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  • PERS_March2015_Flipping
    largely a function of positional error as derived from the Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS attitude angular orientation error as derived from the INS and flying altitude and can be estimated based on these parameters The following equation provides an estimate for the horizontal accuracy for the lidar derived data set assuming that the positional accuracy of the GNSS the attitude accuracy of the Inertial Measurement Unit IMU and the flying altitude are known Table 4 Vertical Accuracy Quality Examples for Digital Elevation Data Vertical Accuracy Class Absolute Accuracy Relative Accuracy where applicable RMSE z Non Vegetated cm NVA at 95 Confidence Level cm VVA at 95 th Percentile cm Within Swath Hard Surface Repeatability Max Diff cm Swath to Swath Non Veg Terrain RMSD z cm Swath to Swath Non Veg Terrain Max Diff cm 1 cm 1 0 2 0 3 0 6 0 8 1 6 2 5 cm 2 5 4 9 7 5 1 5 2 4 5 cm 5 0 9 8 15 3 4 8 10 cm 10 0 19 6 30 6 8 16 15 cm 15 0 29 4 45 9 12 24 20 cm 20 0 39 2 60 12 16 32 33 3 cm 33 3 65 3 100 20 26 7 53 3 66 7 cm 66 7 130 7 200 40 53 3 106 7 100 cm 100 0 196 0 300 60 80 160 333 3 cm 333 3 653 3 1000 200 266 7 533 3 S ummary The main standard on the ASPRS portal includes additional information on the following References Terms and definitions Symbols abbreviated terms and notations Assumptions regarding systematic errors and acceptable mean error Horizontal accuracy requirements for elevation data Low confidence areas for elevation data Accuracy requirements for aerial triangulation

    Original URL path: http://www.asprs.org/a/publications/pers/2015journals/PERS_March2015_Flipping/HTML/files/assets/basic-html/page10.html (2016-02-13)
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  • PERS_March2015_Flipping
    and Dr Randolph H Wynne SEO Version Warning You are currently viewing the SEO version of text It has a number of design and functionality limitations We recommend viewing the Flash version or the basic HTML version of this publication

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  • PERS_March2015_Flipping
    Certification Program html THE IMAGING GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SOCIETY SEO Version Warning You are currently viewing the SEO version of text It has a number of design and functionality limitations We recommend viewing the Flash version or the basic HTML version

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  • PE&RS January 2016
    following chapters chapter 3 4 and 5 topical issues on scale of measurements andmodels such as geostatistical and lattice models are introduced The discussion is solid in terms of the breath of technical coverage although readers who are unfamiliar with the literature on remote sensing might be intimidated by mathematical equations and terms The scaling issues upscaling and downscaling are covered by chapters 6 7 and 8 In practice the scale of observed or measured data are not necessarily compatible with the desirable scale of models analysis and predictions which require changing scales of data available into that of target Numerous solutions have been proposed and used to address this problem across various disciplines but not a unique solution exists to address all different criteria and applications as authors pointed out The list of potential solutions that authors reviewed in this book for both upscaling and downscaling is extensive and competent in their technical details Similar to previous chapters however some technical details might be challenging if readers are less familiar with Geostatistics or Remote Sensing Interestingly authors also discussed scale in relation to various systems that are available for acquiring data for modeling environment and social processes in chapters 9 10 and 11 Readers should be aware that these chapters are again heavy on the remote sensing literature while the depth of discussion is thorough Lastly authors also incorporate the connection between the effects of scale on uncertainty assessment or modeling Unfortunately the discussion is rather brief but key literature and ideas are presented To sum up this book is another excellent resource for researchers who are dealing with geospatial data particularly remote sensing data images Authors successfully convinced readers that scale is one of the most important issues in data acquisition representation analysis modeling and communications visualization Authors

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  • PE&RS January 2016
    and Sector Insight gov will focus on opportunities and constraints for workforce development and training in for profit and non profit organizations and associated domains e g mil net org The intended audience for this column is anyone in our geospatial information science and technology community who wishes to stay informed on the latest educational and professional development opportunities that enhance formal academic course work of our student members serve to advance career tracks of our early career professionals and provide educators creative ideas to improve curricula in academic courses workshops webinars and training sessions organized and delivered by various organizations public and private Such a journal column advances the value proposition of ASPRS for membership in several ways The column informs membership of current pedagogical practices supports members in life long learningpursuits provides contemporary views of workforce development needs from the viewpoint of geospatial leaders and experts in our community and serves as an outlet for geospatial educators to inform our community of educational opportunities and modalities used successfully in current curricula and for improving curricula based on emergent needs of the geospatial industry With respect to our edu sector we as educators have the obligation to ensure students learn the first principles of our profession and are able to apply and expand upon these principles in the workplace after graduation in a responsible adaptable and ethical manner Our respective curricula need to reflect the needs of our practitioners and have sufficient fluidity to adapt to rapidly changing geospatial technologies and environmental data and information needs of society We look forward to future columns from geospatial practitioners in the com and gov sectors articulating minimum knowledge domains skill sets and expertise required of graduating students and early career professionals Of general interest to educators is constructive input and feedback

