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  • Ecology
    heavier they produce a fibrous wood strong wnough to support the body abot84 6a Vaccinium vitis idaea L growing on the ultramafic rock of Mt Albert Gasp abot85 5 Arillate seeds of Cabralea canjerana Meliaceae are primarily disperesed by birds in the Atlantic forest of Brazil However hundereds of naturally fallen or partially eaten diaspores may be found on the forest floor with bits of aril attached The red lipid rich aril is highly attractive to ants such as the large Odontomachus chelifer size 2cm Aril removal by ants greatly facilitates seed germination abot87 2 A stoma from the scale of a female cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii var glauca Magnification 6800x Photosynthesis and respiration of male and female cones of Douglas fir may have significant effects on whole tree physiology abot87 4 Sixteen photographs of a single shoot of the vine Lonicera japonica are superimposed to create a time lapse image of its clockwise rotation The photographs were taken over a 2 h period and represent the plant movement known as circumnutation abot87 5 A site on Stepping Stones Island along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula where plants were collected for field and environmental chamber experiments examining the influence of temperature on the growth of flowering plants abot87 12 The nonphotosynthetic plant Sarcodes sanguinea Monotropoideae Ericaceae receives all its carbon from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Rhizopogon ellenae Boletales that proliferates in its immediate surroundings abot89 1 Fire rages through oaks pines and palmettos at the Archbold Biological Station Lake Placid Florida Scrub oaks quickly regain acorn production following fire abot89 10 Seed samples from the ex situ Phaseoleae collection held at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and chiefly centered on the conservation of wild forms of Phaseolus and Vigna abot92 7 Scaling relationships among photosynthetic rate foliar nutrient concentration and leaf mass per unit area LMA have been observed for a broad range of plants Leaf traits of the carnivorous pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica endemic to southern Oregon and northern California USA differ substantially from the predictions of these general scaling relationships net photosynthetic rates of Darlingtonia are much lower than predicted by general scaling relationships given observed foliar nitrogen N and phosphorus P concentrations and LMA At five sites in the center of its range leaf traits of Darlingtonia were strongly correlated with elevation and differed with soil calcium availability and bedrock type The mean foliar N P of 25 2 abot93 8 A glossophagine bat Anoura geoffroyi Phyllostomidae visiting Burmeistera sodiroana Campanulaceae in a flight cage set up in the Bellavista Cloud Forest Reserve Pichincha Province Ecuador The flower morphology fits the bat s head closely allowing precise and consistent pollen placement on the crown note the spot of pollen from a previous visit The well exposed flowers of this species and eight other Ecuadorian species of Burmeistera are dull colored and emit strong odors and were found to be highly specialized for bat pollination although bats and hummingbirds visited their flowers

    Original URL path: http://pix.botany.org/media/collection/id.37.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Mycology and Plant Pathology
    Awards for STUDENTS PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards STA Vernon I Cheadle STA TRIARCH Botanical Images STA Given by SECTIONS Developmental Structural Section Ecological Section Economic Botany Section Genetics Section Mycological Section Phycological Section Physiological Section Phytochemical Section Pteridological Section amp American Fern Society Southeast Section Recognition and Presentation Awards for STUDENTS BSA Young Botanist Awards Given by SECTIONS Isabel Cookson Award Katherine Esau Award Maynard Moseley Award Emanuel D Rudolph Award Ecological Section Best Student Presentation Poster Awards Genetics Section Poster Award Physiological Section Best Student Presentations Li COR Prize Special Funds and Awards James M and Esther N Schopf Fund Paleo News News Meetings Posting a NEWS Item Careers Jobs Post doctoral Fellowship and Career Opportunities Posting Conferences Announcements amp Employment Opportunities Careers in Botany online resource BOTANY science from students perspectives Governance BSA Governance Information BSA Officers Officer Duties Sectional Officers Committees Committee Officers BSA Reports Council Reports Business Meeting Minutes Council Meeting Minutes