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  • Lethal Weapon Too: Using DNA repair processes to target cancer - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    certain type of ovarian cancer But as we mentioned earlier our cells have evolved many different DNA repair mechanisms to cope with the insults that life throws at them Over recent years the hunt has been on to find out whether other repair processes might be exploitable in the same way as PARP The two Nature papers highlight a new target for this kind of approach a protein known as polymerase Q or PolQ PolQ to the rescue The research teams behind both papers were focusing on a particular type of DNA damage where the double helix is completely snapped in two something known as a double strand break It s the most toxic of all types of DNA damage in cells and they have a number of ways to repair these breaks One method homologous recombination ensures that any neighbouring bits of broken DNA are glued together again Importantly these ends can t be clean breaks there needs to be a little bit of overlapping DNA sequence on each side of the damage a bit like frayed ends of a broken rope so the cell knows that it s gluing together the right bits Cells prefer to fix double strand breaks through homologous recombination as it s more accurate But sometimes for example if the molecules involved are missing or faulty or if there isn t any overlapping DNA sequence the more accurate method isn t possible and they have to use an alternative In these circumstances cells switch to a process called non homologous end joining Rather than ensuring that the broken bits of DNA actually belong together this repair toolkit just glues together any stray ends it finds That s fine if the two ends spanning a break have stayed in the same place But it s less good if there is lots of damage In this situation random DNA sequences can get stuck together causing genetic chaos in the cell So in one of the Nature studies the researchers were trying to find out how cells cope when they can t accurately repair their DNA using their preferred homologous recombination toolkit The scientists studied cells grown in the lab that had been experimentally manipulated so they were forced to use an alternative repair pathway When they looked closely at the repairs that had been made they saw that short sequences of DNA had been inserted a classic hallmark of the work of a type of molecule called a DNA polymerase DNA polymerases are responsible for creating new stretches of DNA either to fix damage or when a cell copies all its genetic material in order to divide into two cells When the US team looked carefully at their modified cells they discovered that a polymerase called PolQ was responsible for the repairs In the other paper from a trans Atlantic collaboration that includes prize winning scientist Simon Boulton from our London Research Institute the researchers came at the problem from a different angle In this case

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/02/24/lethal-weapon-too-using-dna-repair-processes-to-target-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Counting lumps in the lawn: a look back at the 1975 Nobel Prize - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    whether either of them would be interested in taking on the project Benzer was quite happy with what he was doing and said no Dulbecco however was interested as he d originally trained in his native Turin as a medic and he agreed to look into it After a three month road trip scoping out the nascent virology scene around the US he returned to Caltech where he was promptly banished to a small lab in the second basement for his decision to work on a very nasty virus causing Western Equine Encephalitis which scared the pants off the rest of the department Dulbecco in the desert near LA left Image courtesy of Kathy Weston Dulbecco realised that to do any meaningful work with animal viruses he first had to sort out how to grow them in the laboratory rather than in infected animals only then could he move on to figuring out how to measure how infectious they were So in his dingy sub basement at Caltech after much trial and error Dulbecco managed to hit upon a way of growing flat lawns of chicken cells that he could infect with virus Where the virus particles infected the cells and multiplied holes called plaques appeared in the cellular lawn as the cells died and by counting the holes Dulbecco could also count how many viruses he d added His publication of this work in 1952 marked the date of a huge step forward in research on both viruses and how they cause disease in animals including humans Being able to measure how well a virus can infect its host is the very first step in developing ways to stop it But what about cancer So far so good but how could counting viruses help cancer researchers The answer became clear when Dulbecco met a new colleague Harry Rubin who wanted to extend Dulbecco s method to a class of virus that didn t kill the host cells but instead caused them to develop into tumours Using Dulbecco s tissue culture techniques Rubin subsequently joined by Howard Temin discovered that instead of plaques tumour viruses caused the normal tissue culture cells to form little clumps of odd looking rounded cells all heaped up on each other growing out of the otherwise flat cell monolayers Such transformed cells as they were known could grow for far longer than normal cells and cause tumours in laboratory animals Temin and Rubin s method published in 1958 was a gift to the cancer research community While tumour viruses only contained sufficient DNA to specify the make up of just a handful of proteins they were so powerful that they could bend an entire animal cell to their will To do this the tumour viruses had to be hijacking the cells central command systems which were still in 1950 a mystery And if an intrepid scientific detective followed in their tracks they would be led to the same destination In other words unpicking how viruses

