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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    A 1 Are fungi able to degrade complex carbohydrates in hypersaline microbial mats Fungi are organisms with a great diversity of adaptative capabilities We can find them in every ecosystem including extreme environments like the microbial mats from hypersaline lagoons studied in this project In general fungi can decompose complex carbohydrates into smaller subunits in nature The mayor goal of this research is to reveal the metabolic capabilities of fungi found inhabiting microbial mats Our objective is to determine the fungal capability to degrade exopolymeric substances EPS produced within hypersaline microbial mats and identify study the lignocellulolitic activities using different assays Xanthan gum is a natural EPS produced by Xanthomonas campestris that will be used as an EPS model in this study Isolates were cultivated in media containing xanthan gum as the sole carbon source Fungal isolates were previously identified using microscopic examination and molecular techniques Xanthan gum degradation was monitored using the phenol sulphuric acid assay In general fungi can grow in xanthan gum After ten weeks two fungi were capable of degrading xanthan gum Penicillum sp degraded 58 and Aspergillus terreus degraded 55 Our results showed that fungi can grow in the presence of xanthan gum as the

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=613 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    amount of primary sequence data over 100 million sequences to date of wildly varying quality GenBank has an obligation to archive these data but variable annotation quality particularly with respect to taxonomic identifications poses problems for users in picking out reliable well annotated sequences for phylogenetic or other analyses NCBI has developed subsidiary databases to curate entries derived from the primary GenBank archive such as RefSeq Genomes http www ncbi nlm nih gov RefSeq The RefSeq Targeted Loci Project will contain curated sets of phylogenetic markers with16S sequences from the type strains of prokaryotes as the prototype of this new resource We propose to extend this reference sequence set first to the fungi but to ultimately include all groups of eukaryotes Complete sequences of selected genes from type strains of fungal species or from other reliably identified specimens where type material is not available will be selected from GenBank for inclusion in this dataset Minimal annotation will include specimen voucher or culture collection accession as appropriate type strain coequivalent strains and information about the collection and identification of the specimen Sequence corrections may also be made vector primer removal The RefSeq Targeted Loci Project datasets will be available by ftp

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=597 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    life cycles or seed plants Fern spores germinate into free living multicellular haploid individuals called gametophytes that live independently of the diploid generation These stages of the fern life cycle are clearly modeled in a 3D manner to clearly illustrate the forms and to engage the interest of the viewer This project involves the common ground of two different fields art and biology in a way that will engage and educate members of both disciplines Biologically accurate and informative fern life cycles are illustrated richly on ceramic plates The natural material of clay is suited for the depiction of biological forms such as the fern life cycle because the plasticity of the medium allows for the modeling of supple organic form However unlike most fluid materials which are ephemeral in nature clay can be dried and heated to high temperatures which melts the clay particles together and fixes the fluid form into a sturdy permanent object Clay is also suited for the depiction of natural forms because the clay is colored with natural earth tones derived from minerals applied to the clay s surface before firing The content of the work will interest members of the scientific community who otherwise

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=1244 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    1 Riina Ricarda 1 Van Ee Benjamin 2 A second generation molecular phylogeny of the giant genus Croton Euphorbiaceae with evidence from three genomes The first two gene molecular phylogeny of Croton Euphorbiaceae published four years ago sampled 78 of the estimated 1250 species in the genus It allowed us to properly circumscribe the genus and segregate from it the small genus Astraea as well as to assess the sectional classification of Webster However the non coding nuclear ITS and chloroplast trnL F markers do not provide supported resolution along the backbone of the phylogeny and there are a few notable incongruences between them Evidence from three additional chloroplast markers rbcL ndhF and matK is consistent with the phylogenetic signal from trnL F and did not increase support To address this shortcoming we have added DNA sequence data from a single or low copy coding nuclear marker and a coding mitochondrial marker We have also greatly increased our sampling of the genus to over 120 species and 150 accessions Our second generation phylogeny has led to much greater support at deeper nodes of the genus and a better circumscription of the sections or subclades within Croton It also allows us

