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  • Session 8: Living with a Star | astrofoto.org
    the Sun that all behave a little differently First there is the core the central part where nuclear fusion is really taking place This region is the source for all the energy that has to works its way out of the core to the outer edge where it escapes into space to provide us with light and warmth Second is the radiative zone This is where the energy radiates or spreads outward by having the atoms of hot gases mostly hydrogen bump against each other and emit electromagnetic radiation that is captured by the next atom over Third is the convective zone This is where there the hot gases churn and move around much like the water in a boiling point Instead of the heat moving outward by electromagnetic radiation it is moving outward because the hot gases themselves are moving Fourth is the photosphere The prefix photo just means light This is the layer of the sun that produces the light we see This layer can be thought of as the Sun s surface but the Sun doesn t really have a surface like Earth since it is not really solid Sunspots which are places where the Sun is actually a little cooler appear on the photosphere This part of the Sun is about 5 800ºC The sunspots can be much cooler at a mere 3 700ºC Fifth is the chromosphere The prefix chromo just means color This region can only be seen here on earth during an total solar eclipse During a total eclipse of the sun around the edge of the moon you can see the sun s colorful red edge sticking out There is a good picture of the Sun s chromosphere http apod nasa gov apod ap040611 html taken during the last time Venus appeared to cross in front of the Sun The sixth and last region is the corona The word corona means crown and you can think of this as the part that sits on top of the other layers like a crown sits on top of a king or queen The corona can also only be seen during a total eclipse of the sun as rays or streamers that seem to pour out from the Sun just above the chromosphere There is a good picture of the Sun s corona http apod nasa gov apod ap010408 html on the Astonomy Picture of the Day website 1 How Did We Find Out About Sunshine Isaac Asimov Walker Company 1987 Paperback ISBN 0802766986 File 20080515 Word Search pdf 20080515 Session 8 Crossword pdf Session 7 Electromagnetic Radiation up Session 9 Spacecraft and Astronomy Printer friendly version Log in to post comments PDF version Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information Tips and Tricks Roland s Corner Recent content About Copyright Search form

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  • Session 7: Electromagnetic Radiation | astrofoto.org
    because it s really one billion times smaller think of the problems if your iPod nano really were nano sized AM radio waves have wavelengths from about 560 meters corresponding to 535 on your AM dial down to about 230 meters corresponding to AM 1300 FM wavelengths are shorter but still measured in meters And TV are even shorter Microwaves range from about 1 millimeter to about 30 centimeters Below that range the waves are called infrared Infrared waves go down to about on micrometer that is one millionth of a meter A little below that is were the deepest red light become visible to our eyes With waves a little shorter than what our eyes can see you find ultraviolet Shorter still are X rays and shorter yet are gamma rays Waves shorter than that don t have names or just get called high energy gamma rays So What Almost everything we know about astronomy comes from what we can see through electromagnetic radiation The Hubble Space Telescope can see both infrared and visible There have been specialized space telescopes which can see radio waves ultraviolet or X rays Some of these telescopes can tell the difference between different wavelenghts of ultraviolet radiation just like our eyes can tell the difference between different colors of light Those telescopes convert the different colors of ultraviolet radiation into colors our eyes can see One of the bettern known such space telescopes is GALEX the Galaxy Evolution Explorer which has produced a lot of pretty pictures Ultraviolet Detectors Today we are making ultraviolet detector bracelets using special beads which are sensitive to ultraviolet light In addition to turning bright colors when exposed to the Sun you can use the beads to test your sunglasses Put your finished bracelet behind your sunglasses and see if the beads turn colors If they do how much longer does it take File 20080508 Session 7 Crossword pdf 20080508 Session 7 Word Search pdf Session 5B Craters up Session 8 Living with a Star Printer friendly version Log in to post comments PDF version Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information Tips and Tricks Roland s Corner Recent content About Copyright Search form Search User login Username Password Request new password Science Daily Mercury Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke More Science Daily Venus The aliens are silent because they re dead The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Mars Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily

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  • Session 5B: Craters! | astrofoto.org
    of cut its way into the pudding Just ignore those as unrealistic Our boys are both allegic to nuts so at home we used M M clones from Vermont Nut Free Chocolates These are a bit more round than regular M Ms and didn t have this problem But you probably don t want to order these more expensive candies just for the experiment The children have to kneel down near the pudding container to throw That bowl looks easy to hit when standing up but you d be surprised at home many misses you get Analyzing the Results First its fun to just fling the M Ms at the pudding so its easy to let things get out of hand and not pay attention to what s happening When we did this at home there were several things we noticed First the powdered sugar goes in all directions but more goes away from the direction of the incoming M M Second the pudding itself creates a small crater rim around the impact site Third while the hole formed is approximately circular it s not symmetrical like a bowl if the M M went in at an angle the hole goes down at an angle Fourth the pudding is watery enough that if we wait a few minutes the pudding fills in around the M M and the bottom starts to look more bowl like think simple crater I ll add one more thing too When I flung an M M at the pudding both of my sons standing off to the side commented that the felt splatters from the pudding This was a good opportunity to comment on both how far the splat can go remember Barringer Crater ejecta spread over a 10 mile circle and how the splat is not confined to the downrange direction from the impact Finishing the Results Usually in science eating your experiment is a bad idea In this case enjoy Session 5A Craters up Session 7 Electromagnetic Radiation Printer friendly version Log in to post comments PDF version Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information Tips and Tricks Roland s Corner Recent content About Copyright Search form Search User login Username Password Request new password Science Daily Mercury Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke More Science Daily Venus The aliens are silent because they re dead The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Mars Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Jupiter New

