archive-org.com » ORG » C » CANCERRESEARCHUK.ORG

Total: 768

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Engineering a cancer-fighting immune super soldier - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    And for inspiration they ve turned to a completely different type of immune cell known as a B cell Modified warhead While T cells receptors can struggle to identify cancer cells B cells are able to release a completely different type of weapon antibodies These immune cell warheads are able to see through cancer s disguises And for many years researchers have known how to engineer antibodies to stick to particular molecules found on cancer cells a process that works entirely independently of the MHC display system T cells use to spot and target problems In the clinic these engineered antibodies are already being used to treat a number of different types of cancer The problem is that while antibodies can stick to cancer cells they don t have the killing power of T cells So what if the two weapons were combined What if T cells could be armed with antibodies detection capabilities That s the goal of engineered T cells Engineering a super T cell The fundamental idea behind engineered T cells is the creation of a hybrid molecule stuck to the T cells surface combining the cancer homing power of antibodies with the deadly killing abilities of an army of T cell clones And now after more than three decades of testing researchers are closing on exactly that Chimaeric Antigen Receptor T cells or CAR T cells These immune super soldiers are made using healthy T cells taken from a patient s blood They are given the genetic instructions to make cancer seeking antibodies in addition to their normal T cell receptor and are forced to replicate to form an entire upgraded army They are then injected back into the body to seek out cancer cells When these upgraded T cells encounter cancer cells they use their carefully designed hybrid warheads instead of the standard T cell receptor bypassing the cancer s defences and destroying the tumour cells But does this approach actually work Putting it into practice Researchers really got excited about CAR T cells back in 2011 when Professor Carl June and his team at Pennsylvania State University published the results of a small trial on three patients with lymphoma Their modified immune soldiers were working All three patients responded to the treatment two entered remission and the CAR T cells were estimated to have killed 1 000 cancer cells each A really promising result But this was only a very small study and there are still huge technical challenges to overcome The immune system is a powerful weapon and CAR T cells are still in the very early stages of development They need to be tweaked and modified to ensure that they don t cause too much collateral damage Targeting is a critical part of the design process for an immune super soldier Once their weapons are armed T cells will hunt their enemies relentlessly so choosing the right molecular target is vital Most of the research so far has focused on blood cancers

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2016/01/19/engineering-a-cancer-fighting-immune-super-soldier/comment-page-1/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive


  • “I couldn’t believe how much things had moved on” – Nicola’s story - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    come round and see you Capecitabine is essentially a tablet version of an older chemo drug called 5 fluorouracil or 5FU but tweaked in a way so as to reduce the side effects while maintaining its effectiveness It s the product of years of painstaking research and like all drugs rigorous clinical trials And it was the expertise of Cancer Research UK funded doctors that allowed the UK to take part in a series of international trials in the late 1990s culminating in the drug s approval in 2006 Gazing into the double helix But that isn t the only thing that s moved on in the last decade Doctors understanding of the genetic causes of the disease has improved massively too Soon after mum was diagnosed her mother my grandmother also realised she d been having similar symptoms and went to get checked out They found she also had bowel cancer but unfortunately it was too late to do anything about it She died aged 69 Given the fact that 3 generations of her family had had bowel cancer Nicola was referred to a genetic counsellor for testing At this point it was discovered that her great grandfather also died from the disease That made four generations affected by the same cancer We now know that about one in 20 5 per cent bowel cancers are caused by inherited faulty genes causing the disease to be passed down through generations Our scientists have led the charge to pinpoint the genes involved and helped to track down the first one called APC in 1991 Since then dozens more have been found some rare some relatively common Again Cancer Research UK scientists have played a major role and are continuing to comb the genome for more And their work is far from over Nicola doesn t have any of the gene faults that have so far been discovered so the precise cause of the cancer in her family is still a mystery They can t find a genetic link for my family They re confident that there is one they just can t find it But they re making progress in DNA research all the time Nicola s doctors plan to re examine her DNA in a few years in the hope that new research will provide the answers Hopefully we ll eventually know for my children for my brothers and sisters what the link is between us all But for now Nicola is focusing on the here and now To get that one year all clear that s when I felt I could finally start to let go of what I d been through I m now doing a degree in English Literature and Creative Writing something I ve always wanted to do So I m absolutely thrilled that my experience of cancer has given me the courage to move forward and make it happen because it s just been the best thing I d also like to say a