BSA Website Statistics BSA Project Grant Reports Bylaws Policies Procedures Bylaws of the Sections Reimbursement Request Form Guidelines for Professional Ethics Outreach BSA Science Education and Outreach PlantingScience PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards Resources What is Botany Classroom PLANT Talking Points Trees You and CO2 Crime Scene Botanicals Endosperm the Food We Eat Stone or Plant McIntosh Apple Development Poster One Bad Apple Sailing Seeds Gasping for Breath Careers in Botany BOTANY science from students perspectives PlantED Digital Library Plant Image Collection Carnivorous Plants The Mysterious Venus Flytrap Parasitic Plants Statement on Evolution State Botanical References ALABAMA FLORIDA ILLINOIS INDIANA KANSAS MINNESOTA MISSOURI NEW HAMPSHIRE OHIO OKLAHOMA SOUTH DAKOTA WISCONSIN BSA Suggested Websites International Plant Societies Plant Image Collection Collections Media Mycology and Plant Pathology Media abot88 1 Artificially colored ascospores of the saprobic microfungus Aliquandostipite khaoyaiensis Loculoascomycetes Ascomycota The ascospores are hyaline 60 m long and surrounded by an appressed sheath that detaches when it comes in contact with water The fungus is thus far known only from the type locality in a tropical rain forest in Thailand Fruitbodies are 0 25 mm across light to dark yellow in color and formed on decaying wood on the ground Partly because of their small size saprobic microfungi are poorly known Surveys especially in the tropics regularly yield high proportions of new species of which many are difficult to place in the existing taxonomic system even at the ordinal level abot95 07 Of the estimated 1 5 million species of fungi only 5 are presently known to science but even this small fraction includes a bewildering variety of forms and ecological types Recent Tree of Life studies have begun to clarify the complex relationships observed in most fungal groups and new discoveries aid in this effort A new species of Marchandiomyces discovered recently in Australia by Guy Marson and described in this issue is helping to shed light on the remarkable nutritional diversity of the basidiomycete order Corticiales which includes saprophytes plant and fungal pathogens lichen forming fungi and now leaf inhabiting foliicolous species

    Original URL path: http://pix.botany.org/media/collection/id.38.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Physiology and Development
    George R Cooley Award A J Sharp Award Edgar T Wherry Award Awards for EARLY CAREER SCIENTISTS BSA s Emerging Leader Award George H M Lawrence Memorial Award Given by SECTIONS Michael Cichan Award Paleo Research Awards for STUDENTS J S KARLING GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH AWARD BSA Graduate Student Research Awards BSA Undergraduate Student Research Awards BSA Young Botanist Awards Given by SECTIONS Genetics Section Graduate Student Research Awards Travel Awards for STUDENTS PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards STA Vernon I Cheadle STA TRIARCH Botanical Images STA Given by SECTIONS Developmental Structural Section Ecological Section Economic Botany Section Genetics Section Mycological Section Phycological Section Physiological Section Phytochemical Section Pteridological Section amp American Fern Society Southeast Section Recognition and Presentation Awards for STUDENTS BSA Young Botanist Awards Given by SECTIONS Isabel Cookson Award Katherine Esau Award Maynard Moseley Award Emanuel D Rudolph Award Ecological Section Best Student Presentation Poster Awards Genetics Section Poster Award Physiological Section Best Student Presentations Li COR Prize Special Funds and Awards James M and Esther N Schopf Fund Paleo News News Meetings Posting a NEWS Item Careers Jobs Post doctoral Fellowship and Career Opportunities Posting Conferences Announcements amp Employment Opportunities Careers in Botany online resource BOTANY science from students perspectives Governance BSA Governance Information BSA Officers Officer Duties Sectional Officers Committees Committee Officers BSA Reports Council Reports Business Meeting Minutes Council Meeting Minutes BSA Website Statistics BSA Project Grant Reports Bylaws Policies Procedures Bylaws of the Sections Reimbursement Request Form Guidelines for Professional Ethics Outreach BSA Science Education and Outreach PlantingScience PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards Resources What is Botany Classroom PLANT Talking Points Trees You and CO2 Crime Scene Botanicals Endosperm the Food We Eat Stone or Plant McIntosh Apple Development Poster One Bad Apple Sailing Seeds Gasping for Breath Careers in Botany BOTANY science from students perspectives