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=825 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    the genus Solanum Delimiting sections of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum The genus Solanum Solanaceae is one of the largest and most economically important plant genera One of the largest groups within the genus is the Leptostemonum clade with ca 350 450 species This clade is also known as the spiny solanums due to the presence of epidermal prickles and it basically conforms to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum of traditional classifications Here we present a phylogeny of the spiny solanums with a goal of examining the monophyly of sections recognized within this large clade Of particular interest are sections Micracantha Erythrotrichum and Torva which have members convergent in many traits These groups have challenged taxonomists because they each contain species that are scandent shrubs with recurved spines used for climbing and exhibit similar characteristics in hairs flowers and fruits These sections have received taxonomic attention but until recently have been largely absent from molecular phylogenies Here we present data that show that the three sections can be differentiated by both morphological and molecular characters and we provide a key for their identification Our data indicate that section Erythrotrichum contains more species than previously thought and has two main centers of diversity one in

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=144 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    cycling of carbon C and nitrogen N in soil Although community composition may affect the range and rate of C and N transformations we have a poor understanding of the ecological processes that drive fungal community assembly We used molecular and phylogenetic approaches to survey fungal communities in the forest floor and soil of three different mature temperate upland hardwood forest types in replicated stands across the landscape Our results demonstrate that generally most fungal species had very patchy distributions Vertical stratification between the two soil horizons accounted for 20 of the variance in species distribution whereas forest type accounted for 10 However phylogenetic lineage analysis revealed that the three forest types harbored distinct communities Two forest types characterized by low pH soils and high lignin litters showed the greatest species and lineage overlap driven by ectomycorrhizal Russula and Cortinarius spp in the soil and saprotrophic Mycena and Collybia spp in the forest floor Moreover in these forest types both the ectomycorrhizal and the saprotrophic agaricomycete communities exhibited significant phylogenetic clustering at both the landscape and the local scale suggesting that ecological filtering is the dominant process in community assembly In contrast the fungal communities of a more mesic sugar

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=538 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    control of pitcher morphology in Sarracenia Carnivorous plants are fascinating due to their ability to utilize insects for nutrition Pitcher plants Sarracenia spp are a special class of carnivorous plants that use pitfall traps to capture prey enzymes within the pitcher then degrade the bodies of their prey for nutrients These pitchers which are modified leaves exhibit a great deal of morphological plasticity Previous work indicates that such variation may be the result of several factors including hybridization and soil nutrient content Our work will focus on the correlations between Sarracenia pitcher morphology population genetic structure and soil nutrient content as tools to define species boundaries and hybrid zones This work will take place within the Splinter Hill Bog Preserve TNC where four sites will be selected for surveying based on annual or biannual burning Within each site a CVS vegetation plot will be established to allow for estimates of species richness and diversity of associated plant communities A maximum of 36 Sarracenia plants regardless of species will be sampled at regularly spaced intervals along parallel transects within each plot for a total of 144 across all sites All sampled plants will be photo documented genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=484 (2016-02-01)
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  • Botany & Mycology 2009 - Abstract Search
    and Chemically Diverse Communities of the Lichen forming Genus Xanthoparmelia Parmeliaceae Ascomycota in Western United States The foliose lichen genus Xanthoparmelia includes over 800 described species displaying a complex array of morphological and secondary metabolite diversity In this study we evaluate the relationship of seven morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia species identified in a single well supported unresolved monophyletic clade using sequence data from 5 nuclear markers Taxa include X chlorochroa X coloradöensis X cumberlandia X dierythra X lipochlorochroa X neochlorochroa and X vagans In all analyses we found significant evidence of gene flow or hybridization among investigated taxa Putative species were not recovered by two empirical species delimitation methods Additionally haplotype networks show that taxonomically important secondary metabolites do not reflect genealogical relationships among sampled individuals These networks suggest multiple independent origins of the vagrant life form at a local scale and the widespread distribution of some vagrant haplotypes support the grazing ungulate mediated dispersal of X chlorochroa A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that these seven taxa can be clustered into three distinct populations all containing representatives of X chlorochroa X coloradöensis and X cumberlandia Although putative species are not supported by these data pairwise comparisons of

    Original URL path: http://2009.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=305 (2016-02-01)
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