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  • Expert Opinion - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Our funding schemes Biomarker Project Awards Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Topic Expert Opinion Topic Expert Opinion Mouth cancer dentists and GPs should be able to refer patients straight for tests Category Science blog November 27 2015 Cancer Research UK Professor Richard Shaw a mouth cancer specialist who helped create our new Oral Cancer Toolkit explains why it differs from the NICE referral guidelines Read More Peering behind the pathology lab door A day in the life of a pathologist Category Science blog November 5 2015 Cancer Research UK To mark National Pathology Week we sat down with Dr Suzy Lishman President of the Royal College of Pathologists to find out what a pathologist actually does Read More Expert opinion Constant craving how can science help smokers to quit Category Science blog September 27 2015 Cancer Research UK UCL s Professor Robert West explains the science that can help smokers combat their cravings and quit the habit Read More Expert Opinion treating cancer by exploiting how its DNA is repaired Category Science blog September 18 2015 Emma Smith We spoke to two of our own experts about how they re targeting fundamental repair processes in our cells to tip cancer cells over the edge Read More News digest GPs cancer survival herpes virus treatment smoking statistics and some terrible puns Category Science blog May 30 2015 Misha Gajewski Here s our round of this week s cancer news Read More Expert opinion Professor Charlie Swanton plotting a route through cancer evolution Category Science blog February 28 2014 Nick Peel Professor Charlie Swanton wants to know how tumours evolve Read about his latest research and the next steps in targeting tumour diversity Read More Expert Opinion The challenges of lung cancer Category Science blog April 4 2013 Emma Smith One of our leading experts in lung cancer Professor Dean Fennell shares his thoughts on this devastating disease Lung cancer is an enormous health burden bot Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read today Most discussed Don t believe the hype 10

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/topic/expert-opinion/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Expert Opinion – treating cancer by exploiting how its DNA is repaired - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    chemistry of DNA and the precise pairing between the two strands forming the famous double helix Laurence tells us The next level up are tools that can repair bigger mistakes for example if chemicals from tobacco smoke get attached to DNA this can cause it to break The damaged bit of DNA is chopped out and re built correctly Lastly cells can spot major architectural faults in DNA the most common type of mistake in cancer The cell is a bit of a wreck at this point with chunks of DNA missing or glued together incorrectly or ending up with the wrong amount of DNA after dividing What happens in the pit lane Whether the cell s mechanics can get things back on track depends on the type and extent of the damage Cells come with their own built in warning systems molecules that scan DNA on the look out for problems If these molecules detect any damage they immediately flag to the cell there s a problem The first thing that needs to happen when warning lights go on is to stop and figure out what the issue is Laurence explains Damaged cells halt all but the most essential functions for example metabolism will slow down and cells will stop dividing The next step will be to repair the damage if that s possible Small mistakes like the odd incorrect letter can be fixed quite easily and the cell can get back up and running But too many mistakes or more catastrophic events like big chunks of DNA being swapped around are usually too bad to fix At this point the only solution is to admit defeat and retire from the race the cell activates a self destruct programme known as apoptosis Carry on regardless When it comes to DNA damage repair cancer cells are in a bit of a conundrum What s really stark is just how important it is for cancer cells to ignore some DNA damage Dr Frances Pearl All cancer cells have genetic mistakes or abnormalities that s what drives their growth Frances tells us In order to carry on growing quickly they need to turn off some of their DNA checking and repair tools to tolerate these mistakes otherwise they d grind to a standstill To make matters worse the loss of this DNA proofreading allows more mistakes to creep in fuelling more genetic chaos and driving tumour evolution which we know results in a worse outlook for the patient When Frances looked at how common it was for cancer cells to disable some of their molecular mechanics both she and Laurence were surprised at just how frequently it happened What s really stark is just how important it is for cancer cells to ignore some DNA damage Frances says We looked at 5 000 samples from a huge online database of cancer research data called The Cancer Genome Atlas project and discovered that a large proportion of cancers have mistakes in the genes

