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  • 6th Module - Negotiation, Conflict and Culture - Peacebuilding
    individuals and groups in the situation to determine their own destinies to the greatest extent consistent with the common good In Catholic s word Laue claimed a preferential option for the poor for conflict resolution intervenors The essay poses two simple but troubling questions Is a culturally informed conflict resolution compatible with an ethically informed conflict resolution And does the spectre of cultural relativism require that one or the other be dropped The authors articulate the foggy concept of cultural relativism into three constructs a methodological b normative and c epistemological cultural relativism They advocate for a more subtle and nuanced definition of culture than the conceptual and analytic dead ends that anthropology has used to attribute to culture They sustain that methodological relativism emerges unscathed as an analytical tool especially useful for pre negotiations while normative relativism is less self recommending and epistemological relativism is useless if not dangerous for developing theory and methods of conflict resolution Brett J M Crotty S Culture and Negotiation Evanston Kellog School of Management Northwestern University 2006 http www rhsmith umd edu pdfs docs Speaker series Brett 20and 20Crotty 20Book 20Chapter 20final 2012 4 06 doc Since negotiation is a form of social interaction and culture provides ways to handle problems of social interaction it is reasonable to expect that culture will have an impact on negotiation The authors argue much of what we know on negotiation is based on research using samples from the United States and Northern Europe and is laden with values and assumptions that are Western What are culture s effects on negotiation The purpose of this essay is to analyse current research on the topic highlighting two trends a the cultural dimension approach conceptualising culture as a main effect and suggesting that cultural effects are due to a variety of cultural dimensions of values norms and even institutional ideologies b the constructivist approach conceptualising culture as interacting with context or individual differences or both to activate knowledge structures that direct negotiation behaviour Moore C Woodrow P Mapping Cultures Strategies for Effective Intercultural Negotiations in Track Two Vol 7 no 1 April 1998 http ccrweb ccr uct ac za archive two 8 1 p04 mapping cultures html or 1 Moore and Woodrow choose a pragmatic approach to the realm of cultural differences vis à vis negotiation Their aim is to provide a framework to identify interpret and respond to cultural differences First they try to clear the way from two common mistakes people do when approaching cultural differences a an assumption that despite apparent differences in the end we are all the same and if we just communicate problems will evaporate b a romantic approach to cultural diversity that treats others cultures as exotic sacred or deserving protection from cultural imperialism They argue that while it might be true that there are similarities between cultures and cultures are unique and precious it is possible to identify cultural similarities build upon them and develop strategies that will help to bridge

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/6th_Module_-_Negotiation%2C_Conflict_and_Culture (2016-02-13)
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  • 2nd Module - Positional bargaining and principled negotiation - Peacebuilding
    position they tend to overlook their and the other side s underlined concerns and interests Every negotiation takes place at two levels at the level of the substance at stake and at that of the process for dealing with that substance The first level is about what you negotiate the second is about how you do it Fisher and Ury focus on how we negotiate and propose a method named principled negotiation for doing it better Offline Fisher Roger Ury William Patton Bruce Getting to Yes Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In New York Penguin 1991 1981 abrldo http 002evolves blogspot com Activities you can use when working on this content include Acting Bargaining Two volunteers are given a script and asked to act it while other participants watch The script simulates a bargain between customer and shopkeeper the two proceed arguing over positions and progressively digging in Useful to introduce participants to positional bargaining Role Sketches Quick role plays involving negotiation skills Participants are provided with short essential profiles of their characters so that much is left to their improvisation If you use this activity to help participants reflect on positional bargaining and principled negotiation you will need to focus debriefing questions on exploring the difference Soft vs Hard This activity can be used when working on Soft and Hard positional bargaining By supporting one or the other style it stimulates participants to explore deeply the characteristics of positional bargaining And Then How Do We Proceed Andrew 16 year old has an argument with his parents He runs and locks himself up in his room Cecile and Bernard are up to confront him A simple scenario with three roles to play leaves plenty of room for participant s improvisation Retrieved from http peacebuilding caritas org index php 2nd Module Positional

