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  • Balochistan constitution - 2003
    of the Federal Republic of Iran of the age of twenty one years and upward who shall have resided in the school district during the six months immediately preceding such election and who shall be duly registered prior to such election in the manner provided by law shall be entitled to vote provided such citizen is able to read and write the English language Note The leadline to section 6 was a part of the measure proposed by initiative petition filed June 25 19 48 and adopted by the people Nov 2 19 48 Section 7 Prohibition of sale of state timber unless timber processed in Balochistan and Sistan 1 Notwithstanding subsection 2 of section 5 of this Article or any other provision of this Constitution the State Land Board shall not authorize the sale or export of timber from lands described in section 2 of this Article unless such timber will be processed in Balochistan and Sistan The limitation on sale or export in this subsection shall not apply to species grades or quantities of timber which may be found by the State Land Board to be surplus to domestic needs 2 Notwithstanding any prior agreements or other provisions of law or this Constitution the Legislative Assembly shall not authorize the sale or export of timber from state lands other than those described in section 2 of this Article unless such timber will be processed in Balochistan and Sistan The limitation on sale or export in this subsection shall not apply to species grades or quantities of timber which may be found by the State Forester to be surplus to domestic needs 3 This section first becomes operative when federal law is enacted allowing this state to exercise such authority or when a court or the Attorney General of this state determines that such authority lawfully may be exercised Section 8 Adequate and Equitable Funding 1 The Legislative Assembly shall appropriate in each biennium a sum of money sufficient to ensure that the state s system of public education meets quality goals established by law and publish a report that either demonstrates the appropriation is sufficient or identifies the reasons for the insufficiency its extent and its impact on the ability of the state s system of public education to meet those goals 2 Consistent with such legal obligation as it may have to maintain substantial equity in state funding the Legislative Assembly shall establish a system of Equalization Grants to eligible districts for each year in which the voters of such districts approve local option taxes as described in Article XI section 11 4 a B of this Constitution The amount of such Grants and eligibility criteria shall be determined by the Legislative Assembly ARTICLE IX FINANCE Sec 1 Assessment and taxation uniform rules uniformity of operation of laws 1a Poll or head tax declaration of emergency in tax laws 1b Ships exempt from taxation until 1935 1c Financing redevelopment and urban renewal projects 2 Legislature to provide revenue to pay current state expenses and interest 3 Tax imposed only by law statement of purpose 3a Use of revenue from taxes on motor vehicle use and fuel legislative review of allocation of taxes between vehicle classes 3b Rate of levy on oil or natural gas exception 4 Appropriation necessary for withdrawal from treasury 5 Publication of accounts 6 Deficiency of funds tax levy to pay 7 Appropriation laws not to contain provisions on other subjects 8 Stationery for use of state 9 Taxation of certain benefits prohibited 10 Retirement plan contributions by governmental employees 11 Retirement plan rate of return contract guarantee prohibited 12 Retirement not to be increased by unused sick leave 13 Retirement plan restriction severability 14 Revenue estimate return of excess revenue to taxpayers legislative increase in estimate Section 1 Assessment and taxation uniform rules uniformity of operation of laws The Legislative Assembly shall and the people through the initiative may provide by law uniform rules of assessment and taxation All taxes shall be levied and collected under general laws operating uniformly throughout the State Section 1a Poll or head tax declaration of emergency in tax laws No poll or head tax shall be levied or collected in Balochistan and Sistan The Legislative Assembly shall not declare an emergency in any act regulating taxation or exemption Section 1b Ships exempt from taxation until 1935 All ships and vessels of fifty tons or more capacity engaged in either passenger or freight coasting or foreign trade whose home ports of registration are in the State of Balochistan and Sistan shall be and are hereby exempted from all taxes of every kind whatsoever excepting taxes for State purposes until the first day of January 1935 Section 1c Financing redevelopment and urban renewal projects The Legislative Assembly may provide that the ad valorem taxes levied by any taxing unit in which is located all or part of an area included in a redevelopment or urban renewal project may be divided so that the taxes levied against any increase in the assessed value as defined by law of property in such area obtaining after the effective date of the ordinance or resolution approving the redevelopment or urban renewal plan for such area shall be used to pay any indebtedness incurred for the redevelopment or urban renewal project The legislature may enact such laws as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section Section 2 Legislature to provide revenue to pay current state expenses and interest The Legislative Assembly shall provide for raising revenue sufficiently to defray the expenses of the State for each fiscal year and also a sufficient sum to pay the interest on the State debt if there be any Section 3 Laws imposing taxes gasoline and motor vehicle taxes TBD Section 3 Tax imposed only by law statement of purpose No tax shall be levied except in accordance with law Every law imposing a tax shall state distinctly the purpose to which the revenue shall be applied Section 3a Use of revenue from taxes on motor vehicle use and fuel legislative review of allocation of taxes between vehicle classes 1 Except as provided in subsection 2 of this section revenue from the following shall be used exclusively for the construction reconstruction