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  • Mustard gas – from the Great War to frontline chemotherapy - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    hopeless With nowhere else to turn J D agreed to try the new experimental drug At 10am on the 27 th of August 1942 he was given the first injection of what they called synthetic lymphocidal chemical This was in fact nitrogen mustard the compound used to make mustard gas Because of the war J D s treatment was a secret and it was referred to in his records only as substance X He received a number of treatments with substance X and with each one he became a little better He could sleep he could swallow and he could eat He was much more comfortable and the pain faded away This was a monumental moment in the history of medicine It was the beginning of what we now know as chemotherapy Mustard gas to modern medicine Back in the UK and after WWII another brilliant chemist Professor Alexander Haddow became Director of the Chester Beatty Research Institute an Institute funded by one of the founding charities that merged to form Cancer Research UK He was working on compounds that could block the growth of tumours and treat cancer All he needed to make a breakthrough in cancer treatment was a lead an effective molecule to start from Mustard gas gave him that much needed and crucial starting point In 1948 Haddow published a ground breaking piece of research in the journal Nature showing exactly which bits of the nitrogen mustard molecule were needed to kill cancer cells Perhaps more importantly he also found out how to make the chemical less toxic but with more potent cancer killing activity The molecular structure of chlorambucil Haddow began by showing that nitrogen mustards could stop the growth of tumours in rats Then in experiments akin to tinkering with Lego he altered bits of the molecule replacing them with different bricks Replacing certain bits in particular either of two chlorine atoms rendered the molecule useless and it no longer blocked tumour growth in his rats This was an important finding showing that the molecule needed both chlorine atoms to work And replacing certain other parts of the molecule altered its activity too Through this molecular puzzle Haddow worked out which pieces were needed to make a treatment that would benefit cancer patients across the globe He continued his research showing how these chemicals actually worked it was by somehow linking together other molecules inside the cancer cell ultimately leading the cell on a suicidal path Other researchers then went on to show that these linked molecules were in fact strands of DNA This triggered the cell s self destruct mechanism causing the cell to shut down and break apart destroying it The future is changing And so mustard gas went from the very real battleground of the WWI trenches into the frontline of cancer treatment But for J D the treatment came too late Although it worked initially giving him an immensely important extra few months with less pain and greater comfort he

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/08/27/mustard-gas-from-the-great-war-to-frontline-chemotherapy/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Professor Malcolm Stevens - The Story of Temozolomide video transcript - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Professor Malcolm Stevens The Story of Temozolomide video transcript Professor Malcolm Stevens The Story of Temozolomide video transcript Watch the video and find out more about the story of temozolomide here Professor Malcolm Stevens In the 1970s I was in my physical and mental prime I was a senior academic at Aston University and was fortunate enough to have some very clever associates that gathered at that unfashionable university Dr John Hickman Andy Gescher Mike Tisdale and followed our own intuitions and instincts We didn t have any particular idea where we were going it was unfettered interesting research that eventually led to something very worthwhile But we didn t know what that worthwhile was going to be when we gathered at Aston in the 1970s There was no particular moment in time when temozolomide was discovered there was work that I did as a PhD student serving my apprenticeship and my early days as a lecturer up in Edinburgh where we investigated the properties of molecules that were rich in nitrogen That was the secret of our ultimate success making compounds with multiple nitrogen atoms They tend to be rather easy to make which is a good thing and they have interesting properties from a chemical perspective and from a biological perspective We realised when we d made the family of compounds that eventually became temozolomide that they were likely to have some exciting biological properties Up to that time all the compounds we d made were biologically inert and it was only around that time the early 1980s when we were making interesting molecules And because of funding from The Cancer Research Campaign CRC as Cancer Research UK was then we had the ability to test the compounds We were able to do the synthetic chemistry we were able to do the toxicology work we were able to manufacture formulations of drug without any legalistic impediment to doing that When we discovered temozolomide we weren t supported by any major pharmaceutical companies so the obvious place to go to was the CRC s phase 1 committee They didn t have many potential drugs on their books at that time so they decided to fund the clinical trials on temozolomide I don t think there was ever a eureka hats in the air moment but I guess one half expected that something was going to work After all we were scientists we think that we ve done our side of the bargain the preclinical work and why should we be surprised if something beneficial happens in the clinic Voiceover Temozolomide is now used to