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/10/05/counting-lumps-in-the-lawn-a-look-back-at-the-1975-nobel-prize/ (2016-02-11)
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  • 4 ways that Tomas Lindahl’s Nobel Prize for Chemistry revolutionised cancer research - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    day wear and tear and for cells to survive they must somehow have the ability to repair this damage At the time this was a ground breaking new concept He went on to discover several important families of molecules that help patch up mistakes in our DNA And this pioneering work truly revolutionised the field of cancer research as we explore below 1 A whole new research field Faults in DNA repair play a key role in cancer developing and is an active field of research that scientists including many mentored by Tomas are still pursuing Crucially for patients the discovery has also led to a whole toolbox of treatments to beat cancer 2 Better treatments Scientists used the understanding of DNA damage and repair to design chemotherapy drugs that cause irreparable DNA damage that destroy cancer cells It s also the basis of radiotherapy so thanks to Tomas s studies into DNA repair scientists are researching ways to make radiotherapy more effective in the future by combining it with drugs that stop cancer cells fixing the damage 3 Targeting cancer s weaknesses Newer targeted treatments are also being developed that target critical weaknesses in cancer cells based on faults in their DNA repair toolkits An example is the discovery of PARP inhibitors a class of drugs that wouldn t exist without the founding knowledge from Tomas s lab 4 The Epstein Barr Virus Tomas also made some of the earliest and most important discoveries into how Epstein Barr Virus EBV can alter DNA and lead to cancer developing in fact that s how he met his partner Beverly Griffin which brought him to England to continue his research Beverly and Tomas Credit CRUK London Research Institute Archives Tomas Lindahl has had a remarkable career making many discoveries that sit at the very foundations of our understanding of cancer and that have led to new treatments that benefit patients We re over the moon to hear his brilliance has been recognised with a well deserved Nobel Prize and beyond proud that Cancer Research UK supported his research for much of his career If you d like to read more about Tomas Lindahl s ground breaking work you can find out more in chapter four of Kathleen Weston s book about the history of Cancer Research UK s London Research Institute Blue Skies and Bench Space Emma Read more about some of our Nobel Prize winning discoveries Blog Counting lumps in the lawn a look back at the 1975 Nobel Prize Blog Understanding how cells divide the story of a Nobel prize Share this article More on this topic Tags Cancer biology Cancer Research UK funded research Research and trials Comments Click here to cancel reply Tell us what you think Required Name Email will not be shown Required Website Read our comment policy Submit Comment Manoo Paulose November 16 2015 Sir a whole heart congrats for an amazing discovery leading and showing a path towards cure of Cancer Admirable thoughts

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/10/07/4-ways-that-tomas-lindahls-nobel-prize-for-chemistry-revolutionised-cancer-research/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Aspirin and cancer – not quite, but nearly - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    the unanswered questions So why the uncertainty The story so far Today s headlines are the latest chapter in a story that s been unfolding over the last few years We ve been following it since 2008 when we wrote this in depth explainer about the state of the evidence In 2009 our researchers produced a new report discussed here concluding that more research was still needed Then in 2010 a new analysis by researchers in Oxford suggested that the pros were beginning to outweigh the con s although our experts still called for caution The last big announcement on the subject came in 2012 when the Oxford team published new data refining what was known about the balance of pros and cons We discussed this extensively and if you read one post on the subject it s this one as it goes into detail about how the risks and benefits change over time So what s new Ongoing studies We re funding several studies looking at aspirin in more detail including CAPP3 to look at the best dose of aspirin to prevent bowel cancer in people at high risk of the disease AspECT to look at whether it can prevent oesophageal cancer in patients with Barrett s oesophagus a condition that increases risk Add Aspirin to look at whether aspirin can enhance the benefits of treatment in people already diagnosed with cancer And so to today s news The latest analysis published in the Annals of Oncology pulls together data from all available studies and clinical trials and analyses where the balance lies more clearly than ever before It confirms that aspirin protects most strongly