archive-org.com » ORG » C » CANCERRESEARCHUK.ORG

Total: 768

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • The Enemy Within – 50 years of fighting cancer - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    bullet was nothing more than a fantasy In a damning report published in 1986 John Bailar declared the War to be judged a qualified failure Although there were pockets of progress the vast majority of tumours remained stubbornly incurable and any gains were blown away by the alarming rise in lung cancer thanks to smoking At least the tobacco industry was starting to look a little less confident by this point after a series of bruising legal challenges Unlocking cancer s genetic secrets the 80s and 90s Away from the disillusioned doctors scientists were opening an exciting new front in the conflict one that would change the face of treatment in the years to come The molecular biology revolution had arrived revealing the true identity of the enemy or rather enemies within us Read about the discovery that led to this the Herceptin antibody The truncated acronyms of oncogenes and tumour suppressors the accelerators and brakes of cancer cells and other genes danced across the pages of scientific journals Ras Myc p53 Rb VEGF EGFR and many more double agents yielded their secrets as lab techniques became ever more sophisticated Researchers were also creating entirely new weapons in the form of monoclonal antibodies based on the molecules produced by our own immune systems to seek out and destroy infections These efforts began to bear fruit in the 1990s as the first wave of molecularly targeted treatments specifically designed to home in on faulty molecules in cancer cells reached clinical trials and then arrived in cancer clinics around the world The antibody drugs rituximab Mabthera trastuzumab Herceptin and bevacizumab Avastin led the charge and have brought benefits to many thousands of patients At the same time large clinical trials were consolidating the use of chemotherapy and hormone therapy step by step progress adding up to big survival benefits over the long term particularly for breast cancer drugs such as tamoxifen The 90s also saw another shift in public perception of cancer as the new fangled information superhighway brought reliable information along with an abundance of quackery and scaremongering direct to people s desktops There was an increasing interest in what caused cancer and what we could do to prevent it From yoga to vitamin supplements power lines to pesticides the media caught on to the cancer craze Ironically they failed to point the finger at what was still the leading preventable cause of the disease tobacco When Bailar revisited his analysis of the War on Cancer in 1997 he found that any gains in survival were yet again overwhelmed by the looming shadow of lung cancer although survival rates have climbed consistently albeit slowly in many countries since the mid 1990s From genes to drugs If the 90s gave birth to the abs antibody based drugs the next decade spawned the ibs potent little chemical inhibitors that specifically targeted faulty molecules in cancer cells Unlike the early chemotherapy drugs which were often stumbled upon more by luck than judgement these drugs were rationally designed based on intimate knowledge of the biology of cancer The first and probably still the greatest example of these is imatinib Glivec which locks on to a faulty protein made by certain types of leukaemia Imatinib has effectively cured many patients whose cancers are driven by this rogue molecule and has also proved useful in other forms of the disease fuelled by the same fault And although they haven t yet had the same profound effect as imatinib other similar drugs such as erlotinib Tarceva lapatinib Tykerb gefitinib Iressa and vemurafenib Zelboraf have followed along with genetic tests to identify which patients will benefit from them although they re yet to replicate Glivec s success Structure of BRCA1 read parts one and two of the story of the BRCA genes Back in the lab the main feeling during the 90s was one of frustration Scientists were still making steady progress in understanding the biology of cancer and exposing its molecular weaknesses In particular the discovery of the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 and genes for hereditary bowel cancer had whetted researchers appetites for hunting cancer genes but their tools were now hopelessly outdated They knew that the key to understanding the disease lay in the genome the tens of thousands of genes that tell our cells what to do when to grow and when to die but they could only study a handful at once The noughties brought the second genetic revolution in the form of speedy DNA sequencers microarray readers and powerful computers to analyse the gigabytes of data these machines generate By 2003 the entire human genome had been sequenced and as the decade progressed researchers were analysing tiny differences in the DNA from thousands of cancer patients and their healthy counterparts They could now pinpoint the gene variations that influenced not only the risk of the disease but how an individual might respond to treatment Along with the new targeted drugs the stage was set for the advent of personalised medicine tailoring treatment to the genetic makeup of a patient s tumour rather than the traditional one size fits all treatments of the past Instead of talking about bowel cancer melanoma or breast cancer doctors can now divide patients according to the rogue molecules that are driving their disease Where are we now As new treatments come through and survival rates continue their slow but steady climb increasing focus has been turned on the concept of survivorship of living with rather than dying from cancer And with it has come a greater interest in quality of life making sure that we aren t just buying some extra time at any cost but that they are months or years worth living And if treatment is not successful there are still more benefits that could be gained from improved palliative care at the end of life Surgery cures more cancers than any other treatment So how have things changed since those hopeful days of the