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/professor-malcolm-stevens-the-story-of-temozolomide-video-transcript/ (2016-02-11)
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  • The story of temozolomide - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    drugs to work with so they were eager to find potential treatments to bring forward Professor Stevens s exciting work convinced the Committee to set up the first ever trial of temozolomide in a small group of cancer patients at Charing Cross Hospital in London The results of this early stage trial were very promising encouraging Cancer Research UK to support further clinical trials in larger groups Initial trials used temozolomide made in the lab but larger studies needed more supplies But larger trials brought an additional challenge to be overcome Temozolomide was first produced in the relatively small quantities needed for lab work at Aston University Once clinical trials started demand for the drug increased dramatically Thankfully the researchers at our Formulation Unit at the University of Strathclyde were at hand They developed a process to make bigger batches of temozolomide And they manufactured and supplied the drug in capsules to treat patients in clinical trials Out into the world As we had hoped the results of the phase II trials in 1997 showed that the drug could bring significant benefits to patients with brain tumours As well as extending survival patients with glioblastoma benefited mentally and physically from treatment with temozolomide The drug then progressed to the next stage larger phase III trials But to do this we needed help Cancer Research Technology CRT is Cancer Research UK s commercial and development arm which helps to turn our scientists discoveries in the lab into treatments for cancer patients CRT licensed the drug to the pharmaceutical company Schering Plough now merged with Merck The company then funded a series of trials that led to the approval of temozolomide for use on the NHS in the UK and in other countries In 2001 NICE the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence ruled that temozolomide could be used for second line therapy for people with brain tumours that had come back after treatment because there were so few other options available at the time But to prove temozolomide s worth as a first choice therapy for patients there had to be more trials Dr Clive Stanway is Chief Scientific Officer at CRT He was at the 2006 ASCO annual conference in the US when he heard the results of the major large scale phase III trial of temozolomide alongside radiotherapy for people with glioblastoma brain tumours It was very exciting and you could feel the atmosphere change in the room when the results were announced he recounts We could all see that the drug could bring significant increases in survival from these aggressive tumours and was very quickly going to make a difference to how people were treated As a result of larger trials temozolomide was approved by NICE as a front line drug for people newly diagnosed with brain tumours in 2007 and has now been used to treat many thousands of patients around the world Into the future Worldwide sales of temozolomide have now reached 1 billion Because of our partnership with Schering Plough we receive a royalty on this The money is ploughed straight back into our research funding new work into the prevention diagnosis and treatment of cancer Parminder was part of a living poster to highlight our vital work But the story of temozolomide doesn t end here The drug continues to benefit more and more people each year people like Parminder who was diagnosed with a brain tumour in 2011 when she was just 28 She had surgery and radiotherapy as well as two courses of temozolomide and it looks like her tumour is gone for now As well as being back on her feet last year she ran Race For Life to support our research she s now back at work as an advertising sales executive Personally I found it was a hard course of treatment to have but I am glad to have got through it she says I am so grateful for the treatment that I had and I think it is fantastic how organisations like Cancer Research UK are working on developing these treatments for the future For now Parminder is doing well and we re all keeping our fingers crossed that things stay that way And for many thousands of people around the world going through treatment for brain tumours temozolomide is playing a vital role in the treatment that is helping to control their disease giving them precious months years and even decades more with their families Our scientists are now testing whether the drug can be used for other types of cancer and continue to refine how it s used to treat patients through clinical trials This includes OPARATIC an important trial testing temozolomide in combination with new drugs called PARP inhibitors for glioblastoma This trial and others like it could bring important benefits to many more people in future The discovery and development of temozolomide would not have been possible without the support of the public and with your continued support we ll be able to carry on developing the life saving treatments of tomorrow Kat References Audette R C et al Studies on the mechanism of action of the tumour inhibitory triazenes Biochemical pharmacology PMID 4722457 Stevens M F et al Antitumor activity and pharmacokinetics in mice of 8 carbamoyl 3 methyl imidazo 5 1 d 1 2 3 5 tetrazin 4 3H one CCRG 81045 M B 39831 a novel drug with potential as an alternative to dacarbazine Cancer research PMID 3664486 Newlands E S et al Phase I trial of temozolomide CCRG 81045 M B 39831 NSC 362856 British journal of cancer PMID 1739631 Bower M et al Multicentre CRC phase II trial of temozolomide in recurrent or progressive high grade glioma Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology PMID 9332462 Mirimanoff R O et al Radiotherapy and temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma recursive partitioning analysis of the EORTC 26981 22981 NCIC CE3 phase III randomized trial Journal of clinical oncology official journal of the American