against bowel stomach and oesophageal cancers and also more weakly against lung prostate and breast cancers It suggests that the benefits start building from age 50 so there s little to gain from taking it below that age And it finds that if 1 000 people 500 men and 500 women aged 60 take aspirin for ten years then compared with 1 000 people who DIDN T take aspirin over the next 20 years you d see Pros Around 17 fewer deaths including 16 fewer deaths from cancer overall 1 4 fewer deaths from heart attacks Cons Between two and three extra death from 1 4 more lethal strokes 0 3 more serious peptic ulcers 0 65 more lethal gastric bleeds Sounds positive overall right Well there are a few important omissions from the analysis that begin to muddy the waters It s a bit more complicated than that These risks and benefits aren t evenly spread around the population Some are at higher risk of side effects Some people s genetic make up means they break down aspirin at different rates some faster some slower than average Some will have a lower risk of cancer without even taking the drug so they won t benefit as much though they may still experience side effects It s an extremely complex and still slightly murky

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/08/06/aspirin-and-cancer-not-quite-but-nearly/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Could aspirin boost cancer immunotherapy? - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    of immune cell called a T cell by effectively putting it to sleep This is an important safety mechanism that ensures the immune response doesn t spiral out of control which can lead to disastrous consequences And it s this role in suppressing T cells that makes prostaglandin E2 an important player in cancer Prostaglandin E2 is made by molecular machines in cells called cyclo oxygenase 1 and 2 or COX 1 and COX 2 for short And there s already evidence that levels of COX are unusually high in several types of cancer including bowel breast and lung So Professor Reis e Sousa and his team set about investigating whether prostaglandin E2 or COX 1 and 2 could be possible targets for treating cancer Dampening down the immune response Their latest research focuses on lab grown melanoma skin cancer cells originally taken from mice that were genetically prone to developing the disease thanks to a fault in a gene called BRAF By testing the chemicals released into the nutrient broth the cancer cells were growing in the team found that they were producing something that was able to stop immune cells from reacting to the danger signals that normally trigger them into action Could this mystery molecule be prostaglandin E2 Using an exciting new genetic engineering technique called CRISPR the researchers deliberately edited out the COX 1 and COX 2 genes in the melanoma cells meaning they could no longer make prostaglandin E2 And just as they suspected the cancer cells lost their ability to damp down the immune response Next the researchers compared mice transplanted with normal skin cancer cells to mice whose melanoma cells lacked COX 1 and 2 genes and they spotted two important things Firstly animals with tumours lacking COX 1 and 2 so were unable to produce prostaglandin E2 had a much stronger immune reaction to the cancer cells And secondly this reaction meant that the tumours with missing COX genes could now be attacked by immune cells unlike cancers with normal COX genes Excitingly the scientists saw a similar pattern when they repeated the experiments with bowel and breast cancer cells implicating prostaglandin E2 in the growth of these types of cancer too An aspirin boost You might reach for the aspirin when you have a fever but what you might not realise is that aspirin works by targeting COX 1 and 2 So Professor Reis e Sousa wondered whether aspirin might be able to mimic the effects of knocking out the COX genes reducing prostaglandin E2 levels and helping to drive a stronger immune response against the mice s tumours Just as they d seen in their genetic engineering experiments To test this idea the researchers added aspirin to the drinking water of mice transplanted with melanoma cells Watch an animation showing how these drugs work By itself the drug had no effect this isn t surprising as there s no evidence that aspirin alone can treat cancer But when they combined

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/09/03/could-aspirin-boost-cancer-immunotherapy/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
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  • How can a marketing campaign improve lung cancer survival? - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    lung cancer SCLC will survive their disease for at least one year after diagnosis But therein lies the problem only 10 15 per cent of lung cancer patients in England are diagnosed at the earliest stage compared to around 70 per cent diagnosed at a late stage We knew from social marketing campaigns in several places round England such as the cough cough campaign in Doncaster that there was definitely more work to be done on raising awareness of lung cancer symptoms But was it foolish to think that we could achieve something more than just awareness through a marketing campaign Heated debate Is it ethically responsible to run this campaign will you just be issuing the terminal news a little earlier We all knew it wouldn t be easy and a meeting later that year reminded me just how challenging it was going to be I sat in a room with representatives from the cancer networks