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  • Documentation of the Archimedes Palimpsest Metadata Standard
    devices or the web the Metadata Standard in PDF format the Metadata Standard in Microsoft Word format the Metadata Standard in text format updated 7 24 06 Contact us with comments Archimedes Palimpsest Transcription Annotations Metadata Standard The annotations of the Archimedes Palimpsest transcriptions must also meet similar metadata standards as the images to allow for the spatial integration of the transcriptions with the images This current draft of the Transcription Annotations Metadata Standard is being used for the Alpha data and will be revised based on lessons learned from this proof of concept Transcription Annotations Metadata Standard in PDF format Transcription Annotations Metadata Standard in Microsoft Word format Transcription Metadata Standard in text format updated 7 24 06 Contact us with comments Archimedes Palimpsest Metadata Standard XRF Extensions The X Ray Florescence XRF imaging studies of the Archimedes Palimpsest required a unique set of metadata extensions to capture the new data elements for different imaging techniques energy levels and data formats The XRF imaging team refined their list of additional metadata elements in a dynamic process over the course of around the clock imaging sessions This data element set was refined and reviewed by the XRF team to produce the current draft of the Archimedes Palimpsest Metadata Standard XRF Extensions XRF Extensions in PDF format XRF Extensions in Microsoft Word format Final draft of the Metadata Standard XRF Extensions updated 7 24 06 Contact us with comments Archimedes Palimpsest Images Data Sheet Six years of imaging has yielded large amounts of imaging data on the Archimedes Palimpsest in addition to conservation data For details on the size of the Archimedes images and the total data set please click here to see the data sheet Additional information on the data metadata and standards will be added at a later date

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/digital/documentation.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Eureka! The Story of Archimedes' Greatest Discovery
    The Archimedes Palimpsest Palimpsest Exhibition Digital Community Links Previous NEXT

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/images/kaltoon/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Capturing Images of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    the leaf traveled underneath the camera Only members of the conservation staff were permitted to handle the leaves The various images of sections of each leaf were then stitched together to form images of entire pages Instead of using filters the imagers simply used different light sources ultraviolet Tungsten and Strobe There are nearly 90 leaves of the Archimedes Palimpsest which need to be imaged back and front in three different wavebands of light That makes about 5 400 raw images The specifics of each image had to be recorded for metadata In practice Roger Easton was at the computer in charge of the camera and the movements of the XY stage Keith Knox managed the lights and Bill Christens Barry kept the log It was a pretty basic system but it worked Experiments While the imagers created images that scholars deemed adequate they also experimented in order to improve performance Bill Christens Barry developed a system of collecting images taken in narrow bands of light using light emitting diodes In an early version this system worked in conjunction with the XY stage built by Roger Easton This necessitated capturing a very much larger number of images The imagers also tried imaging in transmissive light and raking light Here are some pictures of this system at work Final Imaging Session The final Imaging Session took place in August 2007 Bill Keith and Roger collaborated with Stokes Imaging of Austin Texas The Stokes capture station was used in conjunction with a Sinar camera It was adapted to our purposes and Bill Christens Barry designed LED panels for the illumination Each leaf was imaged in twelve different wavelengths of light from ultraviolet through infrared Such was the resolution of the camera that we could image entire leaves and still maintain a resolution