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/09/18/expert-opinion-treating-cancer-by-exploiting-how-its-dna-is-repaired/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Cancer ‘mainly bad luck’? An unfortunate and distracting headline - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    25554788 Black cat image via Istolethetv Flickr used under a CC BY 2 0 license Share this article More on this topic Tags Alcohol Body weight and obesity Cancer in the news Causes of cancer Diet Lifestyle Preventing cancer Sun UV Tobacco Comments Click here to cancel reply Mohammad Baig January 16 2015 What is the bad luck by the way other than the poverty and unjust the major source of all the illness and the deprivation We must be very straight forward on such issues and do not link with our financial interest Millions of people in pakistan are caught in the cancer just because of poor food unhealthy living and bad environment conditions because of mismanagement of the responsible institutions just If these are rectified it can be improved Mohammad Baig January 16 2015 Who will define what is bad luck and from where it comes The given version of bad luck is just a lullabying to hide the very fact that cause the major source of cancer food environment Victor S January 14 2015 Dan you missed the point of the study that says that some cancers are only bad luck Dan Cooke January 13 2015 I think a lot of the commentards here are missing the point Whether you get cancer or not is a matter of chance or luck but you increase your chances of getting it or bad luck with certain lifestyle choices As the article says you can smoke and not get lung cancer and not smoke and get lung cancer You are just 20 times more likely to get it if you smoke Sharada January 13 2015 I do appreciate the comments made in this article however I have struggled to understand why I had breast cancer at the age of 27 I am now 42 it has not returned thankfully I didn t have a particularly healthy lifestyle but no more unhealthy than my friends There is no history of breast cancer in my family After having read the article on risk factors the only thing I can t confirm is whether my breast tissue is more dense than usual But still I was 27 years old I personally have two ideas as to why I might have got breast cancer One I ve always had hormonal problems problematic periods and PMT etc However I d had several hormone tests and none of them revealed any problems Secondly mental health I d had a very bad episode of depression for a couple of years prior to getting breast cancer At one point when I was feeling suicidal I wished cancer upon myself Of course this was dismissed by the medical team looking after me However I believe that negative thought and stress can play a huge part in physical health I m surprised that it hasn t been mentioned as a factor in keeping a healthy lifestyle Victor S January 13 2015 Smoking wasn t listed in the original paper at bad luck You should edit the article and remove smoking from the argumentation Dr John Barrett January 11 2015 To ascribe a disease to bad luck simply means we do not know the cause As a medical student in the 1950s almost all the patients I saw with cancer had no known cause and that was bad luck Who knows what research over the next 60 years could reveal Louise Heffernan January 10 2015 This is quite a difficult article to read if your husband has recently died from cancer He was told it was bad luck at the beginning of his treatment as he didn t smoke or drink much and was only a little overweight I spend my days wondering if we could have done anything differently This article does not help me deal with my grief He was unlucky in that the surgery and the radiotherapy actually completely removed the cancer in the throat but unfortunately a few cancerous cells it seems had already travelled to the liver and were discovered a couple of years later Jo January 9 2015 My husband was the healthiest fit person non smoker fruit loving surfing cycle maniac u could meet at 59 he developed pancreatic cancer and given months to live 8 months later he was still surfing however 1year after being diagnosed he died his lifestyle was perfect he did everything right I get very annoyed when people suggest a bad lifestyle link to pancreatic cancer perhaps in this case it was bad luck bad genes Sue January 9 2015 And what about children who get cancer Is is bad luck for them Cannot be lifestyle led can it Having watched my grandson being treated successfully thank god for non Hodgkin s lymphoma and other children who were not try telling the parents that it was bad luck Alan Kay January 9 2015 Whilst I agree that a healthy lifestyle is important I am very annoyed with the inference that people who are diagnosed with Bowel cancer do not lead a healthy lifestyle your article tars everyone with the same brush My wife was diagnosed with Bowel cancer in Sept has never smoked we never eat processed foods she exercised regularly and had no symptoms it was detected through the screening programme after having major surgery and now going through Chemotherapy a very difficult time is now being made worse by inferring that the cancer was more than likely caused by lifestyle your reporting needs to be more focused with a broader view Diane January 9 2015 I am 58 I have always been slim I have never drunk more than 2 units occasionally in a week I avoid lactose I have never smoked I live backing into woods I cycle walk sail I have stage 4 breast cancer Which part of my life style caused it Patricia Dagnall January 9 2015 I tended to agree with the recent findings of cancer being just an unfortunate and unlucky prtion

