archive-org.com » ORG » C » CANCERRESEARCHUK.ORG

Total: 768

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • BBC Panorama’s tobacco industry revelations are genuinely shocking - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    FUNDING FOR RESEARCHERS Our funding schemes Biomarker Project Awards Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog BBC Panorama s tobacco industry revelations are genuinely shocking BBC Panorama s tobacco industry revelations are genuinely shocking Category Science blog December 1 2015 Henry Scowcroft Credit Wikimedia Commons Last night s Panorama on BBC1 contained new and shocking allegations about the behaviour of one of the world s biggest tobacco companies British American Tobacco BAT According to the programme people working on the company s behalf are alleged to have offered payments to politicians civil servants and other Government officials in several African countries in order to buy influence make changes to tobacco control legislation and gain market information to undermine competitors Notably they re alleged to have paid bribes to influence work at the World Health Organization s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control a United Nations campaign aimed at reducing deaths from tobacco related illness that s supported by the governments of 180 countries In our view these allegations require urgent investigation by the relevant national and international authorities We ve become accustomed to the idea that tobacco companies will try every legal avenue available to help them sell a product that kills millions each year But in 2015 allegations of bribery and corruption are genuinely outrageous Global efforts to restrict sales of tobacco are vital Smoking causes at least 13 different types of cancer And if present smoking trends continue estimates suggest that by 2050 smoking will have killed 450 million people around the world over the previous fifty years It s an intolerable burden that we should do everything to avoid You can watch Panorama s The Secret Bribes of Big Tobacco here Henry Share this article More on this topic Tags Cancer in the news Preventing cancer Tobacco control Comments Click here to cancel reply Tell us what you think Required Name Email will not be shown Required Website Read our comment policy Submit Comment Older Comments Newer Comments Popular posts Most read today Most discussed Don t believe the hype 10 persistent cancer

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/12/01/bbc-panoramas-tobacco-industry-revelations-are-genuinely-shocking/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Obesity and cancer – adding more weight to the evidence - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    underweight In other words the healthiest to be in terms of cancer risk is not too large not too skinny but just right But when the researchers looked at how the risk of different cancers changed in people of increasing BMI things started to get complicated For some tumour types the risk of cancer increased gradually as BMI increased a so called linear relationship But for others the risk changed unpredictably as BMI increased Data showing how cancer risk changed with increasing BMI figure reproduce with permission from the journal click to enlarge Ultimately these results highlight how complicated the links between BMI and cancer are Such studies will always act as a springboard for more research to understand these risks better rather than giving a definite answer What this study doesn t show While important and vast in scale we still don t understand how and why BMI affects cancer risks There are many theories but no definite answer perhaps because as this study demonstrates these risks are complicated and don t always follow the same pattern To really answer the question we need studies that get over a few hurdles that the current study didn t address for example Is BMI the best way of measuring obesity Probably not While it s the best universal measurement we have it s not clear if BMI is the most accurate way to measure obesity In fact a major limitation of this study was the lack of alternative measures for obesity for example body fat percentage What about exercise Physical activity can reduce the risk of many types of cancer and wasn t measured either highlighting another gap in this research And perhaps most importantly for working out what advice to give the public we still don t know whether losing weight will help to lower cancer risk To find this out we ll need really detailed data and studies with long follow up times but for now all we can say is that keeping a healthy weight is important But despite these limitations the size and statistical robustness of this research makes it the most comprehensive analysis of the obesity cancer relationship yet So what does this all mean for you Obesity is an important risk factor for cancer and this study estimates that 12 000 cases of cancer a year in the UK are due to the nation s weight problem although previous research has put that number as high as 17 000 This is important as studies like this can focus people s minds on ways to prevent the disease But it s not just about cancer obesity is a risk factor for many conditions including diabetes and heart disease The evidence shows that the detrimental impact of obesity in the UK is mounting and this study will support the political discussion around obesity at a national level It s important to state though that research on this isn t about blaming people for their cancer something we ve written about before nor is it about researchers telling people what to do It s about trying to understand what cancer is what causes it and why so researchers doctors and policy makers can try to help minimise the terrible burden it places on our society And a final point this new study also shines a light on the importance of anonymised data in medical research The more data that s made available for research the more clearly researchers can identify the patterns and reasons for these risks and ultimately work out how to minimise them Tom Stansfeld is a health information officer at Cancer Research UK If you are concerned about your weight and want tips for leading a healthy lifestyle visit our Healthy Living pages or the Government s Change 4 Life site Reference Bhaskaran K et al 2014 Body mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers a population based cohort study of 5 24 million UK adults The Lancet DOI 10 1016 S0140 6736 14 60892 8 Bathroom scales image from Flickr Share this article More on this topic Tags Body weight and obesity Cancer in the news Causes of cancer Lifestyle Comments Click here to cancel reply Gemma October 28 2014 Cancer is caused by unexpressed emotions The reason that scientists have found a link with obesity is because people eat a lot when emotional to make them feel better If we do not acknowledge express or allow our emotions to flow through us then they become trapped inside us and as a result eat away at our physical bodies It is really that simple Cancer researchers I ask you to research this cause Thank you Andrea jack September 6 2014 Very interesting I am one of those people that are classed as obese and I will do everything in my power to lose this weight so I reach a healthier size Koser September 5 2014 If studies suggest that some people might be genetically pre disposed to being overweight then what s to say that its not that same genetic pre disposition that s also linked to other medical conditions If this is the case then while it may still be possible to lose weight and its obviously preferable for folks to maintain a healthy weight for a number of good reasons losing weight may not actually afford any protection against other medical conditions that might be genetically unavoidable any way Social researcher September 4 2014 As far as I know the only convincing links between body size and health is type 2 diabetes PhD Student September 4 2014 Perhaps the most important and influential fact that you neglect to mention is the potential links with socioeconomic status and cancer rather than a single factor such as body size Edgar Carpenter August 18 2014 And although we don t fully know why there s a link these new findings further reinforce the idea that being overweight or obese definitely does increase your risk

