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  • NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN TEXT 1 6 Other Contributor s Other contributors to the content of the resource or data study CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN TEXT 1 7 Resource Type Type of data set based on the content of the data CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN Image Annotation 1 8 Source Lineage information about the events parameters and source data that constructed the data set and information about the responsible parties CORE YES TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 1 9 Rights Management Information about rights held in or over the resource CORE YES TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 2 Spatial Data Reference Information or Coverage the spatial extent or scope of the data set 2 1 Coordinate Units unit type used in quantitative spatial metadata CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN pixel centimeters millimeters micrometer 2 2 X Resolution number of resolution elements per coordinate unit in the x direction CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN REAL NUMBER 2 3 Y Resolution number of resolution elements per coordinate unit in the y direction CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN REAL NUMBER 2 4 Upper Left XY Coordinates upper left coordinate of the limit of imaging expressed in resolution units CORE YES TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN x n and y n 2 5 Lower Right XY Coordinates lower right coordinate of the limit of imaging expressed in resolution units CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN x n and y n 2 6 Bounding Coordinates the limits of coverage of the complete data set for the entire sample expressed by Cartesian coordinate values assigned by the x y table software in the order upper left lower right CORE YES TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN REAL NUMBER 2 7 Bounding Coordinates the limits of coverage of the complete data set of the entire sample expressed by Cartesian coordinate values assigned by the x y table software in the order upper left lower right CORE YES TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 2 8 Grid Coordinate System Orientation of and definition of Cartesian coordinate so that spatial positions can be readily transformed to and from plane coordinates CORE YES TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 2 9 Vertical Coordinate System Definition the reference frame or system from which vertical distances altitudes or depths are measured CORE NO TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 2 10 X Positional Accuracy an estimate of accuracy of the horizontal positions of the spatial objects CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN REAL NUMBER 2 11 Y Positional Accuracy an estimate of accuracy of the horizontal positions of the spatial objects CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN REAL NUMBER 2 12 Vertical Positional Accuracy an estimate of accuracy of the vertical positions in the data set CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN REAL NUMBER 3 NOT USED 4 Data Type Information 4 1 Data File TYPE File type of the data file CORE YES TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN Unicode Unicode Character Encoding Standards ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange 4 2 Format Version Number Version number of the data file format CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN TEXT

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/pdf/Transcription%20Metadata%20Standard.txt (2016-02-18)
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  • 3 Tube Current Strength of current applied to the X Ray source expressed in 6 8 1 in amperage CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 4 Source Bandwidth Bandwidth of the X Ray beam in Bremstrahlung or Delta eV CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 5 Source Intensity Strength of the X ray beam on the Reference Specimen in Photon Count CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 6 Scan Matrix Dimensions X by Y The horizontal and vertical scan distance expressed in millimeters CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 7 Beam Dimension The diameter of the X Ray beam in microns CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 8 Beam Scan Line Spacing The vertical distance between each line of the scan in microns CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 9 Scanning Mode The method used to move the scan across the specimen CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN Step Continuous Mono directional or Bi directional 6 8 10 Scanning Speed The speed of the scan across the specimen in motor steps per second CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 10 1 Steps per millimeter The number of motor steps per millimeter CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 10 2 Pixel Acquisition Time The dwell time of the X Ray Beam in milliseconds CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 10 3 Time for Scan Length of time for the scan in hours and minutes CORE NO TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 6 8 11 Beam Distance from Specimen Space between specimen and the beam source measured in millimeters CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 12 Beam Angle to Specimen The angle of the object to the beam in degrees going counterclockwise starting at the beam looking down or right hand rule thumb up CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 13 Lens Type The type of lens used to focus the X ray beam CORE NO TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN Polycapillary or Monochromator 6 8 14 Primary Beam Filter Filter material or type between the X Ray Beam and the object CORE NO TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 6 8 15 Detectors Number of XRF detectors CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn 6 8 15 1 Detector Identification Name of the XRF detector in the collection system CORE NO TYPE COMPOUND DOMAIN TEXT 6 8 15 2 Longitude The angle of the detector horizontally around the object in degrees going counterclockwise starting at the beam looking down or right hand rule thumb up see Fig 1 CORE NO TYPE SINGLE DOMAIN nn Figure 1 See diagram in pdf document at URL pdf archimedes metadatatranscription pdf 6 8 15 3 Latitude The angle of the detector vertically around the object in degrees going down in a clockwise direction starting at the beam looking from the left of the beam or right hand rule thumb toward X Ray source see Fig 2 CORE NO TYPE SINGLE