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/07/23/i-couldnt-believe-how-much-things-had-moved-on-nicolas-story/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Too good to be true? A blood test ‘to predict breast cancer’ - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    these women had developed breast cancer but others hadn t It s worth noting that only about five per cent of women with breast cancer carry this gene fault They found a promising looking signature in the women s white blood cells that was linked to their chance of developing cancer But what about women who didn t carry a faulty BRCA1 gene When they looked at larger studies for this signature in women who didn t carry a BRCA1 fault they found that the signature appeared in the blood of women who went on to develop the disease This strongly suggests there s something in these women s blood that could be used to help work out their chance of breast cancer in later life But crucially it also throws up several questions What is this a signature of Why is it in white blood cells How long before breast cancer develops does it appear Why does it appear Is it an early sign of a cancer itself or of an underlying process that precedes the disease How is it affected by other things that affect breast cancer risk like bodyweight and age All of these questions and more need to be answered before we can start talking about tests available on the NHS Let s clear a few things up First this isn t a simple blood test a claim initially made in the press release put out by the journal which published the research and then echoed in all the subsequent coverage although hat tip for the Independent for an otherwise excellent article The analysis involved is extremely complex requiring specialist technology and expertise So it s a long way from being able to provide the sort of reliable evidence based information a doctor would need to rely on to make clinical decisions about a woman s care Secondly the test didn t predict breast cancer in the everyday sense of the word it was present in the blood of some women who didn t go on to get cancer and also absent in some women who did get cancer But it was more likely to appear in women who went on to get the disease Thirdly many of the stories mentioned timescales that we think are wildly overoptimistic given the unanswered questions above There s a very long way to go and a lot to prove before this could be routinely used Almost certainly more than five years Finally using words like breakthrough and revolutionise is really over egging the pudding of what s a relatively early stage finding And please can we not call BRCA1 the Jolie gene So why s it exciting The real interest to us is what this says about the biology of breast cancer The changes as we mentioned were spotted in the woman s white blood cells This could mean several things There could be something inherent in these women s immune systems that makes cancer more likely to develop

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/06/27/too-good-to-be-true-a-blood-test-to-predict-breast-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Twenty-five years since landmark bowel cancer discovery - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    June when the country was celebrating the Diamond Jubilee we took time to think about how much cancer research has changed since the Queen came to the throne And this month we re proud to look back at one of our key achievements which has played a big role in the lives of the one in twenty patients who s bowel cancer is inherited It s 25 years this month since we discovered the location in the DNA of our cells of a gene called APC Thanks to this discovery members of families in which many cases of bowel cancer occur often at a young age can now be offered genetic tests to look for inherited faults in this gene and potentially life saving screening if they carry them We now know that inherited faults in APC which causes a disease called familial adenomatous polyposis FAP account for about one in every hundred cases of bowel cancer When it s working normally the APC gene helps protect us from cancer by preventing cells from multiplying out of control But when it s faulty it greatly increases the risk of bowel cancer And as well as its role in inherited disease it s also involved in non inherited or sporadic bowel cancers Overall about eight out of ten cases of bowel cancer are fuelled by faults in the APC gene making it a crucial part of the pathway that leads to bowel cancer And it was one of our former Chief Executive Officers Professor Walter Bodmer who made the breakthrough in 1987 You can find out all about how Professor Bodmer tracked down the gene on this blog post Since Professor Bodmer s discovery in the late 80s death rates from bowel cancer in the UK have dropped by a third thanks to improvements in prevention and screening and better treatments But the story doesn t stop there and won t stop until we beat the disease Ongoing story Scientists have continued to study APC for the past two decades They re now getting a much clearer understanding of how APC works and what happens when it goes wrong Much of this groundbreaking work has been carried out by Cancer Research UK funded scientists For example our scientists in Dundee discovered that APC helps bowel cells to know how to divide in an organised manner And a team at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Research Institute in Glasgow discovered that blocking the activity of the APC gene in healthy bowel cancer stem cells causes tumours to grow Iron levels are the key Earlier this month there was yet more exciting news from our scientists in Glasgow They found that levels of iron play a crucial role in controlling the development of bowel cancer in mice who carry a faulty APC gene High levels of iron on their own do not cause bowel cancer but they come into play if someone also has a faulty APC gene Although we d known for