PlantED Digital Library Plant Image Collection Carnivorous Plants The Mysterious Venus Flytrap Parasitic Plants Statement on Evolution State Botanical References ALABAMA FLORIDA ILLINOIS INDIANA KANSAS MINNESOTA MISSOURI NEW HAMPSHIRE OHIO OKLAHOMA SOUTH DAKOTA WISCONSIN BSA Suggested Websites International Plant Societies Plant Image Collection Collections Media Physiology and Development Media abot84 9 Vessel contents in the petiole of a transpiring sunflower leaf Vessels containing water shown in green gas spaces embolisms in red Some vessels are completely embolized others contain varying amounts of water as well as gas The proportion of embolized vessels was followed during a day s transpiration Petioles were snap frozen intact on the transpiring plant and viewed still frozen in the cryo scanning microscope abot89 5 A silique of Arabidopsis thaliana enclosing ovules containing torpedo shaped embryos cultured horizontally in a hormone free sucrose containing medium photographed 25 d after culture in the dark and 1 d in continuous light Seedlings arise by viviparous germination of embryos which complete their development but do not lapse into dormancy Normal plants are raised by subsequent transplantation of seedlings to soil vermiculite abot86 11 World in a petri dish constructed from various morphological mutants of the moss

    Original URL path: http://pix.botany.org/media/collection/id.39.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Plant cell biology
    Distinguished Fellow of the Botanical Society of America Charles Edwin Bessey Teaching Award Darbaker Prize Donald R Kaplan Memorial Lecture Jeanette Siron Pelton Award Grady L Webster Publication Award BSA Corresponding Members Given by SECTIONS Winfried and Renate Remy Award Paleo Contributions to Paleobotany Paleo Margaret Menzel Award George R Cooley Award A J Sharp Award Edgar T Wherry Award Awards for EARLY CAREER SCIENTISTS BSA s Emerging Leader Award George H M Lawrence Memorial Award Given by SECTIONS Michael Cichan Award Paleo Research Awards for STUDENTS J S KARLING GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH AWARD BSA Graduate Student Research Awards BSA Undergraduate Student Research Awards BSA Young Botanist Awards Given by SECTIONS Genetics Section Graduate Student Research Awards Travel Awards for STUDENTS PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards STA Vernon I Cheadle STA TRIARCH Botanical Images STA Given by SECTIONS Developmental Structural Section Ecological Section Economic Botany Section Genetics Section Mycological Section Phycological Section Physiological Section Phytochemical Section Pteridological Section amp American Fern Society Southeast Section Recognition and Presentation Awards for STUDENTS BSA Young Botanist Awards Given by SECTIONS Isabel Cookson Award Katherine Esau Award Maynard Moseley Award Emanuel D Rudolph Award Ecological Section Best Student Presentation Poster Awards Genetics Section Poster Award Physiological Section Best Student Presentations Li COR Prize Special Funds and Awards James M and Esther N Schopf Fund Paleo News News Meetings Posting a NEWS Item Careers Jobs Post doctoral Fellowship and Career Opportunities Posting Conferences Announcements amp Employment Opportunities Careers in Botany online resource BOTANY science from students perspectives Governance BSA Governance Information BSA Officers Officer Duties Sectional Officers Committees Committee Officers BSA Reports Council Reports Business Meeting Minutes Council Meeting Minutes BSA Website Statistics BSA Project Grant Reports Bylaws Policies Procedures Bylaws of the Sections Reimbursement Request Form Guidelines for Professional Ethics Outreach BSA Science Education and Outreach PlantingScience PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards Resources What is Botany Classroom PLANT Talking Points Trees You and CO2 Crime Scene Botanicals Endosperm the Food We Eat Stone or Plant McIntosh Apple Development Poster One Bad Apple Sailing Seeds Gasping for Breath Careers in Botany BOTANY science from students perspectives PlantED Digital Library Plant Image Collection Carnivorous Plants The Mysterious Venus Flytrap Parasitic Plants Statement on Evolution State Botanical References ALABAMA FLORIDA ILLINOIS INDIANA KANSAS MINNESOTA MISSOURI NEW HAMPSHIRE OHIO OKLAHOMA SOUTH DAKOTA WISCONSIN BSA Suggested Websites International Plant Societies Plant Image Collection Collections Media Plant cell biology Media abot87 11 A projection of 29 confocal optical sections taken at 0 2 m intervals through the hyphal network in an inner cortical cell of a root of Medicago truncatula colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi The root section was stained with Texas Red conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin which binds to the surface of the hyphae Confocal images by E B Blancaflor L Zhao and M J Harrison Other Collections This collection is within Botany Plant Science Previous in Botany Plant Science Plant Geography Paleobotany Plant Geography Plant Morphology Lichens Pollen Carnivorous Plants Plant Anatomy Xylem Development Cellular Communication Channels