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/08/13/obesity-and-cancer-adding-more-weight-to-the-evidence/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Understanding the link between inflammation and cancer - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    force in cancer development where it aids and abets tumour growth and spread around the body Hell hath no fury Let s start with the way inflammation normally works Our skin constitutes the first line of defence against microscopic invaders But whenever this barrier is breached the wrath of the immune system is unleashed and things get ugly As bacteria and other microbes enter the body though an open wound cells of the immune system often referred to as white blood cells rush to the site of injury forming the welcoming committee from hell This highly trained militia gets to work immediately showering intruders with toxic chemicals punching holes in their surface or swallowing them whole From the outside this molecular thuggery manifests in swelling heat redness and pain symptoms that anyone who s ever scraped a knee will be familiar with It s brutal but it s over quickly it has to be to minimise collateral damage to healthy tissue As the enemy is eaten and beaten into surrender signals urge victorious immune cells to return to base camp Repair and recovery teams move in to direct the process of healing Blood vessels sprout A scab forms Skin grows And before long calm returns and it s back to business as usual The heat is on While we might not be able to live without it too much inflammation can cause serious damage Chronic persistent inflammation is behind a host of health problems such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis And after finding immune cells in tumour samples Rudolf Virchow was the first to ask whether inflammation might also contribute to cancer Unfortunately he was right many chronic inflammatory diseases such as pancreatitis and Crohn s disease can increase a person s cancer risk And cancers caused by infectious agents like stomach cancer caused by infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori or liver cancer caused by infection with the hepatitis B or C virus are characterised by one thing chronic inflammation In the case against inflammation the evidence is damning Rudolf Virchow was the first to link inflammation and cancer It s getting hot in here So how does inflammation lead to cancer Here s the current thinking When a tiny tumour starts growing from a few rogue cells it can scavenge enough oxygen and nutrients from its surroundings But as it grows bigger demand starts to outstrip supply and things start getting desperate As they struggle to survive and as they accumulate more and more genetic faults the cancer cells release chemical signals that lure immune cells called macrophages and granulocytes to infiltrate the tumour Once inside the tumour s inner sanctum these cells secrete molecules called cytokines that kick start the growth of blood vessels angiogenesis which ferry in much needed oxygen and nutrients Other cytokines encourage growth of a sort of cellular pillow called the stroma against which the tumour rests Meanwhile other inflammatory cells spritz the tumour with molecules free radicals that further damage their DNA

