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  • Biology Online Blog | The latest developments in biological science
    of convergent evolution Continue reading Posted in Microbiology Tagged Bacteria Buchnera GroEL Immunity Infection MAMPs Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns PAMP Triggered Immunity PTI PAMPs Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns Pathogens PRRs Pattern Recognition Receptors R resistance proteins Symbiosis 3 Comments What s next for the allergy season Posted on August 18 2014 by biology online This cold spring brought a late season for the trees but this does not have any impact on what is going to happen in August and the fall for outdoor pollen and mold spores There are many weeds that cause seasonal allergies Some of them include plantain nettles ragweed and others But only weeds that are mostly or partially air pollinated are included in outdoor air samples The weeds do not include ones that have a strong smell colourful flowers or do not get airborne Dandelion These other weeds can cause allergic reactions but only on contact with the skin Continue reading Posted in Aerobiology Tagged Air pollination Allergy Alternaria Basidiomycota Cladosporium Coprinus Fungal spores Ganoderma Mold spores Mushroom Pollen Ragweed Seasonal allergies 2 Comments How Celiac Disease Affects The Digestive System Posted on June 2 2014 by biology online Celiac disease is a condition that affects the digestive systems of many individuals all over the world and in this article the goal is to explain it in a way that anyone can understand what s really happening We might even include some intense action like in the movies The digestive system is a beautiful thing We start breaking down that tasty food in our mouths by chewing it and enzymes in our saliva even starts to break down the carbohydrates that are present in our food It then takes the journey down your pharynx to your esophagus and ends up in the stomach Continue reading Posted in Physiology 6 Comments The pollen season for 2014 a Pollen Vortex Posted on May 22 2014 by biology online I am going to do a follow up of my last post regarding the pollen season of 2014 and the cold spring that occurred First I would like to refer to this term that has been used this season called the pollen vortex A vortex refers to weather like the wind and not to pollen Our research has proven that pollen release is affected by temperature sunshine rain etc but the wind is just a vector by which the tree pollen are carried in the atmosphere Continue reading Posted in Aerobiology Tagged Fungal spores Mold Pollen Pollen Vortex Pollinator Season 7 Comments 5 Unexpected Activities that Release Endorphin Posted on May 20 2014 by biology online Endorphin is one of the natural happy chemicals released by our bodies This chemical which is secreted by our brains is responsible for helping us relieves stress anxiety and allows us to have higher tolerance for pain Sometimes called as the natural morphine endorphin affects our pain and pleasure perception Continue reading Posted in Aerobiology Bacteriology Tagged Endorphin Leave a comment Where is

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/blog/ (2016-02-17)
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  • Canadian system for outdoor air monitoring | Biology Online Blog
    all have one of our samplers at their location Our goal has always been to provide better and more accurate information to pharmaceutical companies for clinical trials to allergists and also to the public This could only be accomplished through a great deal of research using our data and also other environmental factors such as weather The need for this was shown as soon as we realized how complex the study of pollen and fungal spore levels was The first problem was to figure out when the season started for each different pollen type and for each of our locations This graph shows the difference in the season start dates for birch in Ottawa When dealing with generalities for reports often the result is misleading High pollen counts mean trouble for pollen sufferers Not really nobody is allergic to trees in general only to specific trees There are many species of trees and shrubs in any given area Insect and bird pollinated varieties with their showy flowers like lilacs and flowers don t get airborne so they are not important allergens When we only include the airborne pollinators we are dealing with few species Hence a high count can result in no or few allergenic reactions if the species are benign or the person does not have an allergy to anything that is in the air on any one day It is therefore important to indicate in a high count what constitutes that count A low or moderate count can cause reactions if the count includes highly allergenic species such as oak elm or ragweed We chose to concentrate on individual genera known to cause reactions Because of low cross reactivity trees have to be handled differently from say ragweed Among the grasses there is some cross reactivity but many