and primary care talking to them about the Be Clear on Cancer lung campaign that would be running in their areas The debate became heated when the challenges grew vigorous How do you know this campaign will work I was asked Can you guarantee that my surgery won t be swamped with people who are in a panic after seeing the campaign What evidence do you have that this will show a shift in stage and most thought provoking of all Is it ethically responsible to run this campaign will you just be issuing the terminal news a little earlier We didn t have lots of evidence and we didn t know how many people would walk through their GP s surgery doors It would be difficult until we got some of the answers and built the evidence base So we needed to run some pilots Gathering the evidence Local projects dotted around England appeared to work but we needed a bigger regional campaign to understand fully the impact on the NHS We started in the Midlands area with a TV advertisement showing a man and woman coughing and then talking to their GP We came in for some criticism about whether this was an appropriate use of NHS money whether GPs would be inundated because a 3 week cough was so common and patient groups argued that we should have included other symptoms or made it clear that lung cancer also affects non smokers Despite the challenges colleagues at Public Health England and Department of Health with support from Cancer Research UK pushed on and rolled the Be Clear on Cancer lung cancer campaign out nationally in 2012 We kept calm and carried on A story of success Thankfully good news started to emerge in December 2012 when some early data on the regional lung cancer pilot indicated that more cancers had been diagnosed and at an earlier stage But numbers were relatively small and we still needed more information to answer all those challenging questions Today the newspapers are covering the

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2013/12/09/how-can-a-marketing-campaign-improve-lung-cancer-survival/ (2016-02-11)
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  • New NICE GP guidelines have huge ambition and potential - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    its services while belts have had to tighten all round We know that quite often the people who actually do the tests like endoscopists and radiographers are really struggling to keep up with demand Waiting lists are growing and targets are being missed That situation quite wrongly puts pressure on us to consider not just the benefits of referring our patients but also whether the system can cope So the new guidelines clearly recognise the overwhelming evidence that patients are better served by earlier referrals The NHS will now need to rise to that challenge Will this put more pressure on the NHS Overall as a GP I very much welcome these new guidelines The lower referral threshold means I can send more patients to the specialists who are best equipped to diagnose them For patients who need specialist care such as cancer treatment that means less time is wasted while I carry out tests or have to wait and see if their symptoms won t go away or get a little more serious It will likely mean my patients having fewer appointments before I can give them an urgent referral It frees up my time for others and speeds up a patient s diagnosis It could even lead to a reduction from the current figure of one in four patients diagnosed after an emergency which we know comes with worse outcomes and high costs to the NHS So overall I think there s great potential for these guidelines to relieve some of the pressure on services Clearly that s good news for all concerned But of course there are concerns that the lower threshold will mean many more urgent referrals which will stretch diagnostic services already at capacity That is something that must be accounted for and monitored closely Referring many more patients with no changes elsewhere in the system will put considerable pressure on the NHS Work must start now to understand how to manage that A step on the way to diagnosing cancer earlier The people who actually do the tests are really struggling to keep up with demand It s now up to us as GPs along with those in specialist services and the government to put these new guidelines into practice They re hundreds of pages of long and it will take a concerted effort to train everyone involved and make the necessary changes to services But we also need to see more innovative and joined up ways to organise cancer services These sorts of innovations are being examined by the NHS led ACE programme supported by Cancer Research UK and the independent Cancer Taskforce will consider them when their five year strategy for cancer services is announced later this summer For the public the message is unchanged if you notice persistent or unusual changes to your body then GPs want to see you to check them out The difference is that your GP will now have more flexibility to get you to a specialist quickly if necessary Much more needs to happen to make sure we diagnose cancer as well as the best in the world but these new guidelines are a very welcome step forward The challenge is to make sure that concerns over a potential increase in referrals as well as financial pressure does not prevent the NHS from translating these guidelines ambition and huge potential into actual benefits for the patients we see every day Richard Calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK using the 2011 UK cancer incidence and NHS workforce data