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2013/02/01/feeling-the-heat-the-link-between-inflammation-and-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Womb cancer - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Our research strategy FUNDING FOR RESEARCHERS Our funding schemes Biomarker Project Awards Career Development Fellowship Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Topic Womb cancer Topic Womb cancer How exactly does obesity cause cancer Three leading theories Category Science blog November 25 2015 Emma Smith We explore the science behind how fat causes cancer Read More Hitting the self destruct switch standing up to womb cancer with PARP inhibitors Category Science blog July 23 2015 Laura Mears We take a look at what a new class of drugs called PARP inhibitors are doing to fight womb cancer Read More It seemed like the surgery had never happened Rosa s story Category Science blog February 2 2015 Nick Peel In the third in our series of guest posts from our Cancer Campaigns Ambassadors Rosa shares her personal story about surgery Read More Is being inactive really as bad as smoking Category Science blog August 15 2012 Henry Scowcroft In July top medical journal The Lancet published a series of articles looking the worldwide health problems caused by people being inactive in the hope of gal Read More Podcast redefining breast cancer tiny brain tumours bowel cancer progress and more Category Science blog April 30 2012 Kat Arney This month we hear how a landmark study could revolutionise breast cancer treatment and take a look at the growing evidence on aspirin and cancer We also hea Read More Healthy Resolutions 2012 what s new Category Science blog January 23 2012 Sarah Williams It s mid January and while many resolutions will still be going strong some may have already fallen by the wayside But it s worth sticking to those healt Read More Joining forces against womb cancer Category Science blog October 18 2010 Ailsa Stevens When it comes to cancer radiotherapy is a mainstay of modern day cancer treatment As we recently highlighted it s a little known fact it plays a key role i Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most read today Most discussed Don t believe the hype 10 persistent cancer myths debunked How

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/topic/cancer-type/womb/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • How exactly does obesity cause cancer? Three leading theories - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    from the World Cancer Research Fund is in no doubt that oestrogen made by fat cells is a leading culprit in postmenopausal breast and womb cancer The evidence that oestrogen plays a central role in some cancers is black and white Oestrogen makes certain cells like breast and womb cells divide so too much oestrogen can encourage cells to keep dividing when they shouldn t be And uncontrolled cell division is fundamentally what cancer is Large studies of women have shown a direct relationship between obesity high oestrogen levels and breast and womb cancers he explains and understanding this relationship has been critical in developing effective treatments like tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors that work by cutting off oestrogen Furthermore if women at high risk of breast cancer are given oestrogen blocking treatments fewer go on to develop the disease Cutting off oestrogen can stop breast cancer developing While the link to women s cancers is stronger there s also data suggesting that obesity related changes in sex hormones can play a role in men s cancers too There s evidence that while rare breast cancer in men is linked to increased oestrogen caused by excess body fat Obesity is also linked to higher rates of aggressive prostate cancer but it s unclear if changes in oestrogen from fat cells play a role or whether it could be down to changes in testosterone the male sex hormone 2 Metabolic chaos The chemical processes going on constantly throughout the body collectively known as metabolism are complicated and tightly controlled relying on a finely tuned web of information flowing between cells and organs But the chemical signals produced by fat cells means that obesity can cause a major upset to this balance and this is thought to be another way it makes cancer more likely One key hormone that acts as a master controller of metabolism is insulin It s made by the pancreas and orchestrates how cells take up and process glucose from the blood But insulin s instructions can be overridden by chemicals in your blood known as free fatty acids the levels of which can be affected by eating a fatty meal for example This flips a switch in your liver and muscles telling them to use this fat as fuel instead of glucose Large studies of peoples blood chemistry have also shown links between high glucose and the risk of several types of cancer Professor Martin Wiseman But it s not just eating fatty food that increases free fatty acid levels in blood Body fat especially around the abdomen can also release them it s the body s way of using up fat stores Excess body fat can lead to rising levels of free fatty acids leaving cells increasingly resistant to the effects of insulin and unable to take up glucose properly This can cause all kinds of problems Wiseman tells us Cells become resistant to insulin so the pancreas makes more to try and compensate and bring blood glucose levels back down And these long term raised insulin levels could be another way being obese raises the risk of cancer he says Higher amounts of insulin have a knock on effect of re programming the levels of growth factors available to cells and both insulin and these growth factors can become a danger when it comes to cancer Growth factors are a green light signal for cells to divide There s also substantial laboratory evidence of a link lots of data showing that as cancer cells react to both insulin and insulin related growth factors they become harder to kill and divide more quickly Large studies of peoples blood chemistry have also shown links between high glucose even at levels below those needed for a diagnosis of diabetes and the risk of several types of cancer Wiseman tells us Taken together the evidence that disturbances in metabolism lead to cancers is compelling The big question is the degree to which it plays a role in the increased rates of cancer in obese people and studies are on going to find this out 3 Inflammation As people become obese and more fat cells build up in their tissues specialised immune cells called macrophages are called to the scene possibly to clear up dead and dying fat cells But as macrophages carry out their clean up job they also release a potent cocktail of chemicals called cytokines that summon other cells to help them out The number of macrophages in obese fatty tissue can be substantial they can account for as many as four in 10 cells This ultimately creates a condition called chronic inflammation and this is another way that obesity is thought to fuel the development of cancer And it s been shown that obese people tend to have higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in their blood The result of inflammation is a cocktail of signals that tell cells to divide because after injury you need new cells for healing to occur Professor Martin Wiseman We ve written before about how inflammation can be a double edged sword while it s an essential part of our immune defences it can also aid and abet the growth and spread of cancer The evidence that inflammation is linked to cancer is damning Many chronic inflammatory diseases such as pancreatitis and Crohn s disease can increase a person s risk of cancer And cancers caused by infections are also characterised by chronic inflammation Wiseman explains the result of inflammation is a cocktail of signals that tell cells to divide because after injury you need new cells for healing to occur But the signals encouraging cell growth for healing can also support cancer cells dividing In fact if we look at the genes that are turned on and off in inflamed tissue it s very similar to genetic changes we see in cancer cells There s strong evidence that aspirin a drug that reduces inflammation prevents bowel cancer or other anti inflammatory