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  • Session 5A: Craters! | astrofoto.org
    case here All three of the craters date to different periods The Tenoumer Crater is only about 10 000 to 30 000 years old again raising the possibility that there were actually humans around to see it Kebira Crater Western Desert Egypt This is a very old crater and is in fact nearly impossible to identify as a crater It dates to probably 100 million years ago and shows a double ring structure The crater is about 31 kilometers across and mostly buried in desert sand which has eroded much of the structure While the area has an abundance of desert glass a form of melted sand that occurs when a meteor impact causes such high temperatures that then rock and sand melts and then is flung across the region it wasn t until after 2006 that anyone thought to use satellite images to try to find the crater remnant itself Pingualuit Crater Quebec Canad a This crater was noticed by a US Air Force crew when flying over the region in 1943 but wasn t explored until the 1950s The crater is about 3 440 meters across and 267 meters deep This is also an old crater by human standards having been formed by an impact about 1 4 million years ago The discovery and exploration of this crater eventually led to identifying more than 20 other impact structures in eastern Canada Others The lower part of the Chesapeake Bay about 85 kilometers across was also formed by a meteor impact about 15 million years ago Some have wondered if the Hudson Bay may have been formed by an ancient impact but an analysis of the rock structures do not show the normal signs of a meteor impact The best source for finding confirmed meteor impact sites is the University of New Brunswick s Earth Impact Database Resources The University of New Brunswick s Earth Impact Database http www unb ca passc ImpactDatabase has maps and lists of verified impact sites around the Earth The Lunar and Planetary Institute http www lpi usra edu has research material on impact crater formation including the figure used on page two of the class handout http www barringercrater com has a complete history of Daniel Moreau Barringer s misguided efforts at mining to retrieve the meteorite that caused the crater References 1 The Topper archeological site in South Carolina has been reported to have artifacts of human origin that date to 50 000 years ago but the evidence not conclusive due to natural weathering which has eroded the artifacts File 20080417 Session 5 pdf 20080417 Session 5 Xword pdf Craters Word Search pdf Session 4 Constellations of the Zodiac up Session 5B Craters Printer friendly version Log in to post comments PDF version Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information

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  • Session 4: Constellations of the Zodiac | astrofoto.org
    the above is to see that the planets all orbit in their own planes and that those planes are actually quite close to one another Very Nice but What about those Constellations Imagine we could put a dimmer switch on the Sun so we could turn down the brightness until the stars were visible in the daytime Don t turn it off just make it dim If we could do this then the Sun would appear as a very bright star in one of the constellations But which one would be continuously changing as we revolve around the sun Think of it like sitting on the merry go round looking through the middle and out the other side The distant scenary is not moving but it is changing as we move in a circle The constellations that the Sun appears to be moving through are the constellations of the zodiac Wow that was a lot of build up to such a simple idea But what makes them special Nothing really but our ancestors not really knowing what those moving lights in the sky were attributed the motion to ancient gods moving through the heavens Just like the Sun moves through the constellations of the zodiac so do the planets simply because the plane of their orbits is so close to the ecliptic So they concluded it might be important which constellation the Sun was in when you were born and where those gods were wondering around Fortune tellers loved this and its popularity has never completely gone away There is of course no science behind it The Constellations of the Zodiac Traditionally there are twelve of these For astronomers the first one is Pisces It is first because astronomers measure right ascension the coordinate which is like longitude starting from the position the Sun occupies on the spring equinox But since we travel around the whole sky in a big circle it doesn t really matter where you start We ll go over them very quickly from east to west Session 3B Making our Model of Orion up Session 5A Craters Printer friendly version Log in to post comments PDF version Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information Tips and Tricks Roland s Corner Recent content About Copyright Search form Search User login Username Password Request new password Science Daily Mercury Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke More Science Daily Venus The aliens are silent because they re dead The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Mars Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers Rotation speed may be bad news for