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/blog/?p=507 (2016-02-17)
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  • Fall and Winter Allergies | Biology Online Blog
    be important in causing allergic reactions Another very common fungus that grows on dead grasses and other decaying weeds and other vegetative matter is Cladosporium This fungal spore is very abundant throughout the summer months but especially in August and fall From August and well into fall these fungal spores can be found in high numbers and may be the cause of allergic reactions for some people who suffer from seasonal allergies Cladosporium The fungal spores in some areas explain why some people are still suffering from allergies when we are reporting that the pollen levels are low This type of information is important so that people can be equipped to better understand when different types of allergies occur Weather is a key component on determining what the levels of the fungal spores will remain at in the fall months In areas where the temperatures will be staying warm Vancouver and Victoria for example these fungal spores may stay in high enough numbers to keep causing allergic reactions to sensitized individuals well into the fall season Ganoderma I often get asked about allergies in the winter months or when the snow is melting in the early spring when there is no pollen in the air and the fungal spores are still very low There are several things that come to mind when considering allergic reactions at that time of the year One is indoor air quality which includes dust mites animal dander formaldehyde radon mold and other great things that happen to the air in the home if steps are not taken to keep the air in a healthy state and to keep humidity under control The other fungus that occurs in the early spring and summer are different types of snow mold There are different species of snow mold

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/blog/?p=495 (2016-02-17)
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  • A Symbiont Betrays Its Host | Biology Online Blog
    defenses However the insect equivalents of MAMPs are few at best and in the case of the aphids such constituents have not yet been identified Yet upon aphid infestation plants respond with a vigorous immune response What sets it off How do their hosts recognize them The answers matter to us because aphids being sap feeders that suck the plant s sap are highly destructive pests of cultivated plants The answer is that aphids do carry MAMPs but how they do this is surprising It turns out that the component that is recognized is not part of the aphid itself but is a microbial made MAMP produced by an obligate endosymbiont the bacterium Buchnera This seems like a risky and unusual arrangement relying on the invader s symbiont to reveal its presence But since the symbiotic connection between aphid and Buchnera is obligatory one can think of the bacterium as having become an intrinsic part of the aphid Betrayed by your endosymbionts How did the researchers arrive at this conclusion They examined the saliva of 100 00 aphids not as daunting a task as it sounds because the insects can be gathered by vigorously shaking infected plants over a plastic sheet They found that aphid saliva contains 11 Buchnera proteins the most abundant among them being the chaperonin GroEL which is a highly conserved and essential protein that is quite abundant in many bacteria it ranks about 5th or 6th among all the proteins of E coli It is required for the proper folding of many proteins although that is not its role here Boiled preparations work just as well so what is being recognized is a molecular pattern not a physiological activity Figure 3 Expression of three defense marker genes WRKY29 FRK1 and PR1 in Arabidopsis leaves infiltrated with PBS phosphate buffered saline or 1 5 μM GroEL or GUS a b glucuronidase control Recognition is one thing setting off an immune response as a good MAMP should is another The investigators did indeed show that GroEL induces resistance of potato plants to aphids by cloning the Buchnera groEL gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens a non pathogen that is used for gene delivery to plants The plant infected with this engineered strain induced the PTI genes and reduced fecundity of the aphids The same effect was shown for Arabidopsis and its aphids here using transgenic plants expressing Buchnera GroEL Here too aphid reproduction was diminished and PTI genes were induced As if this were not enough evidence the researchers also produced the same effect by applying purified GroEL protein to the plants directly Convincing though these results are it would be even more persuasive if one could manipulate Buchnera s groEL gene directly However this is a distant dream because no genetic system is available to make mutants in these organisms Like many other insect endosymbionts Buchnera has a reduced genome that tolerates few genomic changes In addition GroEL being an essential protein mutants would not be viable so one