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/01/05/cancer-mainly-bad-luck-an-unfortunate-and-distracting-headline/ (2016-02-11)
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  • The causes of cancer you can control - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    fruit etc Incorporating a series of such healthy behaviours into your daily life can make a significant difference to your future risk of cancer What you need to know Finally below we ve pulled together some of the important information you need to know about the 14 lifestyle and environmental risk factors analysed in this study Tobacco although the number of smokers has fallen dramatically over the last 30 years and lung cancer rates have fallen too UK smoking rates have stagnated over recent years at around 22 per cent We re doing all we can to help people quit and protect children from the influences that lead them to become smokers That s why we re campaigning for plain packaging so that young children won t be exposed to the tobacco industry s last marketing channel Overweight obesity and being overweight was the second biggest cause of cancer in the UK in the new study Despite this people are still unaware that their weight can have such a strong influence on their cancer risk In a Cancer Research UK survey only 3 per cent of people named obesity as something that can increase cancer risk We re using campaigns like Active Fat to help people understand that keeping a healthy weight can really help reduce the risk Fruit and vegetables the reason fruit and veg come out so highly in this analysis is probably that many people in the UK eat fewer than their recommended 5 portions a day Fruit and veg are an important source of vitamins minerals and fibre but don t rely on supplements to get the nutrients you need they haven t been shown to reduce cancer risk and in some cases they may be harmful Alcohol you don t have to cut out alcohol completely to reduce the risk of cancer the more you cut down the more you can reduce the risk You could try tracking your drinking for a few weeks to see how much alcohol you really drink many people underestimate the amount Use our drinks tracker or download the NHS app on your iPhone or android device Occupation some people are more at risk of cancer as a result of chemicals or practices used in their occupations But improved safety in the workplace means fewer people will be at risk now than in the past If you re concerned about your work environment talk to your managers or you could contact the Health and Safety Executive Sunlight and sunbeds getting too much exposure to UV light whether from the sun or sunbeds is the main cause of skin cancers And rates of malignant melanoma the most serious form of skin cancer are rising fast Cancer Research UK runs SunSmart a national skin cancer prevention campaign to help people know what they can do to reduce the risk of sunburn and skin cancers At the moment we re running R UV UGLY which offers sunbed users the chance to see what

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2011/12/07/the-causes-of-cancer-you-can-control/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Huge genetic analysis points to cancer-causing culprits - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    patterns of damage across different types of cancer and work out how important each one is in the diseases development But now researchers can play CSI on a tumour s DNA and look for the fingerprints of the culprits causing cancer s genetic chaos It s all about context DNA is made of four different chemicals Click for a larger version Our DNA is composed of long strings of four chemicals adenine guanine cytosine and thymine usually abbreviated to A G C and T It s the precise order or sequence of thousands of these letters that makes up a gene and it only takes one letter to be changed to scramble the gene s meaning and potentially cause cancer Researchers are fast realising that different processes that change and damage DNA tend to leave behind specific fingerprints For example the bulky chemical attachments resulting from tobacco damage usually result in the replacement of cytosine with an adenine C A Similarly the action of UV light can cause adjacent pairs of cytosine to stick to each other When the cell s repair machinery detects this it converts the cytosine to a thymine C T to repair the damage If either of these happens in the middle of a gene the result can cause chaos But it s not just the single letter swap that s revealing It s the context Different processes tend to result in changes in DNA letters in different contexts For example the changes caused by UV light can be spotted because they occur at a cytosine that s preceded by another cytosine in the DNA sequence In other words C C becomes C T These studies led to a seminal finding in 2009 Researchers at the Sanger Institute looked at the entire DNA sequence in tumour samples from two patients one with melanoma one with lung cancer As predicted they found the hallmarks of tobacco damage all over the DNA from the lung tumour and widespread UV damage in the