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  • PE&RS January 2016
    in the private or public arena with respect to a core set of knowledge skills and abilities to advance our respective fields of study and practice Educators in turn will continually update curricula and curriculum delivery methods to meet those workplace needs and expectations Several members have stepped forward to contribute future Sector Insight columns on workforce development education and training required to advance and sustain our profession We continue to search for individuals willing to serve as a contributing editor representing your sector on an annual rotational basis Members from all sectors of ASPRS are invited to participate in this initiative To submit a Sector Insight column from your sector begin the process by sending a message to Steve DeGloria or Melissa Rura at sectorinsights asprs org outlining your suggestions for topics Also contact us if you are willing to serve as a contributing editor from your geospatial sector within ASPRS As a contributing editor you will be responsible for soliciting and or generating one or more columns per year from your respective sector Stephen D DeGloria is Professor of Resource Inventory and Analysis at Cornell University he is an ASPRS Past President Melissa J Rura serves as Book Review Editor for Photogrammetric Engineering Remote Sensing and co editor for the ASPRS Glossary of Mapping Science Attention those seeking ASPRS Certification ASPRS Online Seminars are a great way to gain Professional Development Hours http www asprs org GISD Division Online Seminars html January 29 th Fusion of Geodesy and GIS at NOAA s National Geodetic Survey Brian Shaw NPS February 26 th Beyond NDVI 2016 Jack Paris March 25 th A Geospatial Approach to Mapping Environmental Sound Levels Across the United States Dan Mennitt NPS Kurt Fristrup NPS April 29 th Designing National Park Service Visitor Maps Tom Patterson

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  • PE&RS January 2016
    reprinted and revised many Yugoslav and Italian maps The coordinate systems that have been used for Yugoslavian lands have been quite diverse through history Geographic coordinates have been based on the Prime Meridians of Paris France Ferro Canary Islands Greenwich England and also some temporary usage of the Vienna University Observatory where Φ o 48 12 35 50 N Λ o 16 22 49 98 E later offset to Paris The names of the classical horizontal datums found in the former Yugoslavia include Hermannskogel 1871 K U K VGI Vienna University System 1892 Pulkovo 1942 and European 1950 The Vienna University System 1892 used the now obsolete Zach 1812 ellipsoid and the Hermannskogel 1871 datum used the Bessel 1841 ellipsoid of revolution where the semi major axis a 6 377 397 155 meters and the reciprocal of flattening 1 f 299 1528128 The Parisian system of mapping based on the Prime Meridian of Paris where the offset from Greenwich is accepted as λ 2 20 13 95 E was cast on the polyhedric projection from 1878 to 1959 The polyhedric projection is aphylactic in that it is not equal area authalic Also it is not azimuthal and it is not THE FORMER conformal orthomorphic The aphylactics used for large scale topographic mapping and grid systems were adopted because of their ease of construction For a historical perspective of howmaps were produced before photogrammetry consider that a century ago a mapping party would leave the capital city some weeks after the departure of the triangulation parties Since the lay of the land to be mapped was largely unknown there was little opportunity to plan where control would be established and mapping could proceed Based on where triangulation stations were established the topographer would then proceed to interpolate between those stations and

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  • PE&RS January 2016
    j o 48 16 15 29 N Λ o 33 57 41 06 East of Ferro where Ferro 17 39 46 02 East of Greenwich and azimuth to Hundsheimer is α o 107 31 41 7 The most common grid found on that datum is the Yugoslavia Reduced Gauss Krüger Transverse Mercator The scale factor at origin m o 0 9999 the central meridians of the belts C M λ o 15 18 21 East of Greenwich and the False Easting at C M 500 kilometers The Ministry of Finance used the non reduced version only between 1938 40 where mo 1 0 About fifty years ago the Army Map Service transformed Hermannskogel 1871 Datum to the European Datum 1950 However large data sets still survive on that old datum The author examined the relation between the two datums recently and computed new transformations Twenty two points were used that are common to both datums in the former Yugoslavia and a simple three parameter shift analysis yielded the following X 770 417 meters Y 108 432 meters Z 600 450 meters The accuracy of this transformation when expressed in terms of actual geodetic coordinates is Latitude change φ 3 74 meters Longitude change λ 4 54 meters and Ellipsoid Height change h 12 70 meters On the other hand a seven parameter shift analysis yielded the following X 758 53 meters Y 259 52 meters Z 542 18 meters Scale 6 0X10 6 Z rotation ω 11 29 seconds Y rotation ψ 2 06 seconds and X rotation ξ 5 66 seconds The accuracy of this transformation when expressed in terms of actual geodetic coordinates is Latitude change φ 1 07 meters Longitude change λ 1 44 meters and Ellipsoid Height change h 0 64 meters For example station Vel

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