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2012/08/28/twenty-five-years-since-landmark-bowel-cancer-discovery/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Josephine Querido | Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Grand Challenge award View all schemes and deadlines Applying for funding Start your application online Guide to filling in your application form How to make a successful application Funding committees Manage your research grant Manage your grant online Guide to managing a grant online Notify us of new publications Update your profile How we deliver research Our research strategy Our institutes Our centres Our research partnerships More Drug discovery and development Recently funded awards Researcher case studies ABOUT US What we do We beat cancer We fundraise We develop policy Our organisation Our strategy Our Trustees CEO and Executive Board Annual report and accounts Annual review Current jobs Graduates and interns Your development Benefits Cancer news Science blog Latest press releases Latest news reports Search all news More Contact Us Press office Publications HOME ABOUT CANCER SUPPORT US NEWS RESOURCES FUNDING RESEARCH ABOUT US You are here Home border 0 Support us Home About us Cancer news Science blog Author Josephine Querido Author Josephine Querido What about my type of cancer Category Science blog February 7 2013 Josephine Querido Why don t you spend more on my cancer type and why don t you do more to highlight awareness These are two questions we hear frequently and to Read More Imatinib the dawn of targeted treatments Category Science blog October 25 2012 Josephine Querido Thirty years ago we published research that was a key early step in the journey towards the first genetically tailored cancer drug imatinib also known as Gl Read More Twenty five years since landmark bowel cancer discovery Category Science blog August 28 2012 Josephine Querido There s a lot more to do before we can say we ve beaten cancer but every now and then it s good to sit back and reflect on how far we ve already come Read More Cancer intelligence mission possible Category Science blog June 20 2012 Josephine Querido Imagine a future where you can go online and compare which hospital is the best in your area to treat your type of cancer A future where as a cancer patient Read More Our tenth birthday but more than a century of history Category Science blog February 3 2012 Josephine Querido This week marks ten years since the Imperial Cancer Research Fund ICRF and the Cancer Research Campaign CRC merged to form Cancer Research UK We re n Read More NCRI Cancer Conference 2009 Biomarker buzz Category Science blog October 6 2009 Josephine Querido On Sunday Professor Paul Workman talked about personalised medicine And on Monday we heard more about this unparalleled time of opportunity for cancer drug Read More Science comes to life at the Centre of the Cell Category Science blog September 18 2009 Josephine Querido How many human cells can you fit on the dot of a one penny piece And how many cells in your body are not actually your own You can find the answer to these an Read More Older Posts Newer Posts Popular posts Most

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/author/josephinequerido/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Bowel cancer – 40 years of progress but early detection is key - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    was a landmark in understanding the disease s inner workings and ultimately allowed affected families to be offered genetic testing and preventative screening Another significant step forward in the 80s was the confirmation that a drug called folinic acid improved the effectiveness of 5 FU 1990s Several more steps forward were taken in the 1990s Firstly keyhole surgery began to emerge as a better way to treat cancer It took a while for this to become standard practice NICE recommended it in 2006 and the NHS is currently rolling out a training programme to make sure this is widely available Research in 200 9 confirmed that availability was on the up Also in the 1990s researchers really began to nail down how best to use 5 FU For example giving people with incurable bowel cancer 5 FU after surgery was shown to improve long term survival rates and other studies showed that it could cure people with less advanced cancer that was at high risk of spreading Two large studies began the EPIC study of diet and cancer started recruiting in 1992 and a large bowel screening study in 1994 began to investigate a technique called flexible sigmoidoscopy flexi sig Cancer Research UK helped fund both studies More progress was made in understanding bowel cancer s genetics For example in 1995 our researchers in Cambridge published a paper on an inherited bowel cancer syndrome called Hereditary Non Polyposis Colon Cancer or HNPCC also known as Lynch Syndrome This led to more people being offered genetic testing and screening In 1998 he Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy COMA published a landmark report It ruled that the evidence linking red and processed meat to a higher risk of bowel cancer was strong enough to recommend people limit their consumption And two significant policy changes were brought in by the UK government Firstly in 1997 the Department of Health recommended that patients should be treated by teams of medics from different areas of expertise so called multidisciplinary teams And in 1999 the Government introduced the Two week wait for suspected cancer patients which undoubtedly helped people be seen more quickly and likely saved lives 2000s In 2003 the EPIC study showed that a high fibre diet could reduce the risk of developing the disease giving people more information about choices they could make to stack the odds in their favour And by 2005 surgery to remove liver and lung metastases had become standard for suitable patients This led to even more people being cured After intense pressure from Cancer Research UK and our colleagues in other organisations a national bowel screening programme began rolling out in 2006 based on the fecal occult blood test which detects blood in your stools And the landmark Cancer Research UK funded QUASAR trial proved in 2007 that 5 FU chemotherapy could benefit many more bowel cancer patients Previously the drug had only been offered to people whose cancer seemed likely to spread after

