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  • The Nonviolence Sociogram - Peacebuilding
    and suffering Was this boycott violent or nonviolent Vietnamese Buddhist monks burned themselves to death during the Vietnam War as a sign of protest against the war When struggling against a harsh dictator nonviolent means are insufficient When an oppressor is violent responsibility for the violence of the oppressed lies with the oppressor It s OK to loot food stores when people are starving Nonviolent struggle shouldn t cause destruction of property You can t ask people not to react to being beaten Reaction to violence and self defence are basic human instincts necessary for survival Your list can continue with statements appropriate for the group II Shift chairs and tables so that participants have plenty of space to move around III Position yourself in the centre of the room Explain that you re going to read a statement and participants will place themselves around the room based on their personal feelings about that statement In practice the closer to you they get the more they share and support the statement They can further illustrate their view using their bodies Demonstrate to make sure everyone understands the activity Example You read out the statement hunting is a sport Two participants place themselves very close in front of you standing One participant is to your far right on her knees Three participants are as close as possible behind you lying on the floor Other participants have positioned themselves around the room some standing crouching lying some facing you some not etc IV When all participants have chosen their position walk round the room and interview them You may like to ask questions such as Why did you place yourself here or What are you trying to say V Repeat the procedure with the other statements Note You can choose to develop

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/The_Nonviolence_Sociogram (2016-02-13)
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  • Pragmatic, Principled, Reformist and Revolutionary - Peacebuilding
    III Draw the horizontal axis on the flip chart page Ask the group to reflect on the following two statements I believe that change happens one step at a time and you can t turn upside down the whole system for that I also believe that change happens within the system thus you need to work with it in order to change it You need to get rid of an unjust corrupt and violent system You can t change a system of oppression and let it become a just system You need to take it out and substitute it with a new system IV Repeat the procedure at step II introducing the concepts of reformist and revolutionary nonviolence V Now make some examples using the matrix as shown in the note above Invite participants to make examples and to position these on the matrix VI Discuss Note You can use the following definitions to facilitate your discussion Practitioners of pragmatic nonviolence believe it to be the most effective method available in the circumstances They view conflict as a relationship between antagonists with incompatible interests their goal is to defeat the opponent and if this entails any suffering short of physical injury to inflict that suffering on the opponent Practitioners of principled nonviolence choose it for ethical reasons and believe in the unity of means and end They view the opponent as a partner in the struggle to satisfy the needs of all if anyone suffers it is the practitioners of nonviolence More fundamentally this practitioner may view nonviolence as a way of life Practitioners of reformist nonviolence are guided by an analysis that identifies particular elite policies as the cause of social problems They use short to medium term campaigns to change these policies within the existing social framework their

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Pragmatic%2C_Principled%2C_Reformist_and_Revolutionary (2016-02-13)
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  • Resist No One Who Is Evil - Peacebuilding
    of Wink s article I advise you to become very familiar with Wink s article before facilitating this activity Aims To reflect on the passage from Matthew s Gospel 5 38 41 To introduce Walter Wink s interpretation of this passage To reflect on Jesus third way nonviolence Time 60 minutes or more if necessary Participants Any number Materials Copies of the handout Matthew 5 38 41 see below Flip charts Markers Copies of Professor Wink s article Christian Nonviolence Procedure I Distribute a copy of the handout to each participant Explain that the handout contains a passage from Matthew s Gospel and ask participants to read it and reflect silently Allow sufficient time at least 5 minutes II Ask participants to share their reflections III Develop a discussion with a view to understanding the meaning of the passage from Matthew s Gospel Questions you may ask to encourage discussion include the following What does this passage from the Bible suggest What do the Scriptures mean by attributing the phrase do not resist one who is evil to Jesus How are these words consistent with Jesus acts How did Jesus resist evil What do the three examples in this passage mean How can we relate this passage from the Matthew s Gospel to Jesus social struggle for justice and change IV Introduce Walter Wink s interpretation to participants and encourage discussion Handout Matthew 5 38 41 You have heard that it was said An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth But I say to you Do not resist one who is evil But if anyone strikes you on the right cheek turn him the other also and if anyone would sue you and take you coat let him have your cloak as well and if any

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Resist_No_One_Who_Is_Evil (2016-02-13)
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  • A right to resist - Peacebuilding
    sufficient time for group work at least 15 20 minutes VI In the plenary ask the first question What are the most important differences between your answers and the right to resistance as set out in the Compendium and ask members from each group to reply Encourage discussion VII Repeat the procedure and step VI with the second and third questions Handout 1 Questions When does authority violate the essential principles of natural law What happens to us as citizens when authority requires us to act in ways that violate the principles of natural law Are there situations when as citizens we should resist authority If not why If yes when does it happen How should we resist authority What are the means that as citizens we can use to resist authority When can we resort to armed struggle as a means of resisting authority What are the alternatives to armed struggle What is passive resistance What is the relationship between passive resistance and nonviolent struggle Handout 2 The right to resist in the Compendium 400 Recognising that natural law is the basis for and places limits on positive law means admitting that it is legitimate to resist authority should it violate in a serious or repeated manner the essential principles of natural law Saint Thomas Aquinas writes that one is obliged to obey insofar as it is required by the order of justice Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theolgiae Natural law is therefore the basis of the right to resistance There can be many different concrete ways this right may be exercised there are also many different ends that may be pursued Resistance to authority is meant to attest to the validity of a different way of looking at things whether the intent is to achieve partial change for example

