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  • Bibliography of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    October 1998 William A Christens Barry Johanna R Bernstein and Mark Blackburn Imaging the Third Dimension of the Archimedes Palimpsest Proceedings of IS T PICS Conference Montreal 2001 pp 202 205 2001 Jane L Down Gregory S Young R Scott Williams and Maureen A MacDonald Analysis of the Archimedes Palimpsest in Vincent Daniels Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith eds Works of Art on Paper Books Documents and Photographs The International Institute for Conservation Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2 6 September 2002 London 2002 pp 52 58 Roger L Easton Jr Keith T Knox William A Christens Barry Multispectral imaging of the Archimedes palimpsest In Proceedings of 32nd Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop IEEE AIPR 03 pp 111 116 2003 Roger Easton and William Noel The Multispectral Imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest Gazette du Livre Médiévale 45 2004 pp 39 49 Keith Knox Charles Dickinson Lichao Wei Roger L Easton Jr and Robert Johnston Multispectral Imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest Proceedings of IS T PICS Conference Montreal 2001 pp 206 210 Keith T Knox Roger L Easton Jr Recovery of lost writings on historical manuscripts with ultraviolet illumination In Fifth International Symposium on Multispectral Color Science Part of PICS 2003 Conference Rochester NY pp 301 306 2003 Keith T Knox Roger L Easton Jr and William A Christens Barry Multispectral Imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest 2003 AMOS Conference Maui Hawaii Air Force Maui Optical Supercomputing Site Sept 2003 Keith Knox Enhancement of overwritten text in the Archimedes Palimpsest in Computer Image Analysis in the Study of Art D G Stork and J Coddington San Jose California Proc SPIE vol 6810 2007 Keith T Knox Roger L Easton Jr and William A Christens Barry Image Restoration of Damaged or Erased Manuscripts European Signal Processing Conference Lausanne 2008 J Lowden Forging an Image of Byzantium in A Eastmond L James edd Icon and word the power of images in Byzantium London 2003 pp 233 60 Reviel Netz Ken Saito and Natalie Tchernetska A New Reading of Method Proposition 14 Preliminary Evidence from the Archimedes Palimpsest Part 1 Sciamus 2 2001 pp 9 29 Reviel Netz Ken Saito and Natalie Tchernetska A New Reading of Method Proposition 14 Preliminary Evidence from the Archimedes Palimpsest Part 2 Sciamus 3 2002 pp 109 25 Reviel Netz Fabio Acerbi and Nigel Wilson Towards a Reconstruction of Archimedes Stomachion Sciamus 5 2004 pp 67 99 Reviel Netz Archimedes Translation and Commentary with a Critical Edition of the Diagrams and a Translation of Eutocius commentaries Vol I The Sphere and the Cylinder Cambridge University Press 2004 Reviel Netz Archimedes Translation and Commentary with a Critical Edition of the Diagrams and a Translation of Eutocius commentaries Vol II Advanced Geometrical Works Cambridge University Press forthcoming Reviel Netz Archimedes Translation and Commentary with a Critical Edition of the Diagrams and a Translation of Eutocius commentaries Vol III The Mathematical Physical Works Cambridge University Press forthcoming Reviel Netz Archimedes and Mar Saba a Preliminary Notice The Sabaite Heritage The Sabaite Factor

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/links/bibliography.php (2016-02-18)
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  • The History of the Archimedes Manuscript.
    Lowden of the Courtauld Institute using Ultra violet light managed to decipher a colophon on the bottom of folio 1 verso of the manuscript which contains the date of April 13 1229 This is almost certainly the day upon which the prayerbook was finished It was also just a few weeks after Frederick II Holy Roman Emperor Stupor Mundi released Jerusalem from Muslim control Clearly the political climate was volatile Under such circumstances parchment might have been in very short supply and this would be one reason why the scribe of the prayerbook might have recycled the parchment of earlier manuscripts The manuscript survived as a prayer book from that day until it was catalogued by Papadopoulos Kerameus In 1899 this scholar produced a catalogue of the manuscripts which belonged to the Greek patriarch in Jerusalem but which were housed at the Metochion or daughter house of the Holy Sepulcher in Constantinople The book is Ms 355 in this catalogue One detail that Papadopoulos records and which no longer survives is that the book contained a sixteenth century inscription saying that it belonged to the monastery of St Sabbas Traditionally founded in 483 by St Sabbas this monastery was an intellectual and spiritual center in the Holy Land at an early date It is situated a few miles South of Jerusalem and directly east of Bethlehem on the West Bank The community at Mar Saba had a well organized scriptorium for writing books some of them lavishly illuminated at least into the twelfth century and in 1834 there were more than 1000 manuscripts in the Library The monastery is spectacular and looks as much like a fortress as a house of God a necessity in the troubled times that the community has faced through the centuries A most striking account of the monastery is given by the Rev George Croly who accompanied by the artist David Roberts of the Royal Academy arrived at the Monastery of St Saba on April 4 1839 Croly records The immediate approach to the convent is striking It was night when after having descended into the bed of a ravine where the Kidron passes to the Dead Sea and arriving at the foot of the Mountain of St Saba we saw the convent above us by the uncertain light of the moon It looked a lofty and colossal structure rising in stories and terraces one above another against the sides of the mountain to its summit and there crowned with clouds An old white bearded monk leaning on his staff was toiling up the side of the hill leading a long procession of devotees Below apparently growing out of the rock was a large palm tree said to have been planted by the hands of the Saint in the fourth century History and probably legend contributed its share to the effect In a chapel behind an iron grating in one of the grottos was a pile of skulls The tradition of the convent said they