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/12/25/the-enemy-within-50-years-of-fighting-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Crowdfunding cancer research – our latest experiment and how you can help - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    of Cambridge study specialised cells found within certain tissues in the body known as stem cells They re special because they have the potential to develop into all the different cell types that make up that particular tissue so play a vital role in renewing important parts of the body But in some cases this process can go wrong and some researchers believe that misbehaving stem cells may have a role to play in cancer Following their discovery of a stem like cell in the lungs which Michaela says can develop into multiple lung cells her team is now setting its sights on lung cancer We want to grow these stem cells into 3D lung tissue in a bioreactor says Ferda one of Michaela s research team They believe that once they have the 3D models of the lungs growing in the lab they will be able to test what happens when lung cancer cells are introduced and whether the model could be useful for testing new treatments It could be game changing says Ferda To meet the team and find out more about the project visit their project page where you can help make this study a reality Stopping the spread Click the image to meet Vicky and her team over on their project page My team has become more curious about cancer s ability to avoid detection from the immune system says Dr Vicky Sanz Moreno one of our researchers based at King s College London The team works on melanoma the most serious form of skin cancer And it s picking apart the machinery that helps melanoma cells move and spread around the body But this recent curiosity around the immune system has led them to ask whether melanoma cells and perhaps other types of cancer cells are using the same tools they use to spread around the body to avoid the immune system But they need your help to fund what will be a technically challenging project Meet Vicky and the rest of her team on their project page to see if you want to back their research Immunotherapy in action Around 9 in 10 people are carriers of the Epstein Barr Virus or EBV for short And on the whole the vast majority of us experience no problems with being infected Click the image to find out more about our Agent EBV project But in some cases the virus can show a darker side EBV causes an estimated 200 000 cases of cancer across the world each year and our third team of crowdfunding hopefuls is trying to put a stop to that Led by Drs Neil Steven Graham Taylor and Professor Alan Rickinson from the University of Birmingham this team is working on a vaccine which it hopes will be able to treat these EBV linked cancers by boosting the immune response And the team members are already some way along the road to their goal having established an early stage clinical trial of

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/11/14/crowdfunding-cancer-research-our-latest-experiment-and-how-you-can-help/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Red meat and breast cancer – still no solid evidence - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    88 803 premenopausal women who had been taking part in the US Nurses Health Study II a large cohort study the more reliable type that follows people over time that started in 1989 These women initially completed a food questionnaire in 1991 about their food intake in the past year The questionnaire covered a broad shopping basket of items including Unprocessed red meat such as beef pork lamb and hamburgers Processed red meat such as hot dogs bacon sausages and salami Poultry chicken and turkey Fish such as tuna mackerel salmon sardines Legumes such as tofu or soybeans beans lentils and peas and nuts The women reported how often they ate these foods ranging from never or less than once a month to six or more per day The researchers then asked them to complete more food questionnaires including an estimate of how much alcohol they drank in 1995 1999 2003 and 2007 This allowed the researchers to split the women into five different groups based on the amount of each food they ate And every two years the team collected information on whether new cases of breast cancer had been diagnosed They also used these questionnaires to collect information on important risk factors linked to breast cancer including age weight family history smoking and more During the next 20 years 2 830 of the women developed breast cancer When the team analysed the data taking into account some of the key risk factors for breast cancer they estimated that the women in the group who regularly ate the largest amount of red meat calculated as around one and half portions per day or the equivalent of three rashers of bacon that s a lot of meat to eat every day had a 22 per cent increased risk of breast cancer compared to women in the lowest meat eating group As with many of these studies this is a relative risk and you can read this post for more info about why this can be a confusing way to present statistics They then estimated how incremental increases in eating red meat might affect this relative risk Looking at the middle value or median for food intake in each of the five groups across the duration of the study they found that each additional serving per day of red meat gave a predicted 13 per cent increased risk of breast cancer across all the women again a relative risk that makes it hard to draw real life information from It s important to point out this is very different to saying that eating a single extra sausage on any given day will increase a woman s risk of breast cancer by 13 per cent the sort of confusion we often see in the wake of media reporting of these stories Finally in their statistical analysis the researchers showed that substituting a portion of red meat per day with either poultry or legumes predicted a 17 and 14 per cent lower risk

