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  • Attenuation of camptothecin production and negative relation between hyphal biomass and camptothecin content in endophytic fungal strains isolated from Nothapodytes nimmoniana Grahm (Icacinaceae) - ePrints@ATREE
    group of fungi living inside the host plant tissues without causing visible symptoms of disease are known to occur ubiquitously in plants Existing in a mutualistic association with their host plants they have been shown to enhance the plant s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stresses3 In culture many endophytic species have been shown to produce a number of important secondary metabolites including anticancer antidiabetic antifungal and immunosuppressant compounds Many of these compounds closely mimic those produced by the respective host plants suggesting that the fungi could in fact potentially serve as an alternative source of plant secondary metabolites Notwithstanding these findings to date there has been no major breakthrough in commercially exploiting the endophytic fungi as a source of important secondary metabolites Among the reasons attributed is the severe attenuation of production of the secondary metabolite by the fungi in culture Li et al showed that successive cultures of an endophytic fungi Pericornia sp isolated from Torreya grandifolia resulted in the attenuation of taxol production though the fungal growth itself was unaffected Although the reasons for such attenuation are not extensively studied it is conjectured that it could be due to lack of host stimulus in the culture

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/50/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Tree species diversity and community composition in a human-dominated tropical forest of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India - ePrints@ATREE
    and ecosystem services of tropical forest depend on its species richness diversity dominance and the patterns of changes in the assemblages of tree populations over time Long term data from permanent vegetation plots have yielded a wealth of data on the species diversity and dynamics of tree populations but such studies have only rarely been undertaken in tropical forest landscapes that support large human populations Thus anthropogenic drivers and their impacts on species diversity and community structure of tropical forests are not well understood Here we present data on species diversity community composition and regeneration status of tropical forests in a human dominated landscape in the Western Ghats of southern India Enumeration of 40 plots 50 m 20 m results a total of 106 species of trees 76 species of saplings and 79 species of seedlings Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination of the tree populations yielded five dominant groups along disturbance and altitudinal gradients on the first and second axes respectively Abundant species of the area such as Albizia amara Nothopegia racemosa and Pleiospermum alatum had relatively few individuals in recruiting size classes Our data indicate probable replacement of rare localized and oldgrowth specialists by disturbance adapted generalists if the degradation

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/35/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Coexistence of Fisheries with River Dolphin Conservation - ePrints@ATREE
    a 65 km stretch of the lower Ganga River to assess habitat use by dolphins encounter rates and fishing activity habitat preferences of fishers intensity of net and boat use Dolphin abundance in the main channel increased from 179 SE 7 mid dry season to 270 SE 8 peak dry season probably as a result of immigration from upstream tributaries Dolphins preferred river channels with muddy rocky substrates and deep midchannel waters These areas overlapped considerably with fishing areas Sites with 2 6 boats km moderately fished were more preferred by dolphins than sites with 8 55 boats km heavily fished Estimated spatial 85 and prey resource overlap 75 between fisheries and dolphins chiefly predators of small fish suggests a high level of competition between the two groups A decrease in abundance of larger fish indicated by the fact that small fish comprised 74 of the total caught may have intensified the present competition Dolphins seem resilient to changes in fish community structure and may persist in overfished rivers Regulated fishing in dolphin hotspots and maintenance of adequate dry season flows can sustain dolphins in tributaries and reduce competition in the main river Fish stock restoration and management effective monitoring

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/12/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Accessibility, Demography and Protection: Drivers of Forest Stability and Change at Multiple Scales in the Cauvery Basin, India - ePrints@ATREE
    Creative Commons Attribution Download 665Kb Request a copy Abstract The Cauvery basin of Karnataka State encompasses a range of land cover types from dense forest areas and plantations in the Western Ghats hills to fertile agricultural lands in the river valley Recent demographic changes rapid economic development and urbanization have led to the conversion of vast stretches of forested land into plantations and permanent agriculture We examine the human drivers of forest cover change between 2001 and 2006 using MODIS 250 m data at multiple spatial scales of nested administrative units i e districts and taluks Population density does not emerge as a major driver of forest distribution or deforestation Protected areas and landscape accessibility play a major role in driving the distribution of stable forest cover at different spatial scales The availability of forested land for further clearing emerges as a major factor impacting the distribution of deforestation with new deforestation taking place in regions with challenging topography This research highlights the importance of using a regional approach to study land cover change and indicates that the drivers of forest change may be very different in long settled landscapes for which little is known in comparison to frontier forests