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/2nd_Module_-_Positional_bargaining_and_principled_negotiation (2016-02-13)
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  • 4th Module - Turning confrontation into cooperation - Peacebuilding
    save face make the outcome appear as a victory for them Use power to educate if they still dig into position and want to win over you educate them to the contrary make it hard for them to say no Offline Ury William Getting Past No Negotiating Your Way From Confrontation To Cooperation New York Bantam 1991 Online Wikipedia contributors Getting past NO Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia http en wikipedia org w index php title Getting past NO oldid 86154581 accessed November 15 2006 Glaser Tanya Conflict Research Consortium Book Summary Getting Past No Negotiating With Difficult People in International Online Training Program on Intractable Conflict University of Colorado URL http www crinfo org booksummary 10438 Activities you can use when working on this content include Brainstorming on Confrontation to Cooperation How can you turn confrontation into cooperation How can you transform conflicts to be fought into problems to be solved A classic brainstorming exercise based on these questions Five Barriers to Cooperation This activitiy inspired on Ury s text invites participants to explore real world barriers that get in the way to cooperation and to devise strategies to break through them Handouts quickly describing the five most common barriers are distributed to participants to introduce basic content necessary for exploration Observing Role Players Volunteer role players are given a scenario and asked to play in front of the rest of participants who act as observers Observers are duly briefed on what to look for barriers to cooperation The dynamic used is the fishbowl role players at the centre observers form a circle around them The experiential activity and the contents introduced boost a discussion that moves from what actually happened to what tends to get in the way to cooperation and to what can be done about it Retrieved

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/4th_Module_-_Turning_confrontation_into_cooperation (2016-02-13)
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  • 1st Module - Cooperation and Competition, Conflict Styles and Outcomes - Peacebuilding
    aware of the way they act in conflict For peacebuilding knowing how you react to conflict and communicate with people is very important Here we focus on the Personal Conflict Style Inventory developed by Ron Kraybill and Mennonite Conciliation Services 1987 It is a brief questionnaire that uses the five conflict styles identified in the Thomas Kilmann instrument accommodation compromise competition avoidance and collaboration Conflict Outcomes Zero sum and Non zero sum situations Frequently who is in conflict thinks that one party will win and the other will lose or the parties will find a compromise Conflict is perceived as a zero sum situation i e a situation where the gain of one part corresponds to the loss of the other In other words the outcome is seen as a fixed pie the more I get of it the less you ll get if I get it all you ll get none In compromise we split the pie Nonetheless experience tells us that very often in violent conflicts both parties lose Frequently if no party can impose herself over the other s and they cannot compromise the costs of fighting of each party will be so high that no matter what the gain is costs are higher In other words frequently parties in conflict lose more than they gain A traditional aim of conflict transformation is to help the parties to see conflict as a non zero sum situation where both parties can win or both can lose That is to expand the pie Activities you can use when working on this content include Popeye A quick to organise easy to understand and funny to play activity Though quick to play it can provide for hours of reflection on adversarial and competitive assumptions about negotiation and how these can influence

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/1st_Module_-_Cooperation_and_Competition%2C_Conflict_Styles_and_Outcomes (2016-02-13)
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  • 3rd Module - Principled Negotiation - Peacebuilding
    Research Consortium University of Colorado Boulder Posted June 2003 http www beyondintractability org essay interest based bargaining Wertheim E Negotiations and Resolving Conflicts An Overview http web cba neu edu ewertheim interper negot3 htm Activities you can use when working on this content include Role Sketches Quick role plays involving negotiation skills Participants are provided with essential profiles of their characters so that much is left to their improvisation Debriefing can be focused on different aspects of negotiation Negotiation Role Play A role play reproducing a two party negotiation between a Caritas representative and a local association Players profiles are more detailed than in Role Sketches resulting in participants needing a little more time to learn their profiles before role playing The situation created allows for different outcomes there is no right solution Role Play Smith vs Patel A negotiation role play taken from Peacebuilding A Caritas Training Manual It elaborates on a classic scenario used in conflict resolution training there is one orange two persons want that orange They struggle to get it Eventually they might come to realise the one needs only the orange s peel and the other needs the flesh Workers Payoff This simulation game provides a framework to practice two party negotiation between groups and focuses on how participants with different BATNAs act in negotiation It needs some preparation and participants need to be introduced well to the rules for the play It can be a lot of fun and provides experience for a substantial debriefing Too Many People To Deal With A negotiation role play with five different parties The framework of the activity provides a system to measure participants outcomes and a bottom line BATNA for each participant A hard play but it can be a lot of fun Preparing Your Negotiation It