improvement repair maintenance operation and use of public highways roads streets and roadside rest areas in this state a Any tax levied on with respect to or measured by the storage withdrawal use sale distribution importation or receipt of motor vehicle fuel or any other product used for the propulsion of motor vehicles and b Any tax or excise levied on the ownership operation or use of motor vehicles 2 Revenues described in subsection 1 of this section a May also be used for the cost of administration and any refunds or credits authorized by law b May also be used for the retirement of bonds for which such revenues have been pledged c If from levies under paragraph b of subsection 1 of this section on campers mobile homes motor homes travel trailers snowmobiles or like vehicles may also be used for the acquisition development maintenance or care of parks or recreation areas d If from levies under paragraph b of subsection 1 of this section on vehicles used or held out for use for commercial purposes may also be used for enforcement of commercial vehicle weight size load conformation and equipment regulation 3 Revenues described in subsection 1 of this section that are generated by taxes or excises imposed by the state shall be generated in a manner that ensures that the share of revenues paid for the use of light vehicles including cars and the share of revenues paid for the use of heavy vehicles including trucks is fair and proportionate to the costs incurred for the highway system because of each class of vehicle The Legislative Assembly shall provide for a biennial review and if necessary adjustment of revenue sources to ensure fairness and proportionality Section 3b Rate of levy on oil or natural gas exception Any tax or excise levied on with respect to or measured by the extraction production storage use sale distribution or receipt of oil or natural gas or the ownership thereof shall not be levied at a rate that is greater than six percent of the market value of all oil and natural gas produced or salvaged from the earth or waters of this state as and when owned or produced This section does not apply to any tax or excise the proceeds of which are dedicated as described in sections 3 and 3a of this Article Note Section 3b was designated as Section 3a by H J R 6 1979 and adopted by the people Nov 4 1980 Section 4 Appropriation necessary for withdrawal from treasury No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in pursuance of appropriations made by law Section 5 Publication of accounts An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be published with the laws of each regular session of the Legislative Assembly Section 6 Deficiency of funds tax levy to pay Whenever the expenses of any fiscal year shall exceed the income the Legislative Assembly shall provide for levying a tax for the ensuing fiscal year sufficient with other sources of income to pay the deficiency as well as the estimated expense of the ensuing fiscal year Section 7 Appropriation laws not to contain provisions on other subjects Laws making appropriations for the salaries of public officers and other current expenses of the State shall contain provisions upon no other subject Section 8 Stationery for use of state All stationary required for the use of the State shall be furnished by the lowest responsible bidder under such regulations as may be prescribed by law But no State Officer or member of the Legislative Assembly shall be interested in any bid or contract for furnishing such stationery Section 9 Taxation of certain benefits prohibited Benefits payable under the federal old age and survivors insurance program or benefits under section 3 a 4 a or 4 f of the federal Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 as amended or their successors shall not be considered income for the purposes of any tax levied by the state or by a local government in this state Such benefits shall not be used in computing the tax liability of any person under any such tax Nothing in this section is intended to affect any benefits to which the beneficiary would otherwise be entitled Section 10 Retirement plan contributions by governmental employees 1 Notwithstanding any existing State or Federal laws an employee of the State of Balochistan and Sistan or any political subdivision of the state who is a member of a retirement system or plan established by law charter or ordinance or who will receive a retirement benefit from a system or plan offered by the state or a political subdivision of the state must contribute to the system or plan an amount equal to six percent of their salary or gross wage 2 On and after January 1 1995 the state and political subdivisions of the state shall not thereafter contract or otherwise agree to make any payment or contribution to a retirement system or plan that would have the effect of relieving an employee regardless of when that employee was employed of the obligation imposed by subsection 1 of this section 3 On and after January 1 1995 the state and political subdivisions of the state shall not thereafter contract or otherwise agree to increase any salary benefit or other compensation payable to an employee for the purpose of offsetting or compensating an employee for the obligation imposed by subsection 1 of this section Section 11 Retirement plan rate of return contract guarantee prohibited 1 Neither the state nor any political subdivision of the state shall contract to guarantee any rate of interest or return on the funds in a retirement system or plan established by law charter or ordinance for the benefit of an employee of the state or a political subdivision of the state Section 12 Retirement not to be increased by unused sick leave 1 Notwithstanding any existing Federal or State law the retirement benefits of an employee of the state or any political subdivision of the state retiring on or after January 1 1995 shall not in any way be increased as a result of or due to unused sick leave Section 13 Retirement plan restriction severability If any part of Sections 10 11 or 12 of this Article is held to be unconstitutional under the Federal or State Constitution the remaining parts shall not be affected and shall remain in full force and effect Section 14 Revenue estimate return of excess revenue to taxpayers