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/blog/?p=462 (2016-02-17)
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  • What’s next for the allergy season? | Biology Online Blog
    temperature less than 24 degrees Celsius which have been occurring for a few days in a row this summer So typically the main season with the higher counts for ragweed starts early to mid August Ganoderma Ragweed is found in some of our Maritime collecting sites but generally not in high numbers The places where ragweed is found in high numbers are in the Provinces of Quebec Ontario and Manitoba The locations we have in the Province of Saskatchewan have low counts except for Regina Regina has a significant season compared to Saskatoon and Prince Albert The Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have no ragweed or very little pollen is observed at our locations Nettles The main ragweed season in August and how high the counts are is dependent on how high the temperatures are and how much rain we get A very hot and dry August will delay the moderate and high counts and the season will be lower Ragweed Allergy sufferers can be subjected to low counts for almost a month which means there immune system is being primed to the antigen for a long period of time The counts start going lower around the second week of September and will last with low counts until a hard frost The other outdoor allergens that are significant and play an important role are the fungal spores These allergens are generally poorly understood and are often neglected as the possible cause of a person s allergic reactions Fungal spores like Cladosporium Alternaria and others are common and in abundance come June and July and until October Alternaria sp Another group of fungal spores are the Basidiomycota They are a group that is not recognized by many Allergists and allergy sufferers as a possible cause of allergic reactions This group

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/blog/?p=445 (2016-02-17)
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  • Biology Online
    Share your work Submit your Work Biology Online org is the World s No 1 free resource for biology related information run by enthusiasts from all around the world and visited by over 25 000 people every day Please help us grow our content Submit your own articles tutorials essays reports or any other biology related work and we will publish it online in the appropriate section Use the form

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/share_work.php (2016-02-17)
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  • Biology-Online • View forum - Cell Biology
    03 2016 8 41 am Ig and Ab by jannat Mon Oct 27 2014 3 37 pm 5 Replies 4076 Views Last post by chemnorm Tue Feb 02 2016 7 18 am dna polymerase by mihir Wed Sep 23 2015 8 51 pm 2 Replies 763 Views Last post by fanbrits Mon Jan 18 2016 1 29 pm are soluble fiber is absorbed in the large intestine by d9esco Tue Dec 15 2015 10 56 pm 0 Replies 878 Views Last post by d9esco Tue Dec 15 2015 10 56 pm Do we know all the proteins and their primary structure by Julie5 Thu Apr 28 2011 9 35 am 6 Replies 5201 Views Last post by chance Mon Nov 16 2015 2 06 am human body cell quantification by claudepa Tue Nov 03 2015 12 55 pm 1 Replies 884 Views Last post by EnricoPallazzo Thu Nov 05 2015 4 02 pm Where do protein complexes get their quarternary structure by polymerator Mon Jun 29 2015 1 05 pm 2 Replies 2553 Views Last post by claudepa Tue Nov 03 2015 4 49 pm CHOICE OF MAMMALIAN CELL HOST by chance Tue Nov 03 2015 2 08 am 0 Replies 524 Views Last post by chance Tue Nov 03 2015 2 08 am Exocytosis vs Pinocytosis by zyphanx Sun Apr 16 2006 2 38 pm 2 Replies 6819 Views Last post by kk Mon Nov 02 2015 7 07 pm PEG principle by thomasm Wed Oct 28 2015 9 44 am 0 Replies 472 Views Last post by thomasm Wed Oct 28 2015 9 44 am valve endothelial cells by thomasm Wed Oct 28 2015 9 36 am 0 Replies 460 Views Last post by thomasm Wed Oct 28 2015 9 36 am Cell Culture Contamination Air particle quantity Size by NathanielZhu Sun Oct 25 2015 8 21 pm 0 Replies 496 Views Last post by NathanielZhu Sun Oct 25 2015 8 21 pm ATP and ADP Pi by Khan Sun Mar 12 2006 11 14 pm 3 Replies 23983 Views Last post by harveydobson Mon Oct 19 2015 6 08 am cell biology by bioscience56 Fri Oct 16 2015 12 43 am 0 Replies 592 Views Last post by bioscience56 Fri Oct 16 2015 12 43 am Are Globular Proteins just red Blood cells by d9esco Wed Sep 23 2015 10 53 pm 1 Replies 655 Views Last post by venus666 Thu Oct 15 2015 7 38 am Totipotent Stem Cell From Molecular Components by caters Sun Feb 02 2014 10 58 pm 3 Replies 10183 Views Last post by chance Wed Sep 09 2015 5 35 am Contamination in cells by LochNess Tue Sep 08 2015 7 33 pm 0 Replies 594 Views Last post by LochNess Tue Sep 08 2015 7 33 pm AP Biology Homework Help by jpmac13 Fri Sep 04 2015 3 39 am 0 Replies 1103 Views Last post by jpmac13 Fri Sep 04 2015 3 39 am Cellular division and endoplasmic reticle