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/38/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Beyond exclusion: alternative approaches to biodiversity conservation in the developing tropics - ePrints@ATREE
    approach to biodiversity conservationhas succeededatseveralplaces but atasignificant social cost and conflict especially in the developing country tropics More inclusive approaches including community based conservation CBC its subset enterprise based conservation EBC and payments based conservation PES programs have been triedinthe past 15years Abrief summary of the literatureon socio economic impacts of the exclusionary approach suggests that although detailed studies and documentation is missing impacts are significant and the ethical argument against forced displacement quite strong Wethen examine the potential of nonexclusionary approaches from a broader perspective that values biodiversity gains as well as socio economic ones Our review suggests that a comprehensive socio ecological and comparative studies of such initiatives are surprisingly scarce b enterprise based conservation offers some potential if design flaws poor implementation assumptions about homogeneous communities and inattention to tenurial change and security are addressed c payments based programs require caution because of their focus on economic efficiency and simplified assumptions regarding the nature of rights biological information monitoring costs and state interventions and d the alternatives to exclusion have often not been given adequate state support and space to function nor is the ongoing neoliberalization of the political economic system conducive to giving them that space

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/45/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Street trees in Bangalore: Density , diversity, composition and distribution - ePrints@ATREE
    Restricted to Registered users only Download 355Kb Request a copy Abstract Once renowned as India s gardencity the fast growing southern Indian city of Bangalore is rapidly losing tree cover in public spaces including on roads This study aims to study the distribution of street trees in Bangalore to assess differences in tree density size and species composition across roads of different widths and to investigate changes in planting practices overtime A spatially stratified approach was used for sampling with 152transects of200m length distributed across wide roads with awidthof24morgreater mediumsizedroads 12 24m and narrow roads lessthan12m We find thedensityofstreettrees inBangaloretobe lower thanmany otherAsiancities Species diversity is high withthemostdominantspeciesaccountingforlessthan10 oftheoverallpopulation Narrowroads usuallyincongestedresidentialneighborhoods havefewertrees smallersizedtree species andalowerspeciesdiversitycomparedtowideroads Sincewideroadsarebeingfelledoftrees acrossthecityforroadwidening thisimpliesthatBangalore sstreettreepopulationisbeingselectively denudedofitslargesttrees Oldertreeshaveamorediversedistributionwithseverallargesized species whileyoungtreescomefromalessdiversespeciesset largelydominatedbysmallstatured specieswithnarrowcanopies whichhavealowercapacitytoabsorbatmosphericpollutants mitigate urban heatislandeffects stabilizesoil preventgroundwaterrunoff andsequestercarbon This has serious implications for the city s environmental and ecological health These results highlighttheneed to protect large street trees on wide roads from treefelling and to select an appropriate anddiversemix of largeandsmallsizedtreespeciesfornewplanting Item Type Article Additional Information Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Uncontrolled Keywords Avenue trees Cities Green spaces India Urban biodiversity Urban ecology Subjects C Publications by ATREEians G Journal Papers Divisions Publications by

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/37/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Beyond parks as monoliths: Spatially differentiating park-people relationships in the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve in India - ePrints@ATREE
    landscapes within which protected areas are embedded to understand why conservation succeeds and fails in different parts of the landscape In a wildlife sanctuary in the central plains of India Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve we address i how people living within and immediately outside a park differentially impact its resources and ii how the park differentially impacts communities living within Using forest plots satellite imagery and interviews we evaluate park conservation by assessing plant diversity land cover change forest fragmentation and attitudes of local communities towards conservation We find that interior villages have a negative impact on regeneration but there is a decline in tree species diversity and increased forest cover change and fragmentation at the park periphery Interior villages suffer greatly from crop and livestock depredations by wildlife and consider park rules to be unfairly devised Yet they affirm the importance of the park for conservation and are willing to work with park authorities for stricter protection Park authorities largely focus on resettlement of interior villages when they should also pay attention to protecting the peripheral areas of the park from severe degradation by surrounding villages In summary we find that different parts of the park landscape face different

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/5/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook.f (Meliaceae), a rich source of rohitukine - ePrints@ATREE
    a precursor of flavopiridol a promising anti cancer compound Currently in Phase III clinical trials flavopiridol is a potent inhibitor of several cyclin dependent kinases CDKs Rohitukinewas first reported fromAmoora rohituka 0 083 dryweight followed by that in Dysoxylum binectariferum 0 9 dry weight both belonging to the family Meliaceae Here we report incredibly high yields of rohitukine 7 dry weight in trees of D binectariferum from theWestern Ghats India

    Original URL path: http://eprints.atree.org/46/ (2016-05-01)
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