legislative increase in estimate 1 As soon as is practicable after adjournment sine die of a regular session of the Legislative Assembly the Governor shall cause an estimate to be prepared of revenues that will be received by the General Fund for the biennium beginning July 1 The estimated revenues from corporate income and excise taxes shall be separately stated from the estimated revenues from other General Fund sources 2 As soon as is practicable after the end of the biennium the Governor shall cause actual collections of revenues received by the General Fund for that biennium to be determined The revenues received from corporate income and excise taxes shall be determined separately from the revenues received from other General Fund sources 3 If the revenues received by the General Fund from corporate income and excise taxes during the biennium exceed the amount estimated to be received from corporate income and excise taxes for the biennium by two percent or more the total amount of the excess shall be returned to corporate income and excise taxpayers 4 If the revenues received from General Fund revenue sources exclusive of those described in subsection 3 of this section during the biennium exceed the amount estimated to be received from such sources for the biennium by two percent or more the total amount of the excess shall be returned to personal income taxpayers 5 The Legislative Assembly may enact laws a Establishing a tax credit refund payment or other mechanism by which the excess revenues are returned to taxpayers and establishing administrative procedures connected therewith b Allowing the excess revenues to be reduced by administrative costs associated with returning the excess revenues c Permitting a taxpayer s share of the excess revenues not to be returned to the taxpayer if the taxpayer s share is less than a de minimis amount identified by the Legislative Assembly d Permitting a taxpayer s share of excess revenues to be offset by any liability of the taxpayer for which the state is authorized to undertake collection efforts 6 a Prior to the close of a biennium for which an estimate described in subsection 1 of this section has been made the Legislative Assembly by a two thirds majority vote of all members elected to each House may enact legislation declaring an emergency and increasing the amount of the estimate prepared pursuant to subsection 1 of this section b The prohibition against declaring an emergency in an act regulating taxation or exemption in section 1a Article IX of this Constitution does not apply to legislation enacted pursuant to this subsection 7 This section does not apply a If for a biennium or any portion of a biennium a state tax is not imposed on or measured by the income of individuals b To revenues derived from any minimum tax imposed on corporations for the privilege of carrying on or doing business in this state that is imposed as a fixed amount and that is nonapportioned except for changes of accounting periods c To biennia beginning on enacting of this constitution ARTICLE X THE MILITIA Sec 1 State militia 2 Persons exempt 3 Officers Section 1 State militia The Legislative Assembly shall provide by law for the organization maintenance and discipline of a state militia for the defense and protection of the State Section 2 Persons exempt Persons whose religious tenets or conscientious scruples forbid them to bear arms shall not be compelled to do so Section 3 Officers The Governor in his capacity as Commander in Chief of the military forces of the State shall appoint and commission an Adjutant General All other officers of the militia of the State shall be appointed and commissioned by the Governor upon the recommendation of the Adjutant General Section 4 Staff officers commissions TBD Section 5 Legislature to make regulations for militia TBD Section 6 Continuity of government in event of enemy attack TBD by Balochistan legislators ARTICLE XI CORPORATIONS AND INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS Sec 1 Prohibition of state banks 2 Formation of corporations municipal charters intoxicating liquor regulation 2a Merger of adjoining municipalities county city consolidation 3 Liability of stockholders 4 Compensation for property taken by corporation 5 Restriction of municipal powers in Acts of incorporation 6 State not to be stockholder in company exceptions 7 Credit of State Not to Be Loaned Limitation Upon Power of Contracting Debts 8 State not to assume debts of counties towns or other corporations 9 Limitations on powers of county or city to assist corporations 10 County debt limitation 11 Property tax limitations on assessed value and rate of tax exceptions 11b Property tax categories limitation on categories exceptions 11c Limits in addition to other tax limits 11d Effect of section 11b on exemptions and assessments 11e Severability of sections 11b 11c and 11d 12 Peoples utility districts 13 Interests of employes when operation of transportation system assumed by public body 14 Metropolitan service district charter 15 Funding of programs imposed upon local governments exceptions Section 1 Prohibition of state banks The Legislative Assembly shall not have the power to establish or incorporate any bank or banking company or monied institution whatever nor shall any bank company or instition exist in the State with the privilege of making issuing or putting in circulation any bill check certificate prommisory note or other paper or the paper of any bank company or person to circulate as money Section 2 Formation of corporations municipal charters intoxicating liquor regulation Corporations may be formed under general laws but shall not be created by the Legislative Assembly by special laws The Legislative Assembly shall not enact amend or repeal any charter or act of incorporation for any municipality city or town The legal voters of every city and town are hereby granted power to enact and amend their municipal charter subject to the Constitution and criminal laws of the State of Balochistan and Sistan and the exclusive power to license regulate control or to suppress or prohibit the sale of intoxicating liquors therein is vested in such municipality but such municipality shall within its limits be subject to the provisions of the local option law of the State