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/imaging/capture.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Image Processing of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    it is extremely helpful in the case of the Archimedes Palimpsest These days however it is possible to post process images to bring out more of what you want than is possible simply through image capture And of course it is possible to use information from more than one image to do this Keith Knox explains This pseudo color technique that Keith developed is extremely useful It is clever but it is not complicated and it works well over the entire palimpsest It is extremely powerful and has been used to great effect Here are a few examples before after These are before and after images of a detail of the leaf 105 110 of the Archimedes Palimpsest The pseudo color allowed Reviel Netz Nigel Wilson Ken Saito and Natalie Tchernetska to read Archimedes Method Proposition 14 as never before and come to a new understanding of Archimedes conception of infinity before after These are before and after images of a detail of the leaf 172 177 of the Archimedes Palimpsest The pseudo color allowed Reviel Netz Nigel Wilson and Fabio Acerbi to read Archimedes Stomachion as never before and come to a new understanding of th role of Archimedes in the development of combinatorics in the mathematical tradition before after These are before and after images of a detail of the leaf 135 138 of the Archimedes Palimpsest Pseudo color images like this allowed Natalie Tchernetska to discover five leaves in the Palimpsest that do not contain writing by Archimedes at all but rather otherwise unknown speeches by Hyperides one of the ten canonical orators of antiquity Keith Knox s pseudo color post processing technique is but one of the ways in which the images can be processed The imaging team also processed the same set of images to

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/imaging/processing.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Optical Character Recognition of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    human face the thought is that it should be possible to achieve a similar result with the limited range and very particular shapes of the Byzantine script that was employed by the scribe of the Archimedes text It also significantly helps that only one scribe wrote the Archimedes text and that he had a very regular hand that is his letter shapes are consistent The limits of optical character recognition by computer are well understood the best that a computer can come up with are probabilities that a certain shape is a particular Greek character These probabilities can be narrowed down both by looking at the spatial characteristics of a character and then by considering the likelihood that this character would be preceded or would be followed by a particular identified letter The results will facilitate scholars by presenting them with a range of possibilities from which they might choose The optical character recognition has two distinct advantages Firstly compared to the advanced imaging techniques that are being employed it is inexpensive Secondly the character recognition is not based upon the manuscript itself but upon the best available images of the manuscript Therefore this investigation does not rely on access

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/imaging/optical-character-recognition.php (2016-02-18)
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  • X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest
    contrast Some of the X rays that do not pass through the leaves excite individual atoms in the palimpsest which would then generate their own secondary X rays The crucial thing about these so called fluorescence X rays is the fact that different elements generate X rays with different wavelengths A fluorescence X ray sent out from an iron atom is different from an X ray sent out by a calcium atom or an atom of gold These fluorescence X rays could then be detected with a device that can recognize these different X rays The idea is simple by mapping these X rays we could create element maps of individual pages of the Palimpsest The imaging scientists who worked on this aspect of the project were Gene Hall Professor of Chemistry at Rutgers University Uwe Bergmann Staff Scientists at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and Bob Morton of the Children of the Middle Waters Gene Hall Uwe Bergmann Bob Morton Initial experiments were conducted by Gene Hall at Rutgers University using an X ray microfluorescence system provided by the EDAX Corporation an EDAX Eagle Probe in his lab He presented his initial results in April 2004 Following the conference it was decided to do further imaging with an EDAX Eagle probe The EDAX firm a subsidiary of Ametek were extremely generous in providing their facilities in New Jersey for five days of intensive research by Bob Morton and Gene Hall They were greatly helped in their efforts by Tara Nylese and Bruce Scruggs of EDAX inc Tara Nylese Notable Results A regular image of a small section of the Archimedes Palimpsest You can see the Archimedes text clearly but faintly underneath the prayerbook text A pseudocolor image of the same area in which the Archimedes text appears in red An X ray fluorescence image which shows all the iron in this area This is what we had hoped to see because it brings out the texts on the page and we knew that the ink had a large concentration of iron This is a gray scale version of the figure above because it is easier to see differences in intensity in a gray image Note that the X ray image measures not the surface of the page but the intensity of the iron signal on a particular part of the parchment Thus when the Archimedes text overlaps the prayerbook text the iron signal becomes particularly intense This is the first time that scholars could make out the shape of the Archimedes letters underneath the letters of the prayerbook text An X ray fluorescence image which shows all the potassium in this area As you can see there is a much greater concentration of potassium in the prayerbook text than there is in the Archimedes text It is still hoped that through post processing of these images and by combining the information provided by the iron and the potassium we might be able to reveal the entire Archimedes text stripped