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/11/25/how-exactly-does-obesity-cause-cancer/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Antioxidants - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Series Antioxidants Series Antioxidants Antioxidants and cancer the plot thickens Category Science blog October 2 2009 Nell Barrie This entry is part 3 of 3 in the series AntioxidantsAre antioxidants good for you Many people believe that the answer to this question is yes and some think t Read More What are antioxidants and are they good for us part 2 Category Science blog June 25 2009 Henry Scowcroft This entry is part 2 of 3 in the series AntioxidantsYesterday in the wake of an ASA ruling over antioxidants in green tea and a US research paper that suggest Read More What are antioxidants and are they good for us part 1 Category Science blog June 24 2009 Henry Scowcroft This entry is part 1 of 3 in the series AntioxidantsThanks in part to intensive marketing by the food and supplement industries there s a widely held belief Read

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/series/antioxidants/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Science Snaps: how skin cancer spreads – the round or flat of it - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    the crowd to create your own space Or if you prefer compare these two animated gifs Scientists already knew that the flat elongated melanoma cells created their own space releasing enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases MMPs and dissolving the molecular meshwork around them freeing up some space to move into In contrast the round cells were thought to be flexible enough to just squeeze through tight spaces and continue on their journey But today a team of our scientists led by Dr Victoria Sanz Moreno have published a paper in the journal Nature Communications showing that the round and squishy cells are more than just malleable as well as squeezing through tight gaps it seems they too release digestive MMPs potentially making their journey a little easier Mowing the molecular grass So how did they discover this The team grew two different types of melanoma cells in the lab one group that were predominantly round and another group that were a mixture of round and elongated cells Round melanoma cells red dissolve the grey collagen matrix When they analysed the arsenal of MMPs they released they found that the round cells were producing much higher levels of three particular MMPs known as MMP 9 MMP 10 and MMP 13 Next they grew the cells on a type of molecular grass called collagen I The round cells were much better at chopping up and clearing away the collagen I than the flatter cells You can see this in the image to the right the round melanoma cells are in red and the tangle of grey fibres near the cells are the collagen I Using a specialised microscopy technique the team could illuminate the collagen that had been chopped up shown as the cyan colour in our image They found that the collagen was more heavily chopped up near the round cells than the flat cells resulting in more free space to move around in Round or flat The differences between the round and flat cells led the team to ask what role might these different levels of MMPs be playing in controlling cell shape And how might this help these cells move To answer this they focussed on MMP 9 Looking at a whole range of melanoma cells they found that the more round cells there were the more MMP 9 there was And when they used a genetic trick to stop the cells from making MMP 9 a large number of the cells switched from being round to being elongated When the team looked at how effective the different cells were at burrowing into a block of collagen I to mimic how cells might invade the tissue around a tumour they found that the cells with MMP 9 production switched off were far less able to burrow than the flatter cells This suggests that these cells need high levels of MMP 9 to keep them round and help them spread What s next In this latest study our scientists have shown

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/06/25/science-snaps-how-skin-cancer-spreads-the-round-or-flat-of-it/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • The London Research Institute: a timeline - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog The London Research Institute leading global cancer research for more than a century The London Research Institute leading global cancer research for more than a century Category Science blog April 1 2015 Kathy Weston The history of the London Research Institute is the history of cancer research itself Its scientists have been in the vanguard of a revolution that has taken the world from a place where cancer was a disease with unknown causes and no cure to one where much is understood of cancer s causes and effective treatments mean that half of all people diagnosed today will now survive at least 10 years So how did we get to where we are today To view the interactive timeline click here http cdn knightlab com libs timeline latest embed index html source 1IG20gYOX3rcygm7K6vm c7IxfcIzaS1QkzV92Wtf2gs font Bevan PotanoSans maptype toner lang en height 650 Image Sky via Flickr under CC BY NC ND 2 0 Share this article

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/04/01/the-london-research-institute-leading-global-cancer-research-for-more-than-a-century/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive



  •