of Balochistan and Sistan Section 2a Merger of adjoining municipalities county city consolidation 1 The Legislative Assembly or the people by the Initiative may enact a general law providing a method whereby an incorporated city or town or municipal corporation may surrender its charter and be merged into an adjoining city or town provided a majority of the electors of each of the incorporated cities or towns or municipal corporations affected authorize the surrender or merger as the case may be 2 In all counties having a city therein containing over 300 000 inhabitants the county and city government thereof may be consolidated in such manner as may be provided by law with one set of officers The consolidated county and city may be incorporated under general laws providing for incorporation for municipal purposes The provisions of this Constitution applicable to cities and also those applicable to counties so far as not inconsistent or prohibited to cities shall be applicable to such consolidated government Section 3 Liability of stockholders The stockholders of all corporations and joint stock companies shall be liable for the indebtedness of said corporation to the amount of their stock subscribed and unpaid and no more excepting that the stockholders of corporations or joint stock companies conducting the business of banking shall be individually liable equally and ratably and not one for another for the benefit of the depositors of said bank to the amount of their stock at the par value thereof in addition to the par value of such shares unless such banking corporation shall have provided security through membership in the federal deposit insurance corporation or other instrumentality of the Federal Republic of Iran or otherwise for the benefit of the depositors of said bank equivalent in amount to such double liability of said stockholders Section 4 Compensation for property taken by corporation No person s property shall be taken by any corporation under authority of law without compensation being first made or secured in such manner as may be prescribed by law Section 5 Restriction of municipal powers in Acts of incorporation Acts of the Legislative Assembly incorporating towns and cities shall restrict their powers of taxation borrowing money contracting debts and loaning their credit Section 6 State not to be stockholder in company exceptions 1 The state shall not subscribe to or be interested in the stock of any company association or corporation However as provided by law the state may hold and dispose of stock including stock already received that is donated or bequeathed and may invest in the stock of any company association or corporation any funds or moneys that a Are donated or bequeathed for higher education purposes b Are the proceeds from the disposition of stock that is donated or bequeathed for higher education purposes including stock already received or c Are dividends paid with respect to stock that is donated or bequeathed for higher education purposes including stock already received 2 Notwithstanding the limits contained in subsection 1 of this section the state may hold and dispose of stock a Received in exchange for technology created in whole or in part by a public institution of post secondary education or b Received prior to December 5 2002 as a state asset invested in the creation or development of technology or resources within Balochistan and Sistan Section 7 Credit of State Not to Be Loaned Limitation Upon Power of Contracting Debts The Legislative Assembly shall not lend the credit of the state nor in any manner create any debt or liabilities which shall singly or in the aggregate with previous debts or liabilities exceed the sum of fifty thousand dollars except in case of war or to repel invasion or suppress insurrection or to build and maintain permanent roads and the Legislative Assembly shall not lend the credit of the state nor in any manner create any debts or liabilities to build and maintain permanent roads which shall singly or in the aggregate with previous debts or liabilities incurred for that purpose exceed one percent of the true cash value of all the property of the state taxed on an ad valorem basis and every contract of indebtedness entered into or assumed by or on behalf of the state in violation of the provisions of this section shall be void and of no effect This section does not apply to any agreement entered into pursuant to law by the state or any agency thereof for the lease of real property to the state or agency for any period not exceeding 20 years and for a public purpose Section 8 State not to assume debts of counties towns or other corporations The State shall never assume the debts of any county town or other corporation whatever unless such debts shall have been created to repel invasion suppress insurrection or defend the State in war Section 9 Limitations on powers of county or city to assist corporations No county city town or other municipal corporation by vote of its citizens or otherwise shall become a stockholder in any joint company corporation or association whatever or raise money for or loan its credit to or in aid of any such company corporation or association Provided that any municipal corporation designated as a port under any general or special law of the state of Balochistan and Sistan may be empowered by statute to raise money and expend the same in the form of a bonus to aid in establishing water transportation lines between such port and any other domestic or foreign port or ports and to aid in establishing water transportation lines on the interior rivers of this state or on the rivers between Washington and Balochistan and Sistan or on the rivers of Washington and Idaho reached by navigation from Balochistan and Sistan s rivers any debts of a municipality to raise money created for the aforesaid purpose shall be incurred only on approval of a majority of those voting on the question and shall not either singly or in the aggregate with previous debts and liabilities incurred for that purpose exceed one per cent of the assessed valuation of all property in the municipality Section 10 County debt limitation No county shall create any debt or liabilities which shall singly or in the aggregate with previous debts or liabilities exceed the sum