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/3rd_Module_-_Principled_Negotiation (2016-02-13)
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  • 5th Module - How emotions play in negotiation - Peacebuilding
    and as a lever to improve it Offline Fisher Roger Shapiro Daniel Beyond Reason Using Emotions as You Negotiate New York Viking Penguin 2005 Online The book s website contains useful teaching resources http www beyond reason net Emotions and Concerns This short article is a very concise summary of the ideas included in Fisher and Shapiro s book Activities you can use when working on these contents include Emotions in Negotiation This is a structured brainstorming excercise It starts in a classic way then participants are asked to identify what emotions they see as positive and which negative in negotiation A set of questions will then help you to boost a discussion Emotions as Obstacles and Assets The plenary gets divided in sub groups Half of the groups work on emotions as obstacles in negotiation the rest on emotions as assets All groups are distributed handouts with basic reference to Fisher and Shapiro s book to facilitate their work Their task is twofold 1 To develop and articulate 3 examples that illustrate how emotions can be obstacles towards reaching a wise agreement in negotiation 2 To discuss and identify other ways emotions can be obstacles towards reaching a wise agreement in negotiation Dealing with Emotions This activity has three objectives 1 To brainstorm ways of dealing with emotions in negotiation 2 To suggest that addressing concerns instead of dealing directly with emotions is a more effective way to use emotions in negotiation 3 To identify core concerns that generate emotions in negotiation Role Plays and Emotions This template can be applied to different role plays In essence volunteers role play scenarios involving negotiating skills Observers look at the interaction focusing on how emotions play in negotiation and how participants have addressed or should address the core concerns that stimulate

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/5th_Module_-_How_emotions_play_in_negotiation (2016-02-13)
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  • Introduction to Principled Negotiation - Peacebuilding
    Behind positions are multiple interests and focusing on interests allows negotiators more room to generate solutions acceptable to all parties 3 Invent options for mutual gain This requires creativity and the commitment to brainstorm options that will be acceptable to both parties In brainstorming negotiators need to separate the stage of evaluating options from the stage of generating options Both parties need to broaden the number of possible options and not search for just one option Both parties also need to think about options that will satisfy the interests of the other side 4 Insist on using objective or mutually acceptable criteria Often it is possible to identify several relevant standards or criteria by which parties can evaluate the fairness or acceptability of a negotiated agreement Negotiators can brainstorm criteria or standards in the same way as they brainstorm options Fisher and Ury also invented the concept of the BATNA This is a term that refers to the Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement An alternative is different than an option it refers to a possible course of action if you do not reach a negotiated agreement The BATNA functions as your bottom line as a negotiator and helps you determine whether or not negotiation is your best option In order to make a BATNA useful negotiators need to carefully analyse the costs and benefits of the BATNA and to evaluate costs and benefits of the negotiated agreement against those of the BATNA If individuals or groups think they can accomplish their bottom line using other methods e g like a strike violence legal options they will resort to those methods and not use a cooperative model of negotiation This model of negotiation is presented with several caveats First this is a culturally specific model of negotiation developed originally for

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Introduction_to_Principled_Negotiation (2016-02-13)
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  • Emotions and Concerns - Peacebuilding
    or does to communicate your understanding through words or actions 2 Affiliation Adversarial assumptions dominate many negotiations and prevent negotiators from doing as well as they could Dealing with differences is better done when working together Thus building affiliation with the other can make a negotiation easier and more productive There are two types of affiliation Structural connections The links that you have with someone based on the roles you play in the same group e g same age both with kids common interests etc Explore and use this connections to build affiliation Personal connections These are personal ties There are several things that you could do to connect at a personal level e g meet face to face rather than via phone or e mail discuss things you care about 3 Autonomy We feel bad when others make decisions for ourselves when they try to limit our autonomy beyond what we think is appropriate The same goes for others when what we do is limiting their autonomy There are two things you can do to address this concern Expand your autonomy Try not to limit the other person s autonomy 4 Status Status is our standing in relation to that of others When others try to demean our status we may feel frustrated ashamed or angry bad feelings about ourselves and others arise with have a potential to harm to let us act unwisely and diminish our capacity to reach a wise a satisfactory agreement There are two things that you can do to address this concern Become aware of your social and particular status Your social status might be inferior to that of a political leader or to that of UN diplomat But there are other fields where you enjoy high status these can be education connections moral

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Emotions_and_Concerns (2016-02-13)
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