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/06/11/red-meat-and-breast-cancer-still-no-solid-evidence/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Beyond the burger – tips for a healthy barbecue - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    or fish instead as there s no strong evidence linking these alternatives to an increased cancer risk There s also evidence to show that cooking meat at high temperatures such as grilling can create chemicals that may increase the risk of cancer although the evidence linking actually eating these meats isn t 100 per cent clear yet Obviously a barbecue cooks by grilling so it s hard to avoid it completely but there are things that can help For example consider part cooking larger items such as chicken pieces in the microwave or oven to give them a head start meaning less time on the grill before they re cooked through Also keep a close eye on the barbie and try not to char your meat Nobody likes a burnt burger after all We ve got more detailed information about diet and cancer as well as the evidence behind our advice on our website Healthy options A BBQ doesn t have to be all about the meat there s a whole world of other foods to be served up and enjoyed outdoors From corn on the cob to vegetable skewers tofu and Quorn to grilled halloumi and more there are plenty of non meat options to pop on the grill And don t forget to include a range of healthy salads to accompany your dishes Make your salads the star by beefing them up with lots of veg fruit beans and herbs the BBC has a bunch of great ideas to start with and there are hundreds more out there on the web For dessert barbecued fruits make a tasty treat When s the last time you tried a grilled pineapple with a dash of honey lime juice and cinnamon Simply delicious Finally it s important to remember that we don t have barbecues every day the British weather usually puts paid to that and the occasional sausage is unlikely to have a major impact as part of wider healthy balanced diet It s our regular long term eating habits that have the biggest effect so enjoy your BBQ this summer try out some of our healthier BBQ tips and try to make healthy food choices part of your usual routine Top tips for a healthier BBQ Barbecuing isn t all about burgers and sausages For a healthier and more varied spread try popping some marinated chicken fish or veg on your grill and include plenty of salads and veggie side dishes too And any vegetarian guests will also thank you for it Cook meat thoroughly but try not to burn it Consider starting off larger pieces of meat in the oven or microwave first Think about your drinks Drinking excessive alcohol increases the risk of cancer so make sure you have plenty of non alcoholic options on offer like refreshing summery mocktails and cordials Making simple swaps is a great way to cut down on alcohol and reduce the risk Make sure you and your guests don t grill

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/06/02/beyond-the-burger-tips-for-a-healthy-barbecue/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Decoding cancer’s secret diary - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    rule we could see exactly how the cancer had grown Each time a cell divides to form two new daughter cells the DNA inside it which bears its genetic instructions must be duplicated so that each daughter receives a complete set Unfortunately although the process of DNA replication is very accurate it is not perfect and errors occur during the copying process These errors are called genetic mutations The process of DNA replication is a bit like making multiple photocopies each successive round of copying contains slight imperfections or in the case of DNA mutations compared with the original which build up over time As the copies are copied over and over the imperfections accumulate introducing ever more defects into the image And after many rounds of copying we would expect the image to be very distorted indeed like the image below A similar thing happens as a tumour grows Cancers start from one cell that divides to make two cells and then four cells then eight then 16 and so on Each time the cells divide they copy their DNA including any previous errors meaning that mutations that occur in one division are inherited by all the descendents of that cell In this way the DNA from the first cell is progressively distorted as the cancer grows eventually leading to the genetic chaos we see in tumours Our approach was to try and read this process in reverse starting from the end point of a cancer genome with many mutations a very distorted image that had been photocopied many times and attempting to decipher the sequence of cell divisions the order of photocopies and the changes happening with each round of duplication that would have led to the particular pattern of mutations we observed In our study we used data from 14 different types of cancers that had been collected using a technique called next generation sequencing which can tell us two things first whether a particular mutation is present in a cancer and second the fraction of cells within the cancer that has a given mutation in their DNA This technology has produced huge amounts of data stored in publicly available databases And to try and make sense of it all many people have created complex computer programmes that search for patterns in it From tiny acorns Instead we decided to take a different approach We realised that the pattern of mutations within a cancer might make more sense if we looked at them while thinking about how the cancer had grown We realised that mutations that happened early in a cancer s development would be present in lots of cells within the cancer because these mutations would be inherited by all the daughter cells as the cancer grew On the other hand mutations that occurred later would be present in only a few cells The interesting twist was when we realised that there should be many more rare mutations in the cancer each present in only a