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/A_right_to_resist (2016-02-13)
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  • The right to conscienctious objection - Peacebuilding
    Elicit replies from participants and generate discussion the key question here is why VIII Repeat the step VII procedure with the second and third questions 2nd What is the point issue that generated most controversy divergent opinions 3rd What is the point issue that you think is most relevant to what you do Handout The Right to Conscientious Objection The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church 399 Citizens are not obligated in conscience to follow the prescriptions of civil authorities if their precepts are contrary to the demands of the moral order to the fundamental rights of persons or to the teachings of the Gospel Unjust laws pose dramatic problems of conscience for morally upright people when they are called to cooperate in morally evil acts they must refuse Besides being a moral duty such a refusal is also a basic human right which precisely as such civil law itself is obliged to recognise and protect Those who have recourse to conscientious objection must be protected not only from legal penalties but also from any negative effects on the legal disciplinary financial and professional plane Pope John Paul II Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae It is a grave duty of conscience not to cooperate not even formally in practices which although permitted by civil legislation are contrary to the Law of God Such cooperation in fact can never be justified not by invoking respect for the freedom of others nor by appealing to the fact that it is foreseen and required by civil law No one can escape the moral responsibility for actions taken and all will be judged by God himself based on this responsibility cf Romans 2 6 14 12 Questions for group work What are the conditions that allow citizens to disobey the prescriptions of civil

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/The_right_to_conscienctious_objection (2016-02-13)
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  • Brainstorm and Prioritise - Peacebuilding
    Example A peace club is campaigning to stop the sexual abuse by educators in their school They should work on identifying the conditions that are preventing them from achieving their objective Encouraging the groups to be specific means trying to avoid statements such as the state does not care about us and rather focusing on conditions such as teacher union support the educators or a majority of the parents of the learners are unaware of the campaign or the media is only concerned with negative issues III Start group work Walk round the room and give assistance if necessary IV After a brainstorming session ask the groups to review the list of conditions they ve identified and choose the top three i e the most important ones preventing them from achieving their goal and write them down on an index card Allow 3 5 minutes V Collect and shuffle the index cards Redistribute the index cards to the groups each group should receive a card that is not their own VI Tell the groups their next task is to brainstorm the actions they should take to deal with the three conditions listed on each index card and to get closer to achieving their goal Suggest trying to be specific and realistic Remind them to take notes Allow sufficient time for group work at least 20 minutes VII Stop group work return to the plenary and get group representatives to present their results Write them down on a flip chart Note This procedure may be varied After step VI ask the groups to prioritise their actions choosing the top three they should implement After step IV ask the plenary to choose the top three conditions preventing the group from achieving its goal There are several ways to do this For instance

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Brainstorm_and_Prioritise (2016-02-13)
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  • From Us to Them - Peacebuilding
    you and them Gather the answers III Then draw a line connecting the two points on the flip chart and say that societies usually include a variety of groups with different standpoints groups that are closer to our side or neutral or closer to the other side Draw a half circle above the line and divide it into segments as follows IV Ask participants to suggest a claim that advocates might put forward as part of their struggle Write it on the flip chart Then ask participants who in society might be closer to their claim Put these groups in segments closer to our side Ask who might be neutral and place them in the central segments Ask who might oppose their claim and put them in the segments closer to their side V Continue leading the discussion Tell them the good news in most struggles to bring about social change you don t need to win over your opponents you don t need to get them to share your point of view It suffices to move each of the segments one step in your direction to get what you want Make sure this is understood VI Continue leading the discussion Say that sometimes there is a polarisation in a conflict and groups closer to their side move one step closer towards them Even in this situation you can get what you want by having the groups closer to your side and the neutral ones move one step towards your side Believing that they must be won over and that all groups must share our point of view could be a source of desperation and thus inaction for many groups Besides believing that the whole struggle must be focused against them could be a mistake Usually there are a variety

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/From_Us_to_Them (2016-02-13)
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  • Taking a position on nonviolence and just war - Peacebuilding
    and the weaknesses of the other team s position III Distribute copies of the handout and allow time for teams A and B to prepare to defend their positions Meanwhile brief teams C and D Team C consists of observers By observing the debate they should assess the strengths and weaknesses of each team s arguments They should note these down on a flip chart during the debate Team D is the Bench They should nominate a Chief Justice Their task is to decide which team has the best argument They should assess the teams capacity to defend their positions rather than the validity of their arguments as such At the end of the debate they should name a winner IV Ask each team to sit together to defend their positions You could have teams A and B facing each other in a formal debate setting Provide flip charts for team C and ask team D to sit as a Bench with all due ceremony See the example below INSERT IMAGE HERE III Start the debate between the teams Let people express themselves freely and do not control the dynamics of the interaction IV After 10 15 minutes or when you deem fit stop the debate Ask participants to reflect silently for one minute on what emerged during the activity V Ask the judges to retire to prepare their verdict Meanwhile ask team C to give feedback on the strengths and weaknesses of each position VI When they re ready ask the judges to present their verdict give grounds for their decision and name a winner You can celebrate with due pomp Debriefing If you wish you can generate discussion on the issues arising Note As an alternative to the above procedure you can have individuals rather than groups defending positions Handout Team A defends the proposition Violence is never a proper response Violence is never a proper response With the conviction of her faith in Christ and with the awareness of her mission the Church proclaims that violence is evil that violence is unacceptable as a solution to problems that violence is unworthy of man Violence is a lie for it goes against the truth of our faith the truth of our humanity Violence destroys what it claims to defend the dignity the life the freedom of human beings Pope John Paul II Address at Drogheda Ireland 29 September 1979 The contemporary world too needs the witness of unarmed prophets who are often the objects of ridicule Those who renounce violence and bloodshed and in order to safeguard human rights make use of those means of defence available to the weakest bear witness to evangelical charity provided they do so without harming the rights and obligations of other men and societies They bear legitimate witness to the gravity of the physical and moral risk