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/pdf/Metadata%20Standard%20XRF%20Extensions%20Final%20Draft.txt (2016-02-18)
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  • Optical Image Collection from the Archimedes Palimpsest Project
    24 90 Phase II 1A April 2001 6 1 25 40 Phase II 1B November 2001 12 0 35 00 Phase II 2A June 2002 20 0 28 80 Phase II 2B January 2003 14 5 35 50 Phase II 3A November 2003 12 8 37 50 Phase II 3B November 2004 32 9 35 40 Phase II 4A June 2006 est 7 0 28 00 production digital imaging Heiberg

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/links/news/datasheet.php (2016-02-18)
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  • image contains a 512 x 512 plot with an 8 pixel border on the left and an 8 scanline border on the bottom If any of the four flags red green blue or key black are present then only those present are drawn on the plot Otherwise all four are drawn The key plot contains the histogram of either the luminance of a color image or the histogram of a monochrome image The default is to draw lines between the points in the histogram If the solid flag is present then only the points are drawn metadata add metadata to the image file header usage metadata i input o output replace tag string append tag string xres num denom yres num denom This module will change the metadata in the TIFF tags in the header Unlike the other modules the actual command executed by this module is not stored in the header If the replace flag is present then the the TIFF tag in the header is replaced with the accompanying string The recognized tags are DocumentName ImageDescription Make Model PageName Software DateTime Artist HostComputer Copyright If the append flag is present then the string is appended to any existing strings associated with the tag in the header In accordance with the TIFF 6 0 standard each string ends with a zero character i e a byte of value 0 If two strings are appended together then each still ends with a zero byte If the xres or yres flags are present then the resolution parameters are set in the TIFF header The resolution value set is given by the ratio num denom normalize locally adjust contrast and brightness usage normalize i input o output w width strobe tungsten ultraviolet The contrast and brightness of each color channel are adjusted locally over a square region specified by the w flag The variance and mean are measured within the window centered around the pixel being adjusted and the pixel is scaled so that the mean value goes to 128 and black to white covers 6 sigma If the ultraviolet flag is present then the green channel is substituted for the red channel and the blue channel is made brighter by the value of one standard deviation The strobe and tungsten flags are unused at this time The output image is always 8 bits sample and it will have the same samples pixel as the input image packimage convert image to 8 bits sample unsigned integer usage packimage i input o output minmax min max sigma width w luminance verbose This module converts an image to 8 bits sample from 16 or 32 by stretching the contrast based on the range of input pixel values The purpose is to move the image information into a visible range If the minmax flag is present the min and max values are used to linearly stretch the image Any value at or below min is made black and any value at or above max is made white If the sigma flag is present the standard deviation and mean of the whole image are calculated and the image values are stretched so that the mean is at 128 and black and white are 6 standard deviations apart If the width flag is present then black and white are 2 w standard deviations apart If neither the minmax nor the sigma flag is specified then the image is linearly stretched from the actually minimum and maximum of the image The minimum and maximum are the endpoints of all the image samples If the luminance flag is present then the stretch parameters min and max or variance and mean are calculated from the luminance 3R 6G 1B and applied equally to all channels If the verbose flag is present then the statistics of the image are written to stderr pseudocolor combine two images together into one pseudocolor image usage pseudocolor u UV v tungsten strobe o output w width cv channel cu channel There are two input images an ultraviolet image specified by the u flag and a visible image specified by the v flag A single color channel from each file is normalized then combined together into a pseudocolor file The red channel of the pseudocolor image is taken from the visible file The green and blue channels of the pseudocolor image are the same and are taken from the ultraviolet image A spatially local normalization of contrast and brightness is performed on each color channel This is the same normalization performed in the normalize module The w flag specifies the size of the square region over which the normalization is performed around each pixel By default the red channel of the visible image and the blue channel of the ultraviolet channel are used to make the pseudocolor image If the cu flag is present a different channel for the ultraviolet image can be specified where 0 is red 1 is green and 2 is blue If the cv flag is present the channel of the visible image can be specified pushbutton display the difference between two images usage pushbutton u UV v tungsten strobe o output w width statistics redmin redmax bluemin bluemax pseudocolor normalized The same two input images for the pseudocolor module are used in the pushbutton module The same two channels are used also The difference is that the pushbutton module produces a monochrome image that shows the difference between the two images The statistics flag specifies the min and max points in the red and blue channels to be used to linearly stretch the two channels before subtracting This flag must be present to produce the normal monochrome pushbutton image If the pseudocolor flag is present then the two channels are not subtracted but are put into the channels of a pseudocolor