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2016/01/18/decoding-cancers-secret-diary/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • To improve radiotherapy for patients, we need to raise its profile - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Working as an oncologist I m always hearing about new developments in radiotherapy techniques that can increase the chance of a cure and reduce the chance of developing side effects But clearly not everyone is getting the same messages Today s survey reveals a worrying lack of awareness of the latest techniques For example take intensity modulated radiotherapy or IMRT This is an advanced type of radiotherapy that can give different amounts of radiation to different parts of tumours It can be really precise reducing the amount of radiation given to healthy cells surrounding a tumour so reducing side effects and improving things for patients who receive it But our survey showed that just four in every 100 people questioned 4 per cent had heard of it And only three per cent had heard of stereotactic radiotherapy which gives radiotherapy to a tumour from many different directions so targets it very accurately Of course we don t expect everyone to be an expert in all types of cancer treatments But let s put this in context In comparison to their low awareness of radiotherapy we found that people knew much more about developments in cancer drugs and surgery Nearly four in 10 39 per cent said they d heard of keyhole laproscopic surgery while nearly a third 28 per cent had heard of personalised cancer drugs This is a paradox four out of 10 patients whose cancer is cured have radiotherapy as part of their treatment For chemotherapy the figure is about one in 10 And this is where awareness is important and where today s latest figures make me worry Just one in 10 people want the NHS to prioritise radiotherapy funding compared with nearly six out of 10 for chemotherapy And this lack of awareness matters for two reasons Patients should be feeling the benefit First it matters because patients are missing out we know that not enough cancer patients are getting radiotherapy And for those people who are getting radiotherapy aimed at curing them rather than controlling their symptoms the proportion getting IMRT varies between 22 per cent and 73 per cent across England that s about 36 per cent on average The availability of this type of radiotherapy has got much better in the past few years largely thanks the Radiotherapy Innovation Fund but we now know 50 per cent should be getting IMRT no matter where they live so clearly there is more work to do We don t have as much data for Scotland Wales or Northern Ireland but we know we have to improve right across the UK To have patients missing out on potentially life saving treatment is completely unacceptable We ve made such incredible advances in technology so cancer patients in the UK should be feeling the benefit That s why I lead RAP We are a UK wide group made up of individuals organisations and charities all passionate about promoting the benefits of radiotherapy Our goal is to see every

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/08/28/to-improve-radiotherapy-for-patients-we-need-to-improve-its-profile/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Raising awareness of cancer clinical trials - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    very swollen and knobbly Further tests confirmed he had prostate cancer and it was quite advanced I was told it could either be a pussycat or a tiger and mine was a tiger which meant it could spread very fast he says After further tests I was told the bad news that it had spread outside the prostate area That was an absolute shock Following some discussions about treatment Vinod s doctor told him about a clinical trial taking place in London that was testing the use of sounds waves known as High Intensity Focused Ultrasound HIFU as a potential treatment for prostate cancer After six months of treatment Vinod s PSA was right down For many patients the treatment brought a complete cure he says But a couple of months later my PSA levels started rising again Unfortunately for Vinod the treatment hadn t been completely successful Even after another round of ultrasound Vinod s PSA levels continued to rise So he was referred to another hospital nearer to his home in Birmingham where he was given radiotherapy This helped and since then follow up tests show his cancer is under control When I got my cancer diagnosis I thought This is the first day of my new life I have lived every day to the full since then Following his experience Vinod is showing his support for clinical trials Even if you can t be cured treatment can buy you years of enjoyable life he says I might not still be here without it Kelly was diagnosed with breast cancer three years ago And several weeks after initially finding the cancer her doctors discovered that it had spread to her liver Kelly with Coco She said The main aim of the trial was to keep things stable for me But it s now two years since Kelly joined a clinical trial at The Christie Hospital in Manchester testing a combination of chemotherapy and the breast cancer drug trastuzumab Herceptin And she s really pleased with how things are going The main aim of the trial was to keep things stable for me says Kelly It was always made quite clear to me that the treatment wasn t a cure but hopefully it would keep the cancer from spreading And so far the results have been encouraging I recently had my latest scan results And at the minute I don t have any measurable signs of cancer which is really good news she says For Kelly who s married with three sons Joshua Ethan and Noah plus a chocolate Labrador called Coco it s been important that the cancer and the trial itself haven t stopped her from doing day to day things From a personal point of view I can be very honest and say I might not be here if it weren t for the trial she says And that s why Kelly is showing her support for clinical trials People who take part in clinical trials

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/02/11/raising-awareness-of-cancer-clinical-trials/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Grace Redhead | Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    all researchers More Our research history Our research strategy FUNDING FOR RESEARCHERS Our funding schemes Biomarker Project Awards Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Author Grace Redhead Author Grace Redhead How are cancer patients diagnosed And could it be better Category Science blog September 11 2015 Grace Redhead We take an in depth look at the different ways patients are diagnosed and how understanding and collecting this information can help improve cancer care Read More The importance of diagnosing cancers earlier the patients perspective Category Science blog March 19 2015 Grace Redhead We speak to four cancer patients about their experience of being diagnosed and why diagnosing more cancers earlier is an important priority Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read today Most discussed Don t believe the hype 10 persistent cancer myths debunked How does alcohol cause cancer Processed meat

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/author/graceredhead/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive



  •