melanoma DNA It was the first time the size of these carcinogens fingerprint of had been measured across the whole human genome Since then researchers have gone hunting for other such fingerprints and have spotted several more Many cancers are riddled with C T changes that happen in a C G sequence Last May certain breast cancers were found to contain signature changes of certain contexts of C T and C G which are suspected to be caused by enzymes called APOBECs which are thought to form part of our natural defence against viruses And last November US researchers spotted a T G change in a type of oesophageal cancer called adenocarcinoma which itself is linked to chronic inflammation and acid reflux Looking across different types of cancer The finding published today in Nature takes this work a step further The Sanger team led by Ludmil Alexandrov have drawn together data from more than 7 000 tumour samples representing 30 common types of cancer The data came from a whole slew of previous work by the cancer research community some publicly available on the web some drawn from various international collaborations like the International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas and some donated by labs around the world Using analytical software they mined this vast trove of data for patterns not just the signatures previously discovered but any other patterns in the data They discovered more than 20 distinct signatures in the tumours DNA some common to all types of cancer others specific to just a handful of types All of the cancers had at least two signatures Some like liver cancer had as many as six But they were only able to deduce a known cause for eleven of their signatures We ll look at what these are below but what this means is profound there are at least ten unknown processes causing gene damage in cancer We urgently need to find out what these are and whether halting or targeting them could help prevent or treat the disease Let s look at the known knowns the signatures that were linked to a known cause Hallmarks of cancer Processes that damage DNA s structure can lead to cancer The first signature was clearly linked to ageing it became more common the older patient were was found in all types of cancer and in 60 per cent of the samples overall This is entirely to be expected age is the biggest risk factor for cancer For two other signatures the prime suspect is the APOBEC enzymes mentioned above in the context of breast cancer But the startling finding was that this was found in sixteen different types of cancer This ties in with other studies and suggests that these enzymes when inappropriately switched on might be a far more important cause of cancer than anyone had previously suspected Finding out what s switching them on says Alexandrov is a hugely important area for future research Another signature found in certain breast pancreatic and ovarian cancers bore the hallmarks of exactly the genetic damage likely to be caused when the BRCA1 2 genes are faulty and thus the team are fairly confident they ve identified the culprit here As expected the hallmarks of UV damage was found in melanoma and head and neck cancers while tobacco related damage was spotted in lung head and neck and liver cancers Other signatures found in several cancer types which look like the result of faulty biological processes such as DNA repair linked to several cancer types DNA transcription the first step in the production of proteins linked to bowel and uterine cancers and deliberate genetic rearrangements in the immune system linked to some types of leukaemia and lymphoma as you might expect Finally they spotted a unique signature in patients that had been treated with the cancer drug temozolomide How does this help patients Understanding which processes are at play in different cancers is a great step forward

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2013/08/14/huge-genetic-analysis-points-to-cancer-causing-culprits/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Chemicals - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Topic Chemicals Topic Chemicals World Cancer Day 2016 six ways our research helps patients across the globe Category Science blog February 4 2016 Emma Smith To mark World Cancer Day we take a look at how our discoveries over the decades are helping cancer patients all over the world right now Read More Grand Challenge three prevent cancer by studying scars in its DNA Category Science blog January 5 2016 Henry Scowcroft This entry is part 4 of 8 in the series Grand Challenge The third of our Grand Challenge topics asks can we prevent cancer by studying scars in its DNA Read More Diesel emissions an emerging public health issue Category Science blog November 24 2015 Henry Scowcroft As experts call for more research into the influence of diesel emissions on lung cancer rates in non smokers we take a look at the state of the evidence Read More Dioxins and cancer another piece of the chemical puzzle Category Science blog March 17 2015 Fiona Osgun We look at new research showing no link between dietary dioxins and breast cancer but how does this fit into the wider debate on chemicals and cancer Read More Does oxygen cause lung cancer I wouldn t hold your breath Category Science blog January 14 2015 Fiona Osgun Does living at high altitude prevent lung cancer Our bloggers explore a new study that sparked headlines claiming oxygen might cause the disease Read More The big issues affecting lung cancer worldwide Category Science blog September 11 2014 Nick Peel We ve teamed up with the journal Nature which today publishes a series of articles that touch on some key areas for lung cancer from across the globe Read More Mapping cancer risks what can and can t it tell us Category Science blog April 25 2014 Kat Arney The new Environment and Health Atlas charts data about diseases such as cancer alongside environmental risk factors including pollution and pesticides Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read today Most discussed