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/forum-4.html (2016-02-17)
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  • Biology-Online • View forum - Molecular Biology
    am My Multiplex PCR reaction works but not my single rxn by rodneyjudescott Fri Jul 24 2015 8 58 pm 2 Replies 2058 Views Last post by Helics Thu Jan 28 2016 8 51 pm Glucose by Aria94 Wed Jan 20 2016 8 28 pm 0 Replies 363 Views Last post by Aria94 Wed Jan 20 2016 8 28 pm Cell volume and reciprocal cell volume calculations whaaat by drivenmaker12 Thu Jan 07 2016 11 27 am 0 Replies 297 Views Last post by drivenmaker12 Thu Jan 07 2016 11 27 am HFQ Protein from bacteria by kishsel Thu Dec 31 2015 7 14 am 3 Replies 637 Views Last post by claudepa Sat Jan 02 2016 7 55 pm Brunner Syndrome could truncated MAO protein cause problem by thetada1 Fri Dec 11 2015 12 13 pm 1 Replies 574 Views Last post by claudepa Sat Dec 19 2015 5 21 pm Why is TSH reported in mIU l by gs99 Wed Nov 11 2015 5 50 pm 4 Replies 978 Views Last post by gs99 Thu Dec 10 2015 4 46 pm Define microbicidal by d9esco Mon Dec 07 2015 3 41 pm 0 Replies 336 Views Last post by d9esco Mon Dec 07 2015 3 41 pm Method for enhancing solubility of recombinant protein by chance Tue Nov 10 2015 5 59 am 0 Replies 637 Views Last post by chance Tue Nov 10 2015 5 59 am Describe the difference between these terms by d9esco Sun Nov 08 2015 8 05 pm 0 Replies 454 Views Last post by d9esco Sun Nov 08 2015 8 05 pm most complex abiotic nonliving molecules by mattw Sun Oct 25 2015 4 43 pm 3 Replies 931 Views Last post by claudepa Wed Nov 04 2015 5 10 pm Ni NTA Columns by piefke Wed Feb 13 2008 7 38 am 4 Replies 3287 Views Last post by chance Thu Oct 15 2015 9 13 am experiences with ni affinity protein purification by piefke Fri Jun 27 2008 9 34 am 3 Replies 5379 Views Last post by chance Thu Oct 15 2015 9 04 am Total protein concentration before Elisa by Steven2015 Wed May 13 2015 2 18 am 1 Replies 1814 Views Last post by venus666 Thu Oct 15 2015 7 30 am Restriction Digesion by Helics Sun Apr 06 2014 4 07 pm 4 Replies 2624 Views Last post by Javedz2001 Sun Oct 11 2015 5 19 pm TAE Buffer preparation by dunamis Thu Feb 26 2015 6 05 pm 1 Replies 2691 Views Last post by Javedz2001 Sun Oct 11 2015 5 14 pm What an expression vector must have by olduvai Sun May 03 2015 6 48 am 1 Replies 2083 Views Last post by Javedz2001 Sun Oct 11 2015 5 01 pm How to perform gradient PCR by w19910411 Wed Mar 11 2015 8 47 am 1 Replies 2195 Views Last post by Javedz2001 Sun Oct 11 2015 4 54 pm DNA sequence Nucleotide

    Original URL path: http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/forum-1.html (2016-02-17)
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