speech Hyperides talks about the number of boats 220 a number not previously clear belonging to the Greek side in the Salamis battle Mr Judson said In another speech after the Battle of Chaeronea he argues that the tragic defeat was the result of chance not bad policy In a political case Hyperides supports the Demosthenes policy that led to the Athenian defeat The camera used at the Walters Art Museum to make images of the writing underneath the medieval script From the left William Christens Barry of Johns Hopkins University and Roger Easton of the Rochester Institute of Technology enter data as Keith Knox of the Boeing Corporation takes computer images For we chose the noblest policy and we believed it necessary to free the Greeks by taking on the risks ourselves just like before Hyperides argues in a passage translated by

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/links/news/nytimes-11-27-06.html (2016-02-18)
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