on the total number of GPs in the UK in 2011 Cancer Research UK has produced information and resources to help health professionals use the guidelines Share this article More on this topic Tags Cancer in the news Diagnosing cancer Early detection Early detection policy Health service policy Signs and symptoms Tests Comments Click here to cancel reply Tony T July 21 2015 We must thank Henry for his detailed response which is welcome and insightful Anybody who has been thru the system and no doubt their families will be aware of that delays kill I do not know of one cancer where delayed diagnosis benefits outcomes From my experiences I would say that the wasted resources caused by delay in treating people presenting with symptoms indicating a high propensity far outweigh the dubious savings THE REASON THAT OTHER COUNTRIES ARE GETTING BETTER OUTCOMES IS BECAUSE THEY ARE DOING THINGS DIFFERENTLY COPY THEM FOR GOODNESS SAKE The game is up stop trying to justify thing that are failing people and causing premature deaths Henry Scowcroft July 14 2015 Sorry for the delay in responding to your questions A few people asked whether these guidelines apply across the UK Officially NICE guidelines only apply in England But Wales and to some extent Northern Ireland uses them too Scotland uses guidelines produced by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network SIGN and we hope that SIGN will also try to give GPs more flexibility to refer their patients Sorry for not making this clearer in our blog we ve now clarified this in the intro NICE s guidelines are publicly available including a version produced for the general public There s also information on the signs and symptoms of cancer for the public on our website We hope that the new guidelines lead to more cancer patients getting diagnosed early But cancer is a complicated disease to diagnose and unfortunately it s inevitable that some patients will still be diagnosed at a late stage So medics such as GPs and dentists must review how they responded to those patients to ensure they learn from any missed opportunities And research needs to continue to develop ways to detect cancer more accurately A number of you expressed frustration that NHS resources are still being raised as an issue and we very much sympathise with those comments There s no doubt that diagnostic services are facing issues such as staff shortages and a need for more investment This is partly down to the fact that as a population we are living longer and are therefore more likely to develop several conditions including cancer in our lifetimes But also improvements to NHS services like bowel screening are already resulting in more people being referred for cancer tests These trends along with an increased focus on the early diagnosis of cancer led to a 50 percent increase in the number of urgent referrals for suspected cancer between 2009 10 and 2013 14 To make the most of the resources available it s essential that there s continued innovation and improvement in how NHS and connected services are run and organised but in some areas that must be backed up by more investment Overall these guidelines are a very positive step and it is encouraging that they now include specific recommendations for ensuring that patients who aren t immediately referred are still followed up if their symptoms persist or change However as Anthony says and research shows patients want symptoms investigated at an even lower threshold It s true that further lowering of the threshold would lead to some cancer being diagnosed more quickly But NICE s decision not to lower thresholds further will be based on their desire to balance any potential benefits against the potential harms associated with carrying out tests for these patients e g overdiagnosis of conditions that aren t actually life threatening leading to unnecessary treatment and side effects of tests It is also likely that NICE did consider whether diagnostic services would be able to cope with larger increases in referrals So to understand whether those decisions provide the best possible patient care it must now monitor the guidelines impact It s important to point out that cancer survival in the UK has doubled in the last 40 years thanks to considerable improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease And while the UK continues to lag behind the best performing countries in the world we also have fewer doctors nurses radiographers etc and diagnostic resources per 100 000 patients than those countries So Cancer Research UK will also be keeping a close eye on the effects of the updated guidelines And we hope that the report from the independent cancer Taskforce due soon will help tackle some of the issues too Earlier diagnosis of cancer is one of the most effective ways to increase cancer Tony T July 9 2015 It appears from some of the comments that even more resources are required As someone who was diagnosed after 30 months of bleeding I do not think it was lack of resource that caused the delay but lack of judgement The previous guidelines had been in for years and the outcomes must have indicated a link between late referral and poor outcomes The British people are not daft If people are remotely suspected of cancer the medical profession has a duty to tell them even if they do not have the capacity to treat them THEN THE MONEY WOULD BE DEMANDED and no doubt found Ursula Collie July 5 2015 Since I am someone for whom it took over 18 months to get a referral for my breast lump and in fact I am only alive today because I