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/history/index.php (2016-02-18)
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  • The History of Archimedes
    Read the Story King Hiero had commissioned a new royal crown for which he provided solid gold to the goldsmith When the crown arrived King Hiero was suspicious that the goldsmith only used some of the gold kept the rest for himself and added silver to make the crown the correct weight Archimedes was asked to determine whether or not the crown was pure gold without harming it in the process Archimedes was perplexed but found inspiration while taking a bath He noticed that the full bath overflowed when he lowered himself into it and suddenly realized that he could measure the crown s volume by the amount of water it displaced He knew that since he could measure the crown s volume all he had to do was discover its weight in order to calculate its density and hence its purity Archimedes was so exuberant about his discovery that he ran down the streets of Syracuse naked shouting Eureka which meant I ve found it in Greek Archimedes and the Defense of Syracuse During Archimedes lifetime Sicily was a hotspot for both geological and political events The volcanic Mount Etna loomed threateningly over the island while on all sides the titanic Punic Wars raged between Rome and Carthage Situated strategically between the two great powers Sicily naturally became an object of contention Self preservation demanded that the kings of Syracuse negotiate with the great powers and as a result the small city state often found itself allied with one against the other Such was the case in 214 BC when pro Carthaginian factions within the city chose to side with Carthage against Rome Shortly thereafter legions of the Roman army sailed to Syracuse and laid siege to the city walls King Hiero II had anticipated such an eventuality Before his death in 216 BC Hiero set Archimedes to work strengthening the walls of Syracuse and modifying its great stronghold the Euryelos fortress Archimedes also constructed war machines to defend Syracuse When the Romans arrived under the command of the famed general Marcellus Archimedes was prepared The Roman historian Polybius relates that Archimedes now made such extensive preparations both within the city and also to guard against an attack from the sea that there would be no chance of the defenders being employed in meeting emergencies but that every move of the enemy could be replied to instantly by a counter move huge beams were suddenly projected at the Roman ships from the walls which sank some of them with great weights plunging down from on high others were seized at the prow by iron claws drawn straight up into the air and then plunged stern foremost into the depths with great destruction of the fighting men on board who perished in the wrecks in reality all the rest of the Syracusans were but a body for the designs of Archimedes and his the one soul moving and managing everything for all other weapons laid idle and his alone were

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/history/archimedes.php (2016-02-18)
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  • The Conservation of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    to remove This has been the principal challenge and the main reason why the disbinding of the manuscript has taken such a long time Once separated the leaves had to be prepared for imaging One of the first tasks was to discover the chemical in the parchment and to discover how stable or unstable the manuscript actually was This work was undertaken by the Canadian Conservation Institute which has provided expert advice throughout the project Here you see a core sample the size of a pinhead taken through the manuscript You can see the Archimedes text is nothing more than a stain at the top of the parchment The parchment itself is made up of collagen The collagen here is reasonably sound However in moldy areas it is disintegrating Abigail Quandt s work on the Archimedes Palimpsest is ongoing Here you can see here working on one of the separated leaves Here are some of the procedures that Quandt undertook on the leaves illustrated with snapshots Documenting the condition of the individual leaves Quandt draws maps of each leaf noting where there are problems be they mold wax glue or modern residues such as blue tack and paper Mechanically removing the dirty wax from the parchment The manuscript had been used for several hundred years as a prayer book and it was used by candlelight Large areas were covered in wax and it was necessary to remove the wax that obscured the under text Unfolding damaged areas to reveal text Pages of the manuscript were particularly fragile at the margins an in the gutter of the prayer book Sometimes the parchment needed to be carefully unfolded to reveal areas that were subsequently imaged In the illustration below Ms Quandt works on a small damaged area in the gutter You see

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/conservation.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    by your skin and is energetic enough to damage it That is how you get sunburn Electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter in different ways depending upon its wavelength It is quite possible that something which is invisible in RGB light will be visible to a camera anyway in Infra red light Multispectral Imaging Multispectral imaging is a digital imaging technique Numerous photographs of an area are taken at different wavelengths of light resulting in a digital stack of images Algorithms recipes if you like are then written in order to enhance particular characteristics of the imaged area In the case of the Palimpsest obviously we wanted to bring out the under text The immediate results appear to be spectacular Above is an image of folio f 70v The imagers succeeded in separating the spectral signature of the Archimedes ink from the parchment underneath it and that of the prayer book on top of it To bring out the Archimedes text even more they then made the prayer book ink look like the parchment Below one can clearly see areas of text and diagrams that are invisible or at least extremely hard to discern under RGB light Despite the extraordinary appearance of these pictures and the potential that they show for these advanced imaging techniques the scholars were dissatisfied with the results The images appeared blurry They were not out of focus but rather it proved difficult to register the images accurately To take images in different wavelengths of light different filters have to be placed in front of the lens of the camera Unfortunately the lens affected the path of the light and altered the size of the image When one image was combined with another they did not line up correctly This is not a problem when one is