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2013/07/18/the-story-of-temozolomide/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
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  • What about my type of cancer? - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    and things have been getting better For example back in 2001 we helped produce a landmark report that looked at cancer research across the UK It identified several gaps and set out trying to get them filled Sticking with our example of lung cancer the good news is that since 2002 UK funding for this disease has nearly trebled And since 2008 09 the number of lung cancer patients on clinical trials has increased threefold in fact three quarters of lung cancer patients in the UK who are currently on clinical trials are taking part in a trial supported by Cancer Research UK So we know there are gaps in funding that urgently need addressing and cancers which are particularly hard to treat like lung pancreatic oesophageal and brain cancers that require more investment But it s not always as simple as throwing money at a problem We know from looking at other examples across the world that boosting research in an area is not always as simple as just investing more money For example in recent years the US government has invested heavily in early clinical trials for pancreatic cancer but these haven t translated into benefits for patients So clearly money is necessary but not sufficient How can we make sure the research we fund will actually make a difference The right place the right people the right skills We have a responsibility to cancer patients and our supporters to ask the right research questions that will ultimately improve survival This could take many forms for example setting up infrastructure bringing the right people together and training up researchers in the field not just spending money on research grants Our Cancer Research Centres are bringing scientists together to share their expertise and carry out more life saving research That s why over the last few years we have set up virtual Cancer Research Centres in 18 towns across the UK These bring people together from across the scientific and medical spectrum from cancer doctors to researchers statisticians to pathologists so they can share their expertise and results and carry out more life saving research This means that local NHS hospitals are working with university scientists cancer charities and others in the local area The idea is that the result is more than the sum of its parts Scientists funded by Cancer Research UK collaborate freely with those funded by all sorts of organisations exchanging information coming up with new ideas and ultimately carrying out research that will save more lives And it s already starting to catalyse new initiatives It s also why we re actively looking beyond the UK to boost survival in lung cancer and why we held a meeting last year with world leading lung cancer experts to come up with a strategy that will help make this happen And it s why we re working closely with other charities to increase research into cancers of unmet need for example the Brain Tumour Charity Pancreatic

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2013/02/07/what-about-my-type-of-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Where did abiraterone come from? - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    team had read about research from the early 1980s involving an antifungal agent called ketoconazole which was known to inhibit a key early step in the body s testosterone production line an enzyme called cytochrome p450 17A1 or CYP17 Theoretically targeting this enzyme should shut down testosterone production anywhere in the body When given to men with advanced prostate cancer ketoconazole worked reasonably well at shutting down testosterone production and slowing cancer growth However it caused serious side effects didn t work reliably and worst of all the body broke it down so quickly that men had to be treated three times a day or more Nevertheless these small trials showed that targeting CYP17 was a promising idea So armed with a detailed understanding of the chemical reactions CYP17 carried out the team set about trying to make a molecule in the lab that would mimic ketoconazole s pros but with none of its associated cons 3 The structure of abiraterone In the mid nineties the team published the fruits of their labours In a paper in 1995 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry they set out details of how they d made a whole series of compounds using intricate and carefully controlled reactions All of these compounds to some degree blocked the key reactions carried out by CYP17 In fact as they wrote in the paper The most inhibitory compounds in the present study were far more potent than any inhibitor of CYP17 for which comparable data have previously been described Several of these compounds were extremely promising they didn t interfere with other key hormonal processes and two of them could completely shut off testosterone production in mice The most promising of them all was described in the paper simply as 3 The evidence provided here makes 3 a strong candidate for further development as a potential candidate for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma in humans 