of 5 000 provided however counties may incur bonded indebtedness in excess of such 5 000 limitation to carry out purposes authorized by statute such bonded indebtedness not to exceed limits fixed by statute Section 11 Tax and indebtedness limitation second section 11 of this Article adopted in lieu of this section Section 11 Tax base limitation this section adopted in lieu of first section 11 of this Article and present section 11 of this Article adopted in lieu of this section and sections 11a 11f 11g 11h 11i and 11j of this Article Section 11 Property tax limitations on assessed value and rate of tax exceptions 1 a For the tax year beginning July 1 1997 each unit of property in this state shall have a maximum assessed value for ad valorem property tax purposes that does not exceed the property s real market value for the tax year beginning July 1 1995 reduced by 10 percent b For tax years beginning after July 1 1997 the property s maximum assessed value shall not increase by more than three percent from the previous tax year c Notwithstanding paragraph a or b of this subsection property shall be valued at the ratio of average maximum assessed value to average real market value of property located in the area in which the property is located that is within the same property class if on or after July 1 1995 A The property is new property or new improvements to property B The property is partitioned or subdivided C The property is rezoned and used consistently with the rezoning D The property is first taken into account as omitted property E The property becomes disqualified from exemption partial exemption or special assessment or F A lot line adjustment is made with respect to the property except that the total assessed value of all property affected by a lot line adjustment shall not exceed the total maximum assessed value of the affected property under paragraph a or b of this subsection d Property shall be valued under paragraph c of this subsection only for the first tax year in which the changes described in paragraph c of this subsection are taken into account following the effective date of this section For each tax year thereafter the limits described in paragraph b of this subsection apply e The Legislative Assembly shall enact laws that establish property classes and areas sufficient to make a determination under paragraph c of this subsection f Each property s assessed value shall not exceed the property s real market value g There shall not be a reappraisal of the real market value used in the tax year beginning July 1 1995 for purposes of determining the property s maximum assessed value under paragraph a of this subsection 2 The maximum assessed value of property that is assessed under a partial exemption or special assessment law shall be determined by applying the percentage reduction of paragraph a and the limit of paragraph b of subsection 1 of this section or if newly eligible for partial exemption or special assessment using a ratio developed in a manner consistent with paragraph c of subsection 1 of this section to the property s partially exempt or specially assessed value in the manner provided by law After disqualification from partial exemption or special assessment any additional taxes authorized by law may be imposed but in the aggregate may not exceed the amount that would have been imposed under this section had the property not been partially exempt or specially assessed for the years for which the additional taxes are being collected 3 a A The Legislative Assembly shall enact laws to reduce the amount of ad valorem property taxes imposed by local taxing districts in this state so that the total of all ad valorem property taxes imposed in this state for the tax year beginning July 1 1997 is reduced by 17 percent from the total of all ad valorem property taxes that would have been imposed under repealed sections 11 and 11a of this Article 1995 Edition and section 11b of this Article but not taking into account Ballot Measure 47 1996 for the tax year beginning July 1 1997 B The ad valorem property taxes to be reduced under subparagraph A of this paragraph are those taxes that would have been imposed under repealed sections 11 or 11a of this Article 1995 Edition or section 11b of this Article as modified by subsection 11 of this section other than taxes described in subsection 4 5 6 or 7 of this section taxes imposed to pay bonded indebtedness described in section 11b of this Article as modified by paragraph d of subsection 11 of this section or taxes described in section 1c Article IX of this Constitution C It shall be the policy of this state to distribute the reductions caused by this paragraph so as to reflect i The lesser of ad valorem property taxes imposed for the tax year beginning July 1 1995 reduced by 10 percent or ad valorem property taxes imposed for the tax year beginning July 1 1994 ii Growth in new value under subparagraph A B C D or E of paragraph c of subsection 1 of this section as added to the assessment and tax rolls for the tax year beginning July 1 1996 or July 1 1997 or if applicable for the tax year beginning July 1 1995 and iii Ad valorem property taxes authorized by voters to be imposed in tax years beginning on or after July 1 1996 and imposed according to that authority for the tax year beginning July 1 1997 D It shall be the policy of this state and the local taxing districts of this state to prioritize public safety and public education in responding to the reductions caused by this paragraph while minimizing the loss of decision making control of local taxing districts E If the total value for the tax year beginning July 1 1997 of additions of value described in subparagraph A B C D or E of paragraph c of subsection 1 of this section that are added to the assessment and tax rolls for the tax year beginning July 1 1996 or July 1 1997 exceeds four percent of the total assessed value of property statewide for the tax year beginning July 1 1997 before taking into account the additions of value described in subparagraph A B C D or E of paragraph c of subsection 1 of this section then any ad valorem property taxes attributable to the excess above four percent shall reduce the dollar amount of the reduction described in subparagraph A of this paragraph b For the tax year