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/topic/risks-causes/chemicals/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Environment and pollution - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Project Awards Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Topic Environment and pollution Topic Environment and pollution Grand Challenge three prevent cancer by studying scars in its DNA Category Science blog January 5 2016 Henry Scowcroft This entry is part 4 of 8 in the series Grand Challenge The third of our Grand Challenge topics asks can we prevent cancer by studying scars in its DNA Read More Diesel emissions an emerging public health issue Category Science blog November 24 2015 Henry Scowcroft As experts call for more research into the influence of diesel emissions on lung cancer rates in non smokers we take a look at the state of the evidence Read More Dioxins and cancer another piece of the chemical puzzle Category Science blog March 17 2015 Fiona Osgun We look at new research showing no link between dietary dioxins and breast cancer but how does this fit into the wider debate on chemicals and cancer Read More Does oxygen cause lung cancer I wouldn t hold your breath Category Science blog January 14 2015 Fiona Osgun Does living at high altitude prevent lung cancer Our bloggers explore a new study that sparked headlines claiming oxygen might cause the disease Read More The big issues affecting lung cancer worldwide Category Science blog September 11 2014 Nick Peel We ve teamed up with the journal Nature which today publishes a series of articles that touch on some key areas for lung cancer from across the globe Read More Mapping cancer risks what can and can t it tell us Category Science blog April 25 2014 Kat Arney The new Environment and Health Atlas charts data about diseases such as cancer alongside environmental risk factors including pollution and pesticides Read More The link between air pollution and cancer Category Science blog October 18 2013 Sarah Williams The World Health Organisation has reported that air pollution increases the risk of cancer how do the risks stack up against other causes of cancer Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read today Most discussed Don

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/topic/risks-causes/chemicals/environment-and-pollution/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Population studies (epidemiology) - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Topic Population studies epidemiology Topic Population studies epidemiology Grand Challenge three prevent cancer by studying scars in its DNA Category Science blog January 5 2016 Henry Scowcroft This entry is part 4 of 8 in the series Grand Challenge The third of our Grand Challenge topics asks can we prevent cancer by studying scars in its DNA Read More Watch our Google Hangout about meat and cancer risk Category Science blog December 15 2015 Kat Arney This entry is part 3 of 3 in the series Google Hangouts In our latest Google Hangout on Air in partnership with Science on Google we focused on the recent headlines about processed meat and cancer risk Read More Diesel emissions an emerging public health issue Category Science blog November 24 2015 Henry Scowcroft As experts call for more research into the influence of diesel emissions on lung cancer rates in non smokers we take a look at the state of the evidence Read More A tribute to Professor Jane Wardle Category Science blog October 23 2015 Sara Hiom This week we lost a dear friend a colleague a mentor and exceptionally talented researcher Jane Wardle one of the UK s leading health psychologists Read More No HRT isn t harmless there are risks as well as benefits Category Science blog October 20 2015 Fiona Osgun Yesterday saw some bold but extremely misleading headlines about hormone replacement therapy HRT being harmless This unfortunate statement flies in th Read More Recently funded research understanding cancer at the population level Category Science blog August 31 2015 Emma Smith Our Population Research Committee funds research on the causes and effects of cancer across large groups of people Recently they funded several new projects Read More Young people and e cigarettes what do the latest data tell us Category Science blog August 18 2015 Linda Bauld In an article co commissioned with The Conversation Professor Linda Bauld looks at the latest evidence on e cigarette use in young people Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/topic/research-and-trials/population-studies/ (2016-02-11)
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