had private health insurance which eventually paid for the mammogram I welcome the new guidelines I think there needs to be a change of culture among GPs because one of the things I can t forgive is how I was patronised and made to feel really small and stupid because I was afraid that I had cancer as indeed I did Angus July 3 2015 There are so many examples in the comments about people suffering from a lack of early diagnosis and treatment We need more diagnostic facilities staff to use them specialists and access to treatments Many people say the NHS has a lot of money and wastes it Certainly a lot of money is wasted on things like Commissioning and tendering but otherwise it is difficult to find leaner organisations almost anywhere Perhaps we need to look at other countries like Germany Aside from income tax which is largely similar to ours although progressive i e between 0 45 people have to pay for health insurance e g 400 euros month This gets them access to probably more than we get It is about time we bit the bullet and started paying as much as our European cousins do for healthcare in order to get the same levels of access and treatment michelle wilson July 3 2015 my mum had the same experience as Karen Patterson s dad She was told it was a stomach ulcer and she is not here with us now Previously she had been going to her GP complaining of a lump in her breast for years she continued to do that 10 years to be exact she was diagnosed with breast cancer after 10 years she went through chemo surgery the lot she would have been 5 years all clear last year but then this stomach ulcer which turned out that the cancer had spread to her spine and liver By the time her useless GP referred her it was too late she would have been only 52 had she made it to her birthday she left behind me and my 4 younger siblings the youngest of which is only 14 Most GPs are useless these days only seem to care about the money well thats what they are like here in Basildon and Wickford anyhow and its not the first time that the GP mum was seeing has misdiagnosed and the patient meeting their maker due to the misdiagnosis Tony T July 3 2015 I have read Matt s response to Maggie and make the following observation The NHS has a huge amount of investment every year and politicians and clinicians have been promising improvement for as long as I can remember The constant resource whinge would have more credibility if we didn t have to read about the extortionate cost of agency staff and other wasteful practices such as treating the more advanced stages of curable cancers I have supported Cancer Research UK for 25 years but I cannot help wondering about the huge disconnect between those who promote the idea of early diagnosis and treatment and the reality that some GPs appear to be fearful of referring Peoples ability to detect a discrepancy between what the medical profession says and what it does should not be underestimated Karen Patterson July 3 2015 Excellent at last My dad was very ill for months and was eventually told he had a stomach ulcer when in fact he had cancer After a huge operation and six months of recovery he tried chemo which he couldn t get away with only for his cancer to return Sadly he is not here now I can t help but feel if an earlier diagnosis was made he would still be here Catherine Williams July 3 2015 The new guidelines are long overdue and most welcome but come too late for my husband He saw his GP because of back pain and was initially prescribed paracetamol The pain continued and he was sent for X ray which showed two of his vertebrae were crumbling The GP suspected cancer and ordered test after test and various scans which obviously took a considerable time None of the tests indicated cancer so the GP did not know to which specialist to make a referral so eventually an appointment was made with a rheumatologist More tests followed all the while my husband was becoming more ill He was eventually told in the most uncsympathetic way that they knew he had secondary bone cancer but as the primary was not known the only treatment would be palliative He was naturally devastated and as lay people we could not understand how this could be possible We had never heard of cancer with an unknown primary My husband could not accept that he had not seen an oncologist and had basically been told to go away to die Through a work colleague a nurse we saw the oncology matron at our local hospital and she to use her own words asked a favour of an oncology consultant friend who saw my husband The consultant was sympathetic and caring and managed my husband s case until he died I know now that the outcome for my husband would not have been different but his psychological and mental health could have been better had he felt that he was he was not being fobbed off Anthony T July 3 2015 This is well overdue and it is a reflection on how poor early diagnosis of cancer is This view is reinforced by the fact that so many people are diagnosed as a result of A E presentation and the poor outcomes across the board for cancer I cannot help wondering whether this is a result of downright incompetence or a blithe acceptance that a certain number of premature deaths are inevitable Why wouldn t an experienced GP refer someone with even a 1 100 chance of cancer for tests early rather than late The shameful overuse of the resource excuse is not acceptable to those who will die Sara Smith July 3 2015 What about dentists Our dentist of 33 years diagnosed my son with an infected impacted wisdom tooth which turned out