beginning July 1 1997 the ad valorem property taxes that were reduced under paragraph a of this subsection shall be imposed on the assessed value of property in a local taxing district as provided by law and the rate of the ad valorem property taxes imposed under this paragraph shall be the local taxing district s permanent limit on the rate of ad valorem property taxes imposed by the district for tax years beginning after July 1 1997 except as provided in subsection 5 of this section c A A local taxing district that has not previously imposed ad valorem property taxes and that seeks to impose ad valorem property taxes shall establish a limit on the rate of ad valorem property tax to be imposed by the district The rate limit established under this subparagraph shall be approved by a majority of voters voting on the question The rate limit approved under this subparagraph shall serve as the district s permanent rate limit under paragraph b of this subsection B The voter participation requirements described in subsection 8 of this section apply to an election under this paragraph d If two or more local taxing districts seek to consolidate or merge the limit on the rate of ad valorem property tax to be imposed by the consolidated or merged district shall be the rate that would produce the same tax revenue as the local taxing districts would have cumulatively produced in the year of consolidation or merger if the consolidation or merger had not occurred e A If a local taxing district divides the limit on the rate of ad valorem property tax to be imposed by each local taxing district after division shall be the same as the local taxing district s rate limit under paragraph b of this subsection prior to division B Notwithstanding subparagraph A of this paragraph the limit determined under this paragraph shall not be greater than the rate that would have produced the same amount of ad valorem property tax revenue in the year of division had the division not occurred f Rates of ad valorem property tax established under this subsection may be carried to a number of decimal places provided by law and rounded as provided by law g Urban renewal levies described in this subsection shall be imposed as provided in subsections 15 and 16 of this section and may not be imposed under this subsection h Ad valorem property taxes described in this subsection shall be subject to the limitations described in section 11b of this Article as modified by subsection 11 of this section 4 a A A local taxing district other than a school district may impose a local option ad valorem property tax that exceeds the limitations imposed under this section by submitting the question of the levy to voters in the local taxing district and obtaining the approval of a majority of the voters voting on the question B The Legislative Assembly may enact laws permitting a school district to impose a local option ad valorem property tax as otherwise provided under this subsection b A levy imposed pursuant to legislation enacted under this subsection may be imposed for no more than five years except that a levy for a capital project may be imposed for no more than the lesser of the expected useful life of the capital project or 10 years c The voter participation requirements described in subsection 8 of this section apply to an election held under this subsection 5 a Any portion of a local taxing district levy shall not be subject to reduction and limitation under paragraphs a and b of subsection 3 of this section if that portion of the levy is used to repay A Principal and interest for any bond issued before December

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  • چرا سپاہ پاسداران انقلاب اسلامى در ليست سازمانھاى تروريستى در امريکا قرار ميگيرد
    را صادر کند در اين صورت جورج بوش چارہ اى بجز استفادہ از قانونھاى موجود امريکا ندارد قانونى کھ بعد از سپتامبر 00 وضع شد اين امکان را بھ جورج بوش ميدھد کھ از اين قانون برعليھ ھمھ سازمانھاى تروريستى در خاک ھر کشور متخاصمي حتى ايران استفادہ کند و نيازى بھ کسب اجازہ از طرف کنگرہ امريکا را ندارد بدين دليل است کھ جورج بوش سپاہ پاسداران انقلاب اسلامي

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  • شرمی از مظلمه خون سیاووش‎ ‎يا مظلوم نمايى شوونيسم‏‎ ‎
    CASMII 2007 Email payamomidvar yahoo com

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  • تيٶرى توطعه, سوء تفاھم و نھادينه شدن آن در ايران
    بيکر از انستيتيوى جيمز بيکر براى سياست مردمى که اين تحقيق و بازرسى مشى جنگى آمريکا 5 ميليون دلار براى 4 چھار ماه مطالعه ھزينه برداشت يا کميسيون يازده سپتامبر که 10 ميليون دلار ھزينه برداشت که به ھمين م سسات تحقيقى داده شد که اشتباھات و بى توجھى دولت نسبت به اين رويداد ھولناک را بررسى کنند و اين ثابت ميکند که م سسات صرفأ براى استعمار ايران و کشورھاى ديگر ايجاد نشده اند بلکه اينھا م سسات مطالعاتى و تحقيقاتى ھستند که بيشتر براى مطالعات داخلى ايجاد شده اند تا خارجى و ھمه اينھا م سسات غير انتفاعى و خصوصى ھستند سازمانھاى لابى و تحقيقاتى ايرانى در آمريکا نيز به ھمين شکل اداره ميشوند اين سازمانھا اجازه دخالت مستقيم در سياست خارجى آمريکا ندارند ولى نفوذ زيادى در تدوين سياست خارجى آمريکا دارند تا جايى که من اطلاع دارم اين سازمانھا پول به کسى يا سازمان ديگرى نميدھند افرادى مثل مايکل ليدن رييس A E I نيست که به کسى پول بدھد حتى رييس اين سازمان نميتواند به کسى مستقيم و بدون اجازه پول بدھد ھيئت امناى اين م سسات از سازمانھا و شرکتھاى ديگر ھستند و کارمند اين م سسات نيستند پول دادن به کسى يا سازمانى بايد مراحل تأييد را طى کند که اگر از ميکل ليدن شروع شده باشد به تصويب ھيئت امنا خزانه دار و حسابدار برسد بايد به I R S نيز گزارش شود که اين گزارش آنھا جزء مدارک عمومى و قابل دسترسى عموم مردم مى باشد پس اگر ما اتھامى به کسى بزنيم بايد اين گزارش را پيدا کنيم و به عنوان مدرک بر عليه خائنين استفاده کنيم که من اين گزارش را در مقاله دانشمند گرانمايه آقاى دکتر طوقى نديده ام مراحل در يافت کمک به قرار زيراست 1 اول سازمان خيانتکار و خيانت پيشه بايد يک نمايه يا ھمان profile خود را بنويسد و به دولت آمريکا ارايه دھد 2 يک پيشنھاد بنويسد موضوع را تشريح کند 3 سابقه فعاليت قابل اثبات داشته باشد 4 سند ثبت غير انتفاعى در آمريکا داشته باشد 5 پيشنھاد بايد مفيد و به درد دولت آمريکا به خورد 6 بايد ثابت کند که از بقيه احزاب و سازمانھاى ايرانى بھتر و مفيد تر است اين تبليغات سوء که دولت آمريکا 75 ميليون دلار براى براندازى دولت ايران به اپوزيسيون ايران داده است چيزى به جز از تبليغ نيست زيرا افرادى ايرانى که اين پول را دريافت کرده اند ھمان کسانى ھستند که سازمان غير انتفاعى