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/imaging/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Scholarship from the Archimedes Palimpsest Project
    the Archimedes Palimpsest however was that the manuscript contained other erased texts from the ancient world texts that were not by Archimedes at all In 2002 Natalie Tchernetska identified lost speeches by an Attic orator called Hyperides Hyperides was a contemporary of Demosthenes and was one of the ten canonical orators of antiquity However it was thought that unlike Demosthenes the scrolls that contained Hyperides speeches were never copied into manuscript books and that therefore his speeches were unknown in the Middle Ages In fact the only direct speeches we had of Hyperides until the year 2000 were papyrus scrolls discovered in thebes in Egypt in the nineteenth century So it was extraordinary that Natalie found a Hyperides manuscript in the Archimedes palimpsest It took several years to transcribe the text and scholars from all over the world helped in its decipherment But the Palimpsest had yet to reveal all its secrets In 2005 Nigel Wilson and Reviel Netz began to decipher yet another text in the manuscript This turned out to be a second or third century AD Commentary on Aristotle s Categories In conjunction with the exhibition of the Archimedes Palimpsest which opened at The Walters Art Museum

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/scholarship/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Project Management of The Archimedes Palimpsest Project
    techniques and disciplines available in the conservation scientific and academic communities to use advanced imaging techniques developed for the study of earth and space Advanced Imaging Magazine awarded the Archimedes Palimpsest Program the 2003 Imaging Solution of the Year award for its innovation and technical expertise with electronic imaging technology solutions When he first started to plan the Archimedes Palimpsest Program Dr William Noel the Archimedes Palimpsest Curator found he had to rapidly form a management team to assess the best path forward for the efficient digital collection of Archimedes work As the Program Director supported by Program Manager Michael B Toth and Conservator Abigail Quandt he developed a plan with performance goals that could be accomplished within cost and on schedule They based their plan on the input from virtual and real teams of scholars and museum professionals who defined their needs working closely with the imaging scientists under the leadership of the project management team This process resulted in the users clearly defining the needed system capabilities and technological needs as opposed to having the system defined by the available technology and the professionals who work with the technology The user needs were defined simultaneously with the development and integration of the appropriate imaging technology through a multi phased program These included phases for Scientific Study and Experimental research Development of Prototype Systems Testing and Review Systems Integration Full Operational Capability During these phases the imaging team worked on the research development and integration of a range of advanced technical capabilities to reveal the underlying original writings of Archimedes Research into a variety of promising imaging technologies identified the technical capabilities most appropriate for this project and how they could be best used Based on research and study supported by the Archimedes Program integrated technical capabilities were developed to collect all the required imagery store the digital information and display the available information for academic researchers The Archimedes team rapidly realized the following key capabilities needed to be developed to support the Archimedes Palimpsest Program Data and Image Collection Data and Image Processing Data Validation and Storage Information Access Academic Analysis and Study With so much data to be collected processed stored and retrieved the success of the Archimedes Program was dependent on the integration of ever growing amounts of data from multiple sources Early in the program Mike Toth with the assistance of Bob Toth and Bill Christens Berry developed the Archimedes Palimpsest Metadata Standard to facilitate online access and further study of Archimedes data in library and museum digital collections This standard utilized existing remote sensing multispectral and geospatial information standards in particular Dublin Core and the Federal Geographic Data Committee Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata FGDC STD 001 1998 link As with any technical research and development effort this program required taking risks in a number of areas To ensure project success the program management team also constantly identified and managed various risk areas The challenge of retrieving all available information from the digital

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/management/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Introduction to the Archimedes Image Bank
    do this we had to break new ground The digital version that we have created has some advantages over the manuscript It is freely available on desktops around the world it is far easier to read the under texts in some of these images than it is in the manuscript itself and in case you have difficulty we have provided authoritative transcriptions of the Archimedes texts that are spatially mapped onto the images It has some disadvantages compared to the manuscript At least for most humanists the presentation of the data is less self evident that the presentation of data in a book Users of this data set are strongly urged to read the accompanying documentation carefully We have tried hard to be as clear as we can The primary architect of the documents and the metadata guy on this project is Doug Emery One of our goals in the presentation of the data has been to ensure its long term survival We have as far as possible conformed to best practices adhered to existing standards and avoided using proprietary software We have documented these standards in the dataset Here Emery explains his role in the project and his goal for the documentation for the material It is important to make clear what this digital product is not It does not come with a GUI Graphic User Interface and this means that it is unwieldy to use Our thinking behind this is that GUI s come and go and our mission at this stage in the project is to provide a permanent document The digital product is therefore not so much a publication as an archive We do however invite and encourage any interested parties to apply whatever software they like to create further images based on our data set

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/digital/ (2016-02-18)
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