to be stage 4 mouth cancer with lymph node involvement 2 years later he has metastases in his lungs Apparently because my son was 18 years old and a non smoker at diagnosis he didn t fit the criteria for this type of cancer so it s understandable said professional missed it GPs and dentists just need to accept that cancer can t be compartmentalised and the so called governing bodies who are allegedly in place to protect patients take stronger action against those who drop such gargantuan clangers while still enjoying a fat salary Thanks for nothing General Dental Council Lynn Reveley July 2 2015 It s disturbing to read story s of people dying from misdiagnosis of cancers having to wait too long throughout the process and late referrals When the system works it gives people their life back I pray these updated guidelines make a difference I myself found a lump 4 years ago in my breast on Christmas Eve My doctor got me into the breast clinic within 2 weeks I had my 1st appointment within 2 weeks after that each part of the journey took no longer than 2weeks And I had to have 3 biopsy to get the right diagnosis at the breast clinic having been told I did not have cancer after the first test Everyone at the clinic Peterborough hospital were caring as where the nurses at Adenbrookes in Cambridge where I travelled every day for 3 5weeks for my radiotherapy Throughout this whole terrifying process I pushed and questioned every move decision test to understand and make sure I was understood You have to take some control this is your life don t let the system swallow you up sam July 2 2015 About time most welcome It took my gp far too long to be referred then the referral was standard not urgent I am one of the lucky ones but too many lifes have gone due to poor gp referral times joann jones July 2 2015 I am welsh and very very upset about devolution Without the English NHS we are screwed Well done NHS England for listening and reacting A cancer diagnosis is not unusual in today s world and the sooner it is stopped in it s tracks the better chance a person has of becoming cancer free I have heard too many stories of people returning to their gp time and time again before referral and

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/06/23/new-nice-gp-guidelines-have-huge-ambition-and-potential/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Cancer care in the new NHS in England - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    doctors hands Local bodies called Clinical Commissioning Groups CCGs now hold a majority of the budget for the NHS overseen by the arms length NHS England and responsibility for public health moves to Public Health England and local authorities The Act also puts a duty to promote research at the heart of the health system which we were very pleased to see What is commissioning We explained the concept of commissioning in detail in a previous blog post but in essence it s the process by which different parts of the NHS plan and pay for services from each other or from external companies So a local hospital may be commissioned to perform certain services such as diagnostic scans e g x rays or MRIs How will the new system affect cancer services The first thing to say is that on the surface it is unlikely that the services patients actually use GP surgeries and local hospitals for example will have changed substantially as of Monday But the way NHS services are commissioned is now significantly different and this could lead to changes in the long run The new structure is complex and somewhat hard to put in words Right click to save this image We hope that the diagram above helps explain how the NHS will work for cancer patients but just in case looking at it from a patient perspective might make it easier Say a person is worried they may have bowel cancer having seen a local awareness campaign They might first go their local GP who may then refer that patient to a hospital for diagnostic tests Then if cancer is diagnosed that patient could need treatment with surgery radiotherapy or chemotherapy All of these services along the patient pathway from the awareness campaign to the types of treatment are now commissioned by different parts of the NHS So thinking about that pathway Efforts to prevent ill health and promote awareness of cancer symptoms are now the responsibility of Public Health England and local authorities GPs and the services their practices provide are commissioned nationally by NHS England Clinical Commissioning Groups CCGs made up of local GPs will plan and buy cancer services in the local area such as hospital diagnostic and surgical services but only for the more common cancers breast lung bowel and prostate Treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy for all cancers and services for rarer cancers will be commissioned nationally by NHS England As you can see it is a complicated picture And as we move forward in this new system it is crucial that different parts of the system work closely together particularly in areas like early diagnosis of cancer for which local authorities and CCGs share responsibility at the local level Some other bodies involved As well as these organisations directly commissioning care and treatment there are a number of other bodies that help the whole system to plan and work together Health and Wellbeing Boards play an important role

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2013/04/05/cancer-care-in-the-new-nhs-in-england/ (2016-02-11)
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