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  • Session 3B: Making our Model of Orion | astrofoto.org
    alignments that our imaginations turn into pictures Addendum I ve also added a model template for the Big Dipper which we did not use in class but which I later used at the Northeast Astronomy Forum NEAF 2008 It works the same way and the supplies are the same since there are only seven stars used This model is however somewhat more user friendly since many of the stars are at a similar distance making the placement of your head a little less critical Truth in Advertising These models are not to scale In order to make for comfortable viewing I cheated on both of them but especially on Orion With Orion the distance ratio between the farthest and the nearest stars as about 6 1 So if I try to put them all on a single 6 inch by 12 inch foam board my eye needs to be about 2 inches from the front of the board to be in the same location to scale as the Sun s position At that distance I can t focus on the closest bead at all and the view is very uncomfortable So I kept the same relative distances sort of and added a large offset 1000 light years effectively making Earth much further away But that creates another problem If I use the same angular separation the stars begin to cluster together very tightly So I increased the angles by a constant scale factor of 3 to spread them all out again This makes it possible to put your eye about 8 12 inches from the front of the board and get a nearly correct visual view of Orion while still getting a sense of the 3 D structure I did the same thing for the Big Dipper but the distance offset was 300 light years and I actually shrank the angles by 2 3 to fit them on the board File orion warped pdf bigdipper pdf Session 3A Celestial Coordinates up Session 4 Constellations of the Zodiac Printer friendly version Log in to post comments PDF version Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information Tips and Tricks Roland s Corner Recent content About Copyright Search form Search User login Username Password Request new password Science Daily Mercury Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke More Science Daily Venus The aliens are silent because they re dead The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Mars Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily

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  • Session 2B: More Orion | astrofoto.org
    they re dead The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Mars Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Jupiter New study challenges Jupiter s role as planetary shield protecting Earth from comet impacts New study challenges Jupiter s role as planetary shield protecting Earth from comet impacts NASA telescopes detect Jupiter like storm on small star NASA telescopes detect Jupiter like storm on small star Simulating the jet streams and anticyclones of Jupiter and Saturn More Science Daily Saturn Cassini completes final close Enceladus flyby Cassini completes final close Enceladus flyby How water escapes from Saturn Magnetic reconnection How water escapes from Saturn Magnetic reconnection Explosive energy in Saturn s magnetic bubble More Science Daily Neptune Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered Mars to lose its largest moon Phobos but gain a ring Mars to lose its largest moon Phobos but gain a ring Simulation of 3 D exotic clouds on an exoplanet More Science Daily Uranus Jupiter bumped giant planet from our solar system This solar system isn t big enough for the both of us Jupiter More Science Daily Pluto Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered New Horizons returns first of the best images of Pluto More Science Daily Comets and Asteroids Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Artistic space odyssey to

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  • Recent content | astrofoto.org
    Roberts 0 5 months 4 hours ago Book page General Interest Roland Roberts 0 5 months 4 hours ago Book page Clubs and Organizations Roland Roberts 0 5 months 4 hours ago Book page Resources Roland Roberts 0 5 months 4 hours ago Book page M27 The Dumbell Nebula Roland Roberts 0 5 months 5 hours ago Pages first previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 next last Navigation Calendar Gallery Constellations Messier Objects M27 The Dumbell Nebula Resources Astronomy Books Buying A Star Buying A Telescope Clubs and Organizations General Interest Imaging and Astrophotography Magazines Mailing Lists and News Groups Science Toy Suppliers Software Weather Information Tips and Tricks Roland s Corner Recent content About Copyright Search form Search User login Username Password Request new password Science Daily Mercury Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke Mercury gets a meteoroid shower from Comet Encke More Science Daily Venus The aliens are silent because they re dead The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Mars Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Antarctic fungi survive Martian conditions on the International Space Station Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers Rotation speed may be bad news for Red Planet pioneers The aliens are silent because they re dead More Science Daily Jupiter New study challenges Jupiter s role as planetary shield protecting Earth from comet impacts New study challenges Jupiter s role as planetary shield protecting Earth from comet impacts NASA telescopes detect Jupiter like storm on small star NASA telescopes detect Jupiter like storm on small star Simulating the jet streams and anticyclones of Jupiter and Saturn More Science Daily Saturn Cassini completes final close Enceladus flyby Cassini completes final close Enceladus flyby How water escapes from Saturn Magnetic reconnection How water escapes from Saturn Magnetic reconnection Explosive energy in Saturn s magnetic bubble More Science Daily Neptune Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered Mars to lose its largest moon Phobos but gain a ring Mars to lose its largest moon Phobos but gain a ring Simulation of 3 D exotic clouds on an exoplanet More Science Daily Uranus Jupiter bumped giant planet from our solar system This solar system isn t big enough for the both of us Jupiter More Science Daily Pluto Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered Evidence of a real ninth planet discovered New Horizons returns first of the best images of Pluto More Science Daily Comets and Asteroids Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Earth like planets have Earth like interiors Artistic space odyssey to broadcast people s messages to the stars Artistic space odyssey to broadcast people s messages to the stars New study challenges Jupiter s role as planetary shield protecting Earth from comet impacts More Science Daily Kuiper Belt Earth like planets have Earth

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