    Original URL path: http://pix.botany.org/media/collection/id.40.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Population Biology
    BSA Governance Information BSA Officers Officer Duties Sectional Officers Committees Committee Officers BSA Reports Council Reports Business Meeting Minutes Council Meeting Minutes BSA Website Statistics BSA Project Grant Reports Bylaws Policies Procedures Bylaws of the Sections Reimbursement Request Form Guidelines for Professional Ethics Outreach BSA Science Education and Outreach PlantingScience PLANTS Diversity Student Travel Awards Resources What is Botany Classroom PLANT Talking Points Trees You and CO2 Crime Scene Botanicals Endosperm the Food We Eat Stone or Plant McIntosh Apple Development Poster One Bad Apple Sailing Seeds Gasping for Breath Careers in Botany BOTANY science from students perspectives PlantED Digital Library Plant Image Collection Carnivorous Plants The Mysterious Venus Flytrap Parasitic Plants Statement on Evolution State Botanical References ALABAMA FLORIDA ILLINOIS INDIANA KANSAS MINNESOTA MISSOURI NEW HAMPSHIRE OHIO OKLAHOMA SOUTH DAKOTA WISCONSIN BSA Suggested Websites International Plant Societies Plant Image Collection Collections Media Population Biology Media abot83 7 Concentric rings of seed traps around individual parent plants of Lepidium campestre Brassicaceae used to document the distance and directional components of an individual s seed dispersion pattern in the absence of vegetation abot83 8 The federally endangered green pitcher plant Sarracenia oreophila Sarraceniaceae in flower Thirty five populations of this insectivorous perennial species remain in the southeastern U S Allozyme diversity is low in this species small populations and geographically disjunct populations maintain the least genetic diversity abot85 4 Brighamia rockii Campanulaceae in full flower at ka aloa Peak Moloka i Hawaii Both members of this endemic Hawaiian genus B rockii rom Moloka i and its sister species B insignis from Kaua i and Ni ihau are federally endangered abot86 4 Leptonycteris curasoae visiting flowers of Stenocereus stellatus in a wild population in Zapotitlán de las Salinas Tehuacán Valley Mexico abot88 2 The sunflower species Helianthus anomalus from the Little Sahara Sand Dunes in Utah abot88 8 A hover fly transports pollinia among flowers of Epipactis helleborine L Crantz in England Dominantly wasp mediated cross pollination has generated genetic structures consistent with random mating in both European and introduced North American populations abot89 9 A syrphid fly Toxomerus spp visits a wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum flower Syrphids are one of a variety of effective pollinators of wild radish which also include bumble bees honey bees sweat bees and cabbage butterflies The strength of selection exerted by these pollinators and the heritability of floral traits in the field are lessened by a large degree of within plant variation in these traits abot90 10 The three most abundant Venezuelan columnar cacti from left to right Pilosocereus lanuginosus Linnaeus Byles Rowley Stenocereus griseus Haworth Buxbaum and Cereus repandus Linnaeus Miller These species depend strictly on nectar feeding bats for their pollination Bat mediated gene dispersal confers high levels of genetic exchange among populations of the three species a process that enhances levels of genetic diversity within their populations abot91 9 A hawk moth Basiothia schenki Sphingidae visiting the night flowering Zaluzianskya natalensis Scrophulariaceae upper left and a long proboscid fly Prosoeca ganglbauri Nemestrinidae visiting

    Original URL path: http://pix.botany.org/media/collection/id.41.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Reproductive Biology