3 would eventually be developed into abiraterone acetate or to give it its brand name Zytiga The rest is history It took sixteen more years of hard slog and collaborative scientific and clinical research to prove that abiraterone could treat prostate cancer First the drug had to be formulated into a pill that could be taken orally this was done at our Strathclyde Formulation Unit Then it had to be vigorously tested in clinical trials We helped support the initial phase I and II studies which took place at the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden hospital before the final costly phase III trials were carried out with the help of the pharmaceutical industry Finally it had to go through the various drug regulatory processes It has now been licensed to be sold in Europe and it s now reached NICE who are examining whether and how the drug can be made generally available on the NHS The future We re hoping that NICE makes a speedy appraisal of abiraterone and that it can be made available to all men

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2011/09/21/where-did-abiraterone-come-from/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Experimental prostate cancer drug abiraterone clears another hurdle - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    drug to men with prostate cancer at earlier stages in the disease s progression Nevertheless this story is one that we at Cancer Research UK are extremely encouraged by It shows how a detailed understanding of the biology of cancer cells can lead to a new idea for treatment how the charity sector can work with academia and the pharmaceutical industry to turn that idea into a reality and how the painstaking work of researchers and doctors can ultimately help improve cancer patients lives Henry There s a helpful Q A on abiraterone on our CancerHelp UK website If you have any questions or concerns about prostate cancer you can call our Cancer Information Nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040 9am 5pm Monday to Friday Share this article More on this topic Tags Cancer in the news Cancer Research UK funded research Clinical trials Prostate cancer Research and trials Treatment Comments Click here to cancel reply pamela May 19 2011 Are you sure Kat My dad is taking I don t think he s on a clinical trial Kat Arney April 27 2011 Hi Maclyn Abiraterone is currently only available to men who take part in a clinical trial Before doctors can prescribe a drug it needs a licence and at the moment abiraterone is not licensed for use in the UK This page on CancerHelp UK has more information about abiraterone http cancerhelp cancerresearchuk org about cancer cancer questions abiraterone for prostate cancer Best wishes Kat Maclyn Parker April 27 2011 Is Abiraterone available yet to the public in the UK I would appreciate any information you could give me Jeanette Hooper April 17 2011 Hi My husband has advanced prostate cancer with metaseses in his hip and having chemo at the moment on a trial call trapeze Can Ian Moore tell me what diet he has been following we are trying to follow a diary free diet nothing from a cow no beef or any products made from cows milk but it can be very difficult nearly everything on supermarket counters contain cows milk john cartland April 11 2011 It is very upsetting to read pieces such as those written by David Whiting I was diagnosed with advanced Prostate cancer in November 2008 It was metastatic Since then I have become paraplegic due to spinal pressure and am confined to a wheelchair For your information David right up to the time of diagnosis I was in the gym at least three times a week swam 3 kilometers a week and took a whole bunch of supplements So that didn t work then So I would like to thank the Royal Berks Cancer Centre The Royal Marsden UK Cancer MacMillan and many others who have been supportive in what is a challenging situation It s great to see the positive stuff on the website I d far prefer to believe in positive results than snake oil or fish oil come to that ian moore February 25 2011 SUCH A COMPLEX DESEASE DIET WILL MOST CERTAINLY HAVE AN EFFECT BUT THE WORLD IS GETTING SMALLER BY THE DAY AND SOON ALL PEOPLES WILL BE EATING THE SAME IMAGINE SUSHI JUST TEN YEARS AGO ILLNESESS OF THE EAST AND OF THE SOUTH WILL BE THE SAME I AM SO GLAD OUR PROFESIONALS IN THE HEALTH INDUSTRY DONT JUST LOOK AT THE PRESENT BUT ARE LOOKING TO OUR FUTURE IF YOU WANT TO BE ILL YOU WILL BE ILL IAN MOORE WINGERS DO YOU THINK THESE ANGELS ARE NOT TRYING TO KEEP US WELL GIVEN ANOTHER TWO MONTHS TO LIVE INSTEAD OF DYING SOON IS A BONUS ian moore February 25 2011 i am a patient of the RMH SUTTON i was diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer that had spread to my bones five years ago i entered the stampede trial chemo etc Then alpharadin trial now Abiraterone trial EVERY THING THE ROYAL MARSDEN COULD DO TO HELP MY QUALITY OF LIFE THEY HAVE DONE I WALK LOTS EAT LOTS I HAVE A LIFE HOLIDAYS WITH GRAN KIDS WITH MY AGRESIVE CANCER WITHOUT THE TRIALS IVE BEEN ON THIS JUST NOT WOULD HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE AND I M STILL FEELING OK IAN MOORE slocks February 18 2011 Hi william a member of my family has been referred to the Royal Marsden Hospital in London where Abiraterone has been successfully trialed Hope this helps x Henry Scowcroft January 10 2011 There s more info about abiraterone on our CancerHelp UK website http cancerhelp cancerresearchuk org about cancer cancer questions abiraterone for prostate cancer You may find it helpful to contact our nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040 from 9am till 5pm Monday to Friday or you can email them at the following link https cancerhelp cancerresearchuk org utilities contact us send a question Williams