image on the output The only difference between this pseudocolor output and the image produced by the pseudocolor module is that this output has a global adjustment of the contrast while the pseudocolor module does a local adjustment over a sliding window The statistics flag must be specified for this to complete If the normalize flag is present then a local adjustment of the contrast and brightness is made over the two channels rather than the global adjustment The output image is then the difference between the two channels This mode does not use any information that may be specified with the statistics flag readtif read a TIFF file and convert to the form used in Archie usage readtif i input o output f win x y w h d directory verbose The input filename argument is required The input file cannot be read from standard in If the first argument is the input filename the i flag is not required Readtif can read TIFF files in which the scanlines and metadata are not separated or contiguous so it must read from the file directly If the d flag is present an alternate image directory can be specified The first default directory is 0 The verbose flag causes the TIFF tag information to be printed to stderr A rectangular window of the input image can be specified to limit the content of the output image rect blur the input image with a rect function usage rect side width height The input image is blurred with a rectangularly shaped filter that has a constant value and a unit area The calculation is done in a fast averaging method in which the computation is a constant and is not a function of the size of the blur window The size of the rectangular window is specified with the side flag This specification is required however if it is the first flag the side flag is not required If there is only one argument to the side flag then it is the width and the height of the window If two arguments are present then the second argument is the height rotate rotate the image in 90 degree increments usage rotate i input o output angle theta The angle flag is a required argument The parameter theta must be a multiple of 90 degrees and may be positive or negative A positive angle of rotation is in the counter clockwise direction This module may be extended to arbitrary angles in the future scale magnify or reduce the size of an image usage scale i input o output a f x y The image is increased or decreased in size by a nearest neighbor scaling i e the closest pixel to scaled position is used The scale factor is specified with the f flag It may be either integer or floating point Only one parameter is expected to follow the flag and both directions are scaled by the same factor The af flag specifies anamorphic scaling where the scale factors in x and y are different This flag has two parameters following it statistics compute the variance and mean of the input image usage statistics The complete input image is read and the standard deviation mean max and min values of the image are computed and written to standard out 5 0 Compiling the Software The software source code is packaged in a tar file archie 1 0 tar The source code can be extracted with the following command tar xvf archie 1 0 tar The extracted files will create the Archie release directory which has the following structure The cshell command file make release will compile the Archie 1 0 software and place the compiled results in the bin directory Each individual module has it own directory under src that contains the source code and a Makefile to compile it 5 1 Make release The code is compiled by executing the command file make release This will clean up old versions and compile the complete package in the proper order The first operation is to change into each individual src directory and clean any previously compiled code This is accomplished by executing the command make clean to remove all previous o file and the compiled executable code The second operation is to compile the library routines The library routines are compiled and the library libarchie a is constructed and copied to the lib directory where it can be referenced by the individual modules The third operation is to change to each individual directory and compile the individual module The Makefile refers to the released library two levels higher in the directory structure The compiled executable code is copied to the bin directory two levels higher For later changes to individual modules the code can be recompiled by simply executing the command make while in the individual source directory If a change is made to the library then all of the source code needs to be recompiled 6 0 Writing a Software Module The requirements of a software module are to read command line arguments read any input image headers resolve any conflicts and halt execution if necessary write the new header reflecting changes to be made to the image stream the image data through the module make the changes to the image data as it travels through These requirements are met with the following software structure The main procedure defines the basic order of processing the command line the headers and finally the data This procedure should be the same for all modules The getargs procedure defines the command line arguments that this module will recognize and calls any errors in the command line arguments The processhandle procedure checks the characteristics of the input images against the user requests in the command line and raises any conflicts or final errors that it finds Finally now that everything checks out the processdata procedure actually executes the processing to be done on the input images A record of changes made to this module is kept in comments at the end of the file 6 1 Command Line Arguments The command line arguments are read in the procedure getargs An example of this procedure taken from the rotate module is shown on the next page This section explains that example procedure in detail and shows how it is constructed The module rotate has three flags that it recognizes in out and angle At the beginning of the