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/imaging/xray-flourescence.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Overview: The Importance of the Palimpsest to the Study of Archimedes By Reviel Netz of Stanford University
    of the Circle together with Codex B it has a text of Floating Bodies While it is of course especially exciting to discover totally fresh works that are unattested elsewhere there is great value in having more than a single source for a given work by the comparison between the two copies our reconstruction of the original text can be made more precise Thus The 1906 Discovery substantially furthered the precise establishment of the original text of Archimedes Further The Palimpsest did contain fresh unattested works the Method as well as in fragmentary form the Stomachion Indeed many think of the Method as Archimedes most interesting work A special romantic aspect of this discovery lies in Archimedes statement which however should be taken with a grain of salt that the Method contains what was in some sense his method of discovery In other words The 1906 Discovery appeared to provide a glimpse into the hidden process leading to Archimedes Eureka moments Finally while the extant Latin translation of Floating Bodies is very precise we could never know that this was indeed the case prior to the discovery of The Archimedes Palimpsest The Archimedes Palimpsest thus settled the text of Floating Bodies and it is only thanks to The 1906 Discovery that we can have the original formulation in the Greek of this treatise by Archimedes The 1998 Discovery is important for at least five reasons First because it is there To do any work on an ancient author one needs to know that all the evidence is available The state of affairs following the disappearance of the Palimpsest in the 20th century was especially uncomfortable we knew that a major source of evidence was proably extant we knew that it was edited partly and we knew that it was no longer accessible And so for every statement one made concerning Archimedes this worry returned who knows perhaps a close reading of the relevant passage of the Palimpsest could refute us This state of affairs impeded all study of Archimedes and so of ancient science in general Second we now find that there are many corrections numbering in the hundreds if not thousands to the text as printed by Heiberg Perhaps the majority of these are small errors undetected by Heiberg made by the Byzantine scribe These then do not change the text of Archimedes himself In a good number of cases however such corrections add detail to the text of Archimedes Sometimes such details are of great historical value To take a single example in Heiberg s text Eudoxus was the first to discover a certain proof we know now the text has Eudoxus as the first to publish it All of those details are important for our understanding of the mind of Archimedes at work Third while Heiberg had full access to the diagrams in the Palimpsest he did not comment on them or publish them Had it not been for The 1998 Discovery then the diagrams would have

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/scholarship/archimedes-manuscript.php (2016-02-18)
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  • The Diagrams as Floating BodiesBy Reviel Netz of Stanford University
    raise the suspicion that medieval scribes have ignored the diagrams present in their originals and have instead simply drawn their own diagrams In fact this is somewhat shockingly how modern editors and translators have systematically proceeded That is Heiberg not only did not attempt to draw his diagrams based on manuscript authority but also he did not report how the diagrams in his manuscripts look like While his edition from 1915 furnishes us with important information concerning the text contained in the Palimpsest we had no information at all concerning the diagrams contained in the Palimpsest prior to the resurfacing of the manuscript in 1998 However medieval scribes were not like that For all the treatises preserved both in the Palimpsest as well as in the remaining manuscript traditions we can see that the diagrams are in fact very closely allied They share DNA The medieval scribes did not re invent their diagrams but instead copied them as best as they could from their sources The reason for this is in fact not hard to come by medieval scribes unlike modern editors such as Heiberg did not understand any mathematics and certainly did not follow the contents of Archimedes text for which the best evidence are the great many errors concerning labeling of figures in both text and diagrams To the ignorant there is safety in faithfulness The medieval scribe could not re work Archimedes instead he has copied him We should be grateful for that The one major exception appears to have been William of Moerbeke His Latin translation of the works of Archimedes dating from 1269 is the most significant effort by any Medieval European author to have come to terms with the science of Archimedes Moerbeke did not always succeed some of his translation betrays elementary errors

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/about/scholarship/floating-bodies.php (2016-02-18)
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