January 9 2011 Please if Abiraterone is NOT available in the UK from where can it be obtained MANY THANKS valerie Johnston October 26 2010 If the drug is not available in the Uk how are people getting it My brother is struggling at the moment His quality of life is poor any improvement would be appreciated If there is any way I could get this drug for him I would do it Any ideas welcome Gerald October 14 2010 David Whiting is so arrogant I wholeheartedly support the concept that individuals have a responsibility to look after themselves However I d like to point out to David that some people develop cancer having led a healthy life in terms of diet exercise no cigarette smoking etc etc I hope to goodness he never needs the outputs if CRUK and the pharmaceutical industry who together have improved not just mortality rates of those with cancer but have also improved the quality of life for patients who are unfortunate enough to have suffered from cancer despite ttemoring to reduce risk factors Abiraterone offers real hope to men with advanced disease and I m heartened by Sue s story Han October

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2010/10/11/experimental-prostate-cancer-drug-abiraterone-clears-another-hurdle/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Abiraterone available across the UK… finally! - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Abiraterone available across the UK finally Abiraterone available across the UK finally Category Science blog August 13 2012 Heather Walker Abiraterone can give valuable extra months of life We re delighted with today s news that abiraterone will be available on the NHS in Scotland for men with advanced prostate cancer who ve already had chemotherapy This is fantastic for Scottish men with the disease as it brings them in line with the rest of the UK which has been able to access the drug since the NICE ruling back in May This is the second time the Scottish Medicines Consortium SMC which assesses whether drugs offer good value for money has looked at the drug having turned it down in March The pharmaceutical company Janssen offered a better deal this time around which enabled the SMC to say yes This is a great decision that we re really pleased to see But it has been too long in coming and raised important questions about how drugs are made available across the UK As we have said before we need the processes by which medicines are assessed to be streamlined so that patients are not left in limbo And we need the regulators and pharmaceutical companies to work together to get the best outcome for patients Abiraterone is not a cure for prostate cancer but it can give men with the disease precious extra months of life to spend with friends and family We re really proud of our involvement in developing the drug and in telling NICE the SMC and Janssen why we think they should work together to get it approved It is a real success story when years of hard work in the lab turn into effective treatments for patients And we couldn t do any of this without the generous funds from you our supporters Thank you Share this article More on this topic Tags Cancer in the news Health service policy Policy Prostate cancer Treatment Comments Click here to cancel reply Elizabeth Gardner August 13 2012 This drug should be available to all

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2012/08/13/abiraterone-available-across-the-uk-finally/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Hormones - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    FUNDING FOR RESEARCHERS Our funding schemes Biomarker Project Awards Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Topic Hormones Topic Hormones How exactly does obesity cause cancer Three leading theories Category Science blog November 25 2015 Emma Smith We explore the science behind how fat causes cancer Read More No HRT isn t harmless there are risks as well as benefits Category Science blog October 20 2015 Fiona Osgun Yesterday saw some bold but extremely misleading headlines about hormone replacement therapy HRT being harmless This unfortunate statement flies in th Read More Our milestones the birth of a new prostate cancer drug Category Science blog September 21 2015 Henry Scowcroft This entry is part 24 of 25 in the series Our milestones We look back to the 1990s and to our first in man trial of prostate cancer drug abiraterone a vital step in the drug s development Read More Solving a breast cancer mystery why do double positive women do better Category Science blog July 8 2015 Emma Smith Our researchers in Cambridge have solved a long standing mystery in breast cancer that could lead to new trials to improve treatment for the disease Read More Prostate cancer researchers begin to unpick drug resistance Category Science blog September 5 2014 Henry Scowcroft A look at some recent findings from the US from researchers studying how prostate cancers can be resistant to two new drugs abiraterone and enzalutamide Read More The contraceptive Pill and cancer a look behind today s headlines Category Science blog August 1 2014 Sarah Williams We take a brief look at what today s study really shows about higher oestrogen Pills and the bigger picture of the Pill and cancer risk Read More Today s headlines about tamoxifen Category Science blog September 4 2013 Henry Scowcroft Following reports that women who stop taking the breast cancer drug tamoxifen could face their cancer returning we look at the research behind the headlines Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read today Most discussed Don t believe the hype 10 persistent cancer

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/topic/risks-causes/hormones/ (2016-02-11)
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