procedure it loops over all of the arguments starting with argument 1 Argument 0 is just the name of the program that was called The loop checks each argument to see if it begins with i o or a It only checks the first two letters because there is no ambiguity in these flags after two letters If it finds one of these flags it sets the parameter isflag to a defined constant value that identifies the flag and the number of expected arguments For example if the angle flag is encountered then isflag is set to the defined constant ANGLE which is equal to 3 256 1 The number multiplying 256 is an arbitrary value to identify the flag The trailing 1 is the number of arguments that this flag expects to be following it If this is not a flag and this is the first argument then it is assumed to be the input image file name and the local variables are set as if the rest of the loop had been completed Once it has checked for flags the variable isflag is set to zero or to a non zero value The loop branches into two paths depending on whether this argument was or was not a flag If this argument is a flag then first the variable outstanding is checked to see if there are any outstanding arguments still being expected by a previous flag If so an error is called If not then the variable outstanding is set to the number of expected arguments for this flag that was stored in the lower byte of defined constant in this example 1 We now loop to check the second argument First a test to see if it is a flag If the test shows that it is not it last checks if this is the first argument Since it is not it goes on to the test of the variable isflag It is not a flag so it branches into the section that deals with following arguments Which flag is expecting this argument is stored in the variable flag A check is made and the appropriate action is taken For the case of an input or output image file name the argument is stored in the appropriate global variable For the case of the angle argument the argument is scanned for a floating point value and stored in the angle global variable Once all the arguments have been checked it drops out of the loop and looks to see if all the arguments are present If no angle has been specified or if an angle that this module cannot handle has been specified an error is called The input and output file names are checked If they are set then the appropriate files are opened If they are not set then either standard in or standard out is specified for I O Last a library routine is called to automatically record the command line in the header 6 2 Input and Output Handles The header information is stored in a structure called a handle The calls to read and write a handle are made in the main procedure In between reading the input handle and writing the output handle the output handle needs to be constructed and any conflicts need to be resolved On the right is the handle structure that is made available to the programmer The procedure gethandle that is executed in main returns this structure In this structure is stored the information about the width and height of the image the interpretation of the pixel data whether or not there is a soft matte present and the resolution of the image If any values in the input structure are changed it has no effect on the image or the processing On the other hand an output structure can be created by duplicating an existing structure or by creating a new structure These values can be changed up until the time the structure is written on the output using the procedure puthandle The output structure is created in the procedure processhandle An example of this procedure from the crop module is shown on the next page The processhandle procedure has two tasks to resolve any conflicts between the command line requests and the characteristics of the input image and to create the output handle First the procedure get the information about the image from the input handle that was read with gethandle in main The only concern that crop has is to make sure that the number of bits sample is either 1 or a multiple of 8 An error is called if that is not the case Next it checks the window that was specified by the user in the command line arguments and makes sure that the window does not lie outside the image calling an error if it does Lastly it creates an output handle by duplicating the input handle and setting the width and height parameters of the output image handle structure to the width and height of the window that was specified The new values in the output structure do not take effect until the output handle is written to the output using the procedure puthandle 6 3 Reading and Writing Scanlines An example of how to stream image data taken from the crop module is shown on the next page This module does very simple processing since it does not need to understand the data it only needs to limit its size At the beginning of the processdata procedure input and output buffers are defined These buffers are specially created using the Archie library routine createscans This

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/pdf/archie_1.0%20software.txt (2016-02-18)
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  • Eureka! The Story of Archimedes' Greatest Discovery
    The Archimedes Palimpsest Palimpsest Exhibition Digital Community Links Previous NEXT

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/images/kaltoon/2.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Eureka! The Story of Archimedes' Greatest Discovery
    The Archimedes Palimpsest Palimpsest Exhibition Digital Community Links Previous NEXT

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/images/kaltoon/3.php (2016-02-18)
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  • Eureka! The Story of Archimedes' Greatest Discovery
    The Archimedes Palimpsest Palimpsest Exhibition Digital Community Links Previous Done

    Original URL path: http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/images/kaltoon/4.php (2016-02-18)
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