    Infrared gas analyzer being used in the field to measure the photosynthetic rate of a leaf of pink lady s slipper orchid abot81 10 The Bitterroot Valley of western Montana showing a typical habitat for the rare species Arabis fecunda dry and rocky with erodible sparsely vegetated slopes This species has a mixed mating system and exhibits inbreeding depression attributes of reproductive biology that may complicate efforts to preserve its populations abot81 11 Pollination droplet secreted from tip of slender micropylar tube of Ephedra ovule Pollen adheres to the sticky sugar rich droplet which later retracts to allow pollen to germinate in the pollen chamber adjacent to the female gametophyte abot82 2 The central yellow ring of a young Androsace lanuginosa Primulaceae flower turns red over several days while the rest of the flower remains fresh and unchanged The color presumably signals the plant s fly pollinators which visit only rewarding yellow phase flowers Such floral color changes occur in at least 77 families in 33 orders abot82 6 A unisexual early male umbel of Bomarea acutifolia a hummingbird pollinated vine in the mountains of Costa Rica Following the male phase each flower continues to produce nectar during a week long neuter phase and then becomes female Thus each umbel is temporally unisexual and opportunities for self pollination are limited abot82 9 Group of Calypso bulbosa Orchidaceae from the rocky Mountain foothills west of Calgary Alberta Canada After receiving pollen these flowers undergo rapid changes in color and shape but the rate of change is unaffected by the amount of pollen deposited Removal of a flower s own pollen does not cause color or shape changes abot83 2 A myrmicine ant Aphaenogaster araneoides carrying a seed of a neotropical understory herb Calathea micans Marantaceae Ant planted chasmogamous and cleistogamous seeds differed in establishment success in understory and gap sites abot83 4 Cross section of Lilium at the tetrad stage stained with the PAS polysaccharide specific reaction Soluble carbohydrates are detected within the locular fluid and the tapetum whereas starch grains are accumlated in the outer anther wall layers epidermis endothecium and middle layers abot83 9 Pollination drops inside an ovulate cone of Sequoiadendron These drops persist undisturbed during wet periods since a water sheet forms on the wettable cone surface Pollen capture resumes immediately after the cone dries abot84 2 Pyllocladus glaucus Carr Phyllocladaceaes Toatoa or Blue Celery Pine endemic to New Zealand showing part of a pseudowhorl of fertile phylloclades Cones are borne marginally towards the base of these modified branch complexes The individual ovules with pollination drops are at the stage of pollen receptivity Magnification x5 from a color transparency by J E Braggins abot84 4 A capitulum of the South African beetle daisy Gorteria diffusa Asteraceae The dark raised spots on the ray florets are strikingly similar to the bee fly Megapalpus nitidus Bombyliidae that pollinates this plant Experiments show that bee flies are more strongly attracted to capitula with spots than capitula in which spots have

    Original URL path: http://pix.botany.org/media/collection/id.42.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Structure and Development
    fungus Glomus mosseae showing branching hyphae that will eventually form a weft abot79 10 Homogeneous all blue and heterogeneous with white globoids protein bodies occur in different cells in the cotyledon of Lupinus luteus abot80 1 Cross section of rachilla of fertile floret of fall Panicum grass Some vascular parenchyma cells are specialized as transfer cells and exhibit conspicuous wall ingrowths abot80 3 Left panel a germinated Chara oospore zygote with a rhizoid and protonemal cell Right panel Chara rhizoids that were generated from thallus cuttings In both panels the rhizoids are oriented relative to the gravity vector which is toward the bottom of the figures abot80 4 Autofluorescent cell walls of the connective bases of three anthers of a thistle Cirsium horridulum The stamen filaments extending down from each connective base are not visible because they lack the autofluorescent component in their cell walls abot80 8 Transverse view of trunk interior of Browningia candelaris illustrating adaptations wood rays and a broad pith with an extensive system of collateral vascular bundles abot80 10 Transverse section one locule of vigna vexillata Fabaceae anther The three developing pollen grains are at the microspore stage each has ektexine ridges overlying a thick inner exine wall endexine An additional plug of wall material Zwischenk abot81 6 The coleorhiza epidermis has root hairlike extensions that elongate upper right during radicle emergence lower left of perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne Artifically colored scanning electron micrograph abot81 12 Hurricane Andrew 24 August 1992 blew down many large and rare palm trees at Fairchild Tropical Garden Miami Florida This disaster offered a unique opportunity to collect and study the apical buds of these massive monocotyledons as wells as the root and branch wood of a wide range of tropical