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2012/04/02/bowel-cancer-40-years-of-progress-but-early-detection-is-key/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Could 'stealth' viruses and microbubbles help treat cancer? - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    Professor Seymour and his team developed a stealth disguise for viruses designed to target ovarian cancer to help it evade detection by the immune system The results from lab studies were promising but there s still a problem Although the coating made from sticky molecules called polymers protects the viruses it also makes it harder for them to infect cancer cells In this new paper the researchers have gone a step further and designed a polymer stealth coat that falls off the virus when it encounters a slightly acidic environment compared to the rest of the body exactly the kind of environment that s found immediately around tumours This is because cancer cells use up oxygen and generate energy in an abnormal way compared to healthy tissue leading to a highly localised build up of acid Note No this doesn t mean that an alkaline diet will help to treat cancer physiology doesn t work that way Then reveal it Experiments in the lab showed that a small drop in pH i e the environment becoming more acidic could make the virus shed its coat Further tests with mice proved that the coated virus didn t build up in the liver But the bigger issue still remained namely how to get the viruses close to the cancer cells in the first place The blood vessels around tumours are chaotic and abnormal making it tricky to get the viruses near them in a high enough dose to start an infection As an aside the same problem also affects chemotherapy drugs something our researchers are also working on To solve this challenge the scientists combined their stealth viruses with another exciting technology microbubbles Bubbling up First developed for medical use in the late 1990s to help improve the clearness of ultrasound imaging microbubbles are tiny bubbles of gas that can be injected into a patient s bloodstream Depending on the particular properties of the bubbles they either wobble or burst in the presence of ultrasound waves It s this second property the ability to pop the bubbles on cue which Professor Seymour and his team are now exploiting It turns out that when microbubbles burst they generate a small shockwave that can help propel virus particles into a tumour something the team has already proved works in lab tests To test this idea in real tumours the researchers injected their stealth coated virus into mice transplanted with breast cancer cells along with a microbubble product called SonoVue Then they targeted a short burst of ultrasound directly over the tumour The results were exciting they saw levels of viruses in the ultrasound treated tumours that they d never managed to achieve in previous tests Importantly they also found that the viruses were shedding their stealth coats and starting to multiply in the cancer cells just as they d hoped And best of all the virus therapy was working although tumours didn t completely disappear their growth slowed down Forever blowing micro bubbles These

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/02/14/could-stealth-viruses-and-microbubbles-help-treat-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Expert Opinion: Professor Nick Lemoine on pancreatic cancer - Cancer Research UK - Science blog
    are found in nature but we ve modified them so that they can only infect and multiply in cancer cells We re combining two viruses they both work in different ways but cancers particularly pancreatic cancers can t develop resistance against either We ve found that this combination not only destroys the cancer but it also produces an enormously powerful and long lasting immunity against that cancer So we can start thinking about treating the disease at a much earlier stage and vaccinating patients in a single shot that s extremely exciting Cancer Research UK So what s next Nick Lemoine We recognise that one of the ways these viruses can work against cancer is by stimulating the immune system so we want to amplify that and direct it exclusively and more powerfully against the cancer And so we re looking at arming those viruses with particular genes that influence the way that the immune system behaves Once we ve done all the testing and validation to make sure that it is safe and works the way we think it does we plan to take it into clinical trials hopefully over the next two or three years Cancer Research UK What inspires you most about your job Nick Lemoine I think that the real excitement for me is that I can bridge the divide between the lab and the clinic So I spend half my day in the fantastic new Barts Cancer Centre overseeing the care of our patients and the other half in the laboratory developing new approaches that could change what we do in the hospital And being able to see both sides of the spectrum is very exciting Interview conducted by Safia Danovi September 2011 Share this article More on this topic Tags Cancer Research UK funded research Diagnosing cancer Early detection Expert Opinion Gene therapy Pancreatic cancer Comments Click here to cancel reply Dave February 25 2012 My best friend died of this horrible form of Cancer I hope you find a cure soon Jayne Coles November 2 2011 My Mum had pancreatic cancer she never touched a cigarette in her life and she never drank she was very healthy and had a good diet so why did it strike her down Simon Baker October 18 2011 My Mum passed away due to Pancreatic Cancer this year July 26th she had no real symptoms until Spring this year one day she had a terrible pain in her side and that pain carried on for a while but she thought it was indegestion as it kept moving around her body under her ribs in her right shoulder in her back and it was always worse when she tried to lye down and it was almost impossible for her to sleep she was diagnosed officially in July and she passed away the day after in Hospital she was told she had cancer of the pancreas that had spread to the Liver and Lungs it was such a shock

    Original URL path: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2011/10/12/expert-opinion-professor-nick-lemoine-pancreatic-cancer/ (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive



  •