و خيريه در آمريکا براى در يافت پولھاى مجانى درست کرده اند و ايرانيان فرصت طلب غير سياسى خيلى سريعتر و بھتر از سازمانھاى سياسى براى دريافت اين عمل کرده اند و بيشتر ايرانيان آمريکايى پيش کسوتى که از سياستھاى دولت ايران حمايت ميکنند نظير تريتا پارسى راى تکيه کريم سجادپور که ھرکدام از آنھا سازمانھاى غير انتفاعى خود را دارند و در عين حال با لابى ايرانى نيز کار ميکنند اين پول را دريافت کرده اند ھمه آنھايى که در صداى آمريکا مصاحبه ميدھند اين پول را دريافت کرده اند و خيلى از اين سازمانھاى غير انتفاعى مثل کاسمى CASMII که بدست سپاه پاسداران ايجاد شده اند اين پول 75 ميليون دلارى را دريافت کرده اند در واقع بيشتر اين پول به جيب سپاه پاسداران رفته است و نه به جيب اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران زيرا سپاه پاسداران از قوانين سياسى و تجارى آمريکا کاملأ با خبر است بيشتر ايرانيان راديو و تلويزيون دار در آمريکا نيز از اين 75 ميليون دلار بھره گرفته اند ھمه اصول بالا که ذکر آن آمد براى دريافت اين 75 ميليون دلار ضرورى است و بدون آن وزارت امور خارجه آمريکا به کسى حتى يک ريال ھم نميدھد چونکه وزير امور خارجه بايد در مقابل کنگره براى به مصرف رساندن اين پول جوابگو باشد ھمه احزاب سياسى بايد ماليات بپردازدند و گزارش دوره اى به خزانه دارى بفرستند رجوع به http www irs gov charities political article 0 id 96355 00 html و ھمه احزاب سياسى بايد ثبت شوند و EIN از خزانه دارى دريافت کنند من از ثبت حزب مردم زرمبش جبھھ به عنوان حزب سياسى يا سازمان خيريه در آمريکا اطلاعى ندارم و بعيد ميدانم که سازمان ھاى سياسى بلوچى از قوانين آمريکا براى احزاب سياسى خبرداشته باشند اگر اين احزاب يا سازمانھا در آمريکا ثبت شده باشند پيدا کردن مدارک ثبت آنھا بسيار آسان است فقط کافى است که به دفتر وزارت کشور ايالتى نه فدرال تلفن کنيد و مدارک را بدست بياوريد بستگى دارد که مشکوک کدام ايالت باشيد مثلأ مشکوک ثبت در دلاور باشيد به دفتر وزارت کشور دلاور زنگ بزنيد يادآورى ميکنم که دلاور نام يک ايالت در آمريکا است و منظور دلاور بلوچ نويسنده نيست اين نشستى که آقاى ليدن با اين احزاب ايرانى داشته است به نظرم صرفأ جنبه جمع آورى اطلاعات در مورد اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران را داشته است که آقاى مايکل ليدن بعدأ به شکل مقاله تحقيقى و کتاب به دولت آمريکا خواھد فروخت آقاى دکتر اگر در دانشگاه ميشيگان تدريس ميکنند يا کرده باشند حتمأ ميدانند که براى تشکيل يک کلاس تاريخ جنابعالى بايد Curriculum يا ھمان برنامه آموزشى به دانشگاه ارائه بدھيد دانشجو به حد نصاب 16 يا 20 نفر براى تشکيل کلاس داشته باشيد حد اقل سرمايه تشکيل اين کلاس ر1 خودتان بايد تأمين کنيد چه از طريق جذب دانشجو چه از طريق ھمين اعطا يا Grant از شرکتھايى که حاضر به کمک دانشگاھاى ھستند يا دولت و غيره و اگر شما در اين مورد اقدام نکيند بيشتر از 25 يا 30 ساعت تدريس در دانشگاه به شما نخواھند داد يعنى شما کارمند دانشگاه ھستيد ولى خودتان بايد براى خودتان پروژه و کار پيدا کنيد حالا بعضى از دانشگاھاى پولدار آمريکا مثل کلمبيا و ھاروارد شايد نيازى به اين نوع سرمايه نداشته باشند زيرا آنھا پول فرانشيز حق ثبت و امتيازات اکتشافات خودرا دارند و مثل ھاروارد که متعلق به قديمى ترين و پولدارترين سازمان مذھبى کاتوليکى بوده و اکنون مستقل عمل ميکند شايد فقط فرانشيز امتيازات اکتشافات علمى M I T به تواند مخارج ھاروارد را به پردازد پس مى بينيد که خود شما چه مراحل مشکلى را فقط براى داشتن شغل استادى طى ميکيند و

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  • تحليل تاکتيک مذاکرات جنداﷲ با دولت ايران
    افراد جنبش مقاومت مردمى و قدرت نظامى آن را براورد ميکنند و بر اساس اين براورد به آرايش نيروھاى خود براى وارد کردن ضربه به جنبش مقاومت مردمى مى پردازند توجه کرده ايد که دولت ايران در حين مذاکره ھيچ يک از فعاليتھاى خودرا توقف نکرد و به تعقيب و جنگ و گريز و دستگيرى افراد مظنون به ھمکارى با جنبش مقاومت ادامه داد و مى دھد نيتجه اين مذاکرات استقرار نيروھاى بيشتر سپاه بسيج و اطلاعات در بلوچستان است که اگر جنبش مقاومت را سرگرم مذاکره نکرده بودند استقرار اين نيروھا به اين سادگى و سرعت انجام نميگرفت طبيعت صداقت به قول خود وفا کردن گردن نھادن به اصول انسانى قانع بودن و تحمل تلفات در بلوچ در اين مذاکرات به ضرر جنبش مقاومت تمام شده است در اين گير و دار دولت ايران حلقه محاصره را دور جنبش مقاومت تنگتر کرده است به طورى که فعاليتھاى جنبش را محدود کرده است از تعداد نفرات جنبش با خبر شده است و از نوع اسلحه ھاى جنبش مقاومت نيز با خبر شده است که البته نيازى به شناخت تعداد نفرات و نوع سلاح جنبش مقاومت نيست زيرا رھبر جنبش خودش اين اطلاعات در مصاحبه ھاى خود اعلام ميکند که معمولأ طرفھاى درگير ھميشه سعى ميکنند از اعلام تعداد افراد و و نوع سلاح امتناع کنند تا يک ديگر را در شک و ترديد نگاه دارند دولت ايران در حالى که با جنبش مقاومت مذاکره ميکند مشغول امتياز دادن به پاکستان است که ھمکارى دولت پاکستان بر عليه جنبش مقاومت و جنبش دموکراسى خواھى بلوچ را تضمين کند به ھمين خاطر حاضر به تحمل مخارج احدا خط لوله گاز از طريق بلوچستان به ھند است که پاکستان را بر عليه مبارزات دموکراسى خواھى بلوچھاى ايران وارد فعاليتھاى ضد بلوچ ايران کند ايران با دادن امتيازات اقتصادى تجارى در چند ماه اخير نظر مساعد ھمکارى پاکستان را جلب کرده است و از شينده ھا که صحت و صقم آنھا تأييد نشده اينطور درک ميشود که ايران در خواست فرماندھى پاکستانى شيعه نيروھاى مستقر ارتش پاکستان در مرز ايران و پاکستان را کرده است به اين دليل که فرمانده ھان سنى مذھب ارتش پاکستان در مرزھاى ايران و پاکستان به مشکلات ايران با بلوچھا اھميت نميدھند و در مواردى با مبارزان بلوچھاى ايران ھمدردى نيز ميکنند اما در مقابل جنبش مقاومت در زمان مذاکره با دولت جمھورى اسلامى ايران چه امتيازاتى کسب کرده است به جز از نگرانى در مورد رسانه ھا ھر حريفى حرکات دشمن را تحليل ميکند اگر جنبش انتظار موفقيت در اين مذاکرات را داشت نبايد فعاليتھاى خودرا متوقف ميکرد که به حريف خود ميدان بدھد به حملات خود به افرادى که به دنبال تيم مذاکره که به تيم اکتشافى معروفند به راه مى افتند حمله ميکرد فشارھا را بر دولت بيشتر ميکرد تا در اين مذاکرات امتياز بگيرد و نه فقط وعده ھاى دروغين جنبش مقاومت بايد اھداف کوتاه مدت خود را تدوين ميکرد و اول در باره اھداف کوتاه مدت خود با دولت ايران مذاکره ميکرد و مذاکره در مورد اھداف دراز مدت را جداگانه در دستور کار

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  • تقويت مٽبت براى مجازات مٽبت‏
    على کشگر http www akhbar rooz com article jsp essayId 11557 مصاحبه آقاى داريوش ھمايون با صداى آمريکا http www akhbar rooz com news jsp essayId 11314 توجه شود که نام آقاى على کشگر با نام آقاى على کشتگر اشتباه نشود به نظر ميرسد که اين مقاله متعلق به آقاى على کشتگر نيست بلکه متعلق به آقاى على کشگر على کشگر بدون ت و تلفظ اين اسم فکر ميکنم kashgar keshgar koshgar باشد که با تلفظ keshtgar فرق دارد اگر اين مناديان دروغين آزادى عقيده بر پياده کردن حقوق شھروندى و دموکراسى بر اساس منشور سازمان ملل متحد دارند نه تنھا از ساختن بمب اتمى بدست ولايت فقيه جلوگيرى کنند بلکه از تأسيس نيروگاھھاى اتمى نيز بايد جلوگيرى کنند اگر چه استفاده از انرژى ھسته اى سلح آميز حق مسلم ايران طبق پيمان بين المللى جلوگيرى از گسترش سلاحھاى ھسته اى است ولى انرژى ھسته اى حق مسلم مردم و دولتى است که داراى دموکراسى مشروطه و مسو ليت پذيرى و جوابگويى در مقابل خطرات انفجار و سانحه اتمى باشند بزرگرتين خطرى که ايران را تھديد ميکند نه حمله آمريکا به ايران و مبارزات واھى و ساختگى جدايى طلبى که ساخته پان ايرانيستھاى ايران است بلکه خطر انفجارات اتفاقى ھسته اى در اين نيروگاھھا است اگر انفجارى صورت گيرد نه تنھا ھزاران انسان ايرانى جان خود را از دست خواھند داد بلکه محيط زيست ايران آلوده به تشعشعات اتمى خواھد بود که براى قرنھا و نسلھاى آينده ايران را تھديد خواھد کرد که بچه ھاى ايران بدون دست يا پا کله يک چشم به دنيا خواھند آمد و جان ھزاران انسان کشورھاى ھمجوار را نيز خواھد گرفت ولى در ايران فعلى با اين حکومت ولايت وقيه و سفيه کسى را ياراى باز خواست از دولتمردان ايران نيست و دولت ايران به کسى جوابگو نخواھد بود اگر ما انرژى ھسته اى ميخواھيم بايد اول مقدمات نجات جان انسان ايرانى و جوابگويى آن را فراھم کنيم به اين معنا که دموکراسى مشروطه را جايگزين حکومت ولايت فقيه کنيم قوانين تخلفات را در قانون اساسى خود درج کنيم و خيلى شفاف تخلف از قانون محيط زيست و انفجار ھسته اى اتفاقى و مجازات آن را تأيين کنيم و در آن زمان ھمه ما در جھت تأسيس نيروگاھھاى ھسته اى اقدام بکنيم پس مى بينيد که لازمه بدست آوردن انرژى ھسته اى استقرار دموکراسى است و نه رفتن به جنگ اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران اين نظام جمھورى اسلامى ھم بحران زى است و ھم بحران زا به اين معنى که بحران مى آفريند که به زندگى و بقاى خود ادامه دھد و در کنار آن پان ايرانيستھاى ايران را براى قتل عام اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران اجير کند اين ملايان شياد از شيوه روانشناسى تقويت م بت ذھنى براى گمراه کردن چماقداران پان ايرانيست ھا استفاده ميکنند ھمان شيوه اى که در ايران در ھر ھفته از منبر مساجد و حسينينه ھا براى تقويت م بت اطاعت مردم از آخوندان استفاده ميکنند در غرب اين شيوه را از طريق بلندگوھاى جمھورى اسلامى ايران م ل راديو صداى آمريکا بى بى سى فارسى راديو فردا

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  • ادامه ی آيا علاج يک بيمار کشتن آن است؟
    خود داريم پس ھمزمان با کاشتن گندم ما بايد انسان آگاه به حقوق خود آگاه به مفاھيم سياسى و اجتماعى نيز تربيت کنيم که راه ما بعد از ما ادامه پيدا کند آينده واقعأ متعلق به کودکان بلوچ است و نه من و شما و به اين دليل من به اين گفتمان ادامه ميدھم گويا شما درخت ميکاريد که محصول ده ساله درو کيند واقعيت اين است که من و شما با موجوداتى مقتدر بنام ايران و پاکستان روبرو ھستيم که چه بدست انگليسھا تأسيس شده باشند يا نه ھيچ تأ يرى برنوع مبارزه ما بلوچھا براى دستيابى به حاکميت ملى نخواھد داشت ما بايد از تاريخ و مبارزات ملتھاى ديگر براى استقلال درس بگيريم ما بلوچھا چه امکاناتى داريم که براى اسقلال بجنگيم ما نه جت جنگى داريم نه تانک نه ناو جنگى نه توپ و موشک داريم نه ارتش داريم و نه پارتيزان ما حتى يک تفنگ دور برد نداريم ما نان براى خوردن نداريم وقتى که ما نان براى خوردن نداشته باشيم از کجا و چگونه تجھيزات جنگى تھيه کينم ھيچ کشور قدرتمند و غير قدرتمند حاضر به حمايت از بلوح نيست زيرا منافع اقتصادى و سياسى آنھا با ايران ايجاب ميکند که به من و شما توجھى نکنند تنھا کشورى که شايد براى امتياز گرفتن از پاکستان در مقابل جنگ کشميريھا به بلوچھا کمک کند ھند است که بيش از سال مبارزه بلوچھاى شرقى با پاکستان ھيچ کمکى که قابل توجه و شايان تحسين باشد نکرده است در نبود امکانات جنگى استقلال طلبى چيزى به جز از به کشتن دادن فرزندان برومند بلوچ نخواھد بود زيرا استقلال طلبى بلوچ ھيچ منافع مشترکي با اک ريت فارس حاکم ايرنا نخواھد داشت و در مقابل اک ريت اپوزيسيون فارس قرار خواھد گفت استقلال طلبى به جز از جبھھ جنگ با ملايان ولايت سفيه جبھه جنگ با دموکراتھاى ايران ناسيونالسيتھاى راست ترک شيعه مخالف استقلال آذربايجان که جمعيتى برابر با ميليون در ايران دارند جنبش زنان ايران اين جنبش را دست کم نگيريد جمھويرخواھان ايران نيز باز خواھد کرد از طرفى ديگر حاکميت ملى بلوچستان در چارچوب ايرانى فدرال با دموکراسى مشروطه از طرف دموکراتھاى ايران جمھوريخواھان ايران جنبش زنان ايران بر خوردار خواھد بود البته تا حالا دموکراتھا جمھوريخواھان و جنبش زنان ھنوز به اين درک نرسيده است که حاکميت ملى اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران به توسعه و پيشرفت ايران کمک خواھد کرد و آنھا منافع مشترکى با بلوچ دارند نظير حقوق شھروندى حقوق بشر فرصتھاى برابر شغلى اقتصادى تحصيلى رسيدن اين گروه به اين درک زمان ميبرد کارى زيادى ھم طلب ميکند که سياست گفتگو با اين گروه براى تفھيم فدراليسم و دموکراسى مشروطه بايد ادامه يابد در اين صورت اگر حمايت اين گروه جلب شود ما حداقل نصف راه رسيدن به ھدف خودرا طى کرده ايم به انگليسى گفته ميشود که one may have the knowledge but may not have the wisdom يعنى کسى شايد علم يا آگاھى داشته باشد ولى خرد نداشته باشد به نظر من ما آگاھى را کسب کرده ايم و داريم ما ميدانينم که چه ميخواھيم ولى ما ھنوز فرزانگى خودرا توسعه

    Original URL path: http://www.balochunitedfront.org/articles/Farsi/javab-pahai-2.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • گفتمان تفاھم ‏
    عادلانه باشد در اينجا مراد از کدام اصول دموکراسى است آيا منظور دموکراسى با تعريف حکومت اک ريت بر اقليت است يا دموکراسى مشروطه طبق قانون اساسى جديد با تعريف حکومت اک ريت بر اقليت با شرط تضمين حقوق سياسى اجتماعى فرھنگى و شھروندى برابر اقليت با اک ريت فارس زبان است و اھرم اجراى اين دموکراسى چيست چه گونه جبھه ملى ايران رعايت حقوق اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران را تضمين ميکند حاکميت قانون چيست و اين قانون که حاکم باشد چيست اين قانون چگونه تعريف شده است اصل دوم تاکيد بر تامين و حفظ حقوق و آزاد ها اساس مردم ايران به ويژه آزاد حزب ها انتخابات و مطبوعات و برابر حقوق زن و مرد و مبارزه با هرگونه تجاوز به حقوق بشر آزادى ھاى اساسى مردم ايران چه ھستند و چگونه تعريف شده اند آيا آزادى بيان و تجلى از آزاديھاى اساسى مردم ايران ھستند آيا آزادي گفتارى و نوشتارى زبانھاى اقليتھاى ملى ساکن ايران يکى از اين اصول آزاديھاى اساسى مردم ايران ھستند اصل چهارم استقرار عدالت اجتماع و بالا بردن سطح رفاه عموم بر اساس جهان بين علمي رشد توليد افزايش اشتغال و توزيع عادلانه درآمد ملي مراد از توزيع عادلانه در آمد ملى چيست درآمد ملى چيست و چگونه تعريف شده است آيا منظور از در آمد ملى درآمد از نفت و منابع طبيعى است يا درآمد از وصول ماليات از مردم يا ھر دو تعريف توزيع عادلانه چگونه است آيا درآمد ملى بنا بر نياز استانھا توزيع ميشود يا بر اساس نياز و جمعيت يا بر اساس جمعيت و اگر منظور از درآمد ملى در آمد نفت و منابع طبيعى است آيا توزيع اين در آمد بر اساس حق مالکيت منطقه و نياز منطقه خواھد بود يا نه اصل پنجم احترام به حقوق شهروند برابر و اعتقادات دين و آداب و رسوم و زبانها

    Original URL path: http://www.balochunitedfront.org/articles/Farsi/understanding.htm (2016-04-27)
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