dicotyledons abot82 1 Section of chimeral apex of a Balanophora tuber The composite bundle shown is an integrated mixture of host and parasite cells which acts as the host parasite interface Parasite meristematic cells are large large nuclei are yellow or blue with small dots Small cells with light blue nuclei are host meristematic cells center of micrograph Pseudocolorized image abot82 3 Cross section of a mature leaf of the C 4 species Atriplex rosea showing the striking structural differentiation of bundle sheath and mesophyll tissue During leaf development a bundle sheath specific enzyme RuBPCase is expressed coincident with vein delimitation Later a mesophyll specific enzyme PEPCase accumulates after formative divisions have ceased abot82 5 Enlarged area of cleared of palo verde Cercidium floridum Empty cells veinlet idioblasts each interconnected by a perforation platelike gap are unique to Cercidium occurring mostly in pairs or clusters abutting terminal veins abot82 7 Silver plated models of Sphagnum branches were employed in studies of boundary layer properties The model based on morphology of S trinitense left an aquatic species generated thinner boundary layers than the S recurvum model right a nonaquatic species when evaluated in an electrochemical fluid tunnel Models are 10 times life size with the branch axes 10 cm long abot82

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  • Systematics
    subgenus Ficus have been found to be nonmonophyletic abot88 3 A flower of Tibouchina semidecandra a well known ornamental from southeastern Brazil Tibouchina is a member of the large tropical family Melastomataceae and together with other Melastomeae has been regarded as representing a relatively basal element of the family Molecular evidence suggests that Tibouchina Melastoma Osbeckia and other Melastomeae represent a derived clade of Melastomataceae that only recently reached Africa and tropical Asia abot88 4 The magnificent blossoms of magnolias have been highly prized in landscaping for centuries Molecular analysis of the magnolia family provides new evidence for phylogenetic relationships previously undetected by systematists From top left Michelia champaca Mich figo Mich maudiae Magnolia biondii Mag zenii Mag kobus Mag stellata Mag campbellii Mag sprengeri Mag denudata Mag cylindrica Mag salicifolia Mag lilliflora Mag acuminata Manglietia moto Mang insignis Mag grandiflora Mag sharpii Mag virginiana Mag henryi Mag delavayi Mag coco Mag sieboldii Mag wilsonii Mag obovata Mag officinalis Mag tripetala Mag splendens Mag fraseri Kmeria septentrionalis Mag macrophylla Liriodendron tulipifera Photo credit Sangtae Kim Richard Figlar Dorothy Callaway Munyong Chong Kihun Song Holly Forbes Kenneth Durio and Junghee Lee Design Sangtae Kim abot88 6 A watercolor reproduction of Plate 27 Trichomanes crispum originally drawn by Walter Fitch for Hooker W J 1862 Garden ferns Lovell Reeve Co London UK abot88 10 Lemon scented sun orchid Thelymitra antennifera Members of Thelymitrinae rely on deceit to attract pollinators This species blooms at the same time as a similar lilioid flower that offers a reward The generalized floral morphology seen in Thelymitra probably represents the plesiomorphic state for Diurideae but members of the subtribe often have highly modified columns adorned with brush like appendages to assist in pollen presentation a simple form of which can be seen in this species abot89 2 Floral diversity in the blueberries Vaccinieae Ericaceae Top row from left Paphia meiniana Queensland Australia photo K A Kron Vaccinium corymbosum eastern United States photo K A Kron Macleania stricta Ecuador photo J L Luteyn Second row from left Satyria warszewiczii Panama photo E A Powell upper abot89 4 Inocybe hirsuta var maxima A H Smith SAT 01 279 08 photographed in the Hoh River Valley in Olympic National Park Washington USA This variety is common in Washington under western hemlock and is also known from eastern North America under eastern hemlock abot89 7 The giant rosette Espeletia hartwegiana growing in paramo of the central cordillera of Colombia abot89 8 The bull banksia Banksia grandis of southwestern Australia New molecular data suggest that a clade of erect and prostrate shrub banksias with tough serrate leaves is more closely related to the co occurring genus Dryandra than to this and other species of tree banksias abot89 12 IT Mabelia connatifila IT one of the triurid taxa represented by exquisitely preserved flowers found in the Cretaceous Raritan Formation of New Jersey IT Mabelia IT is portrayed in a reconstructed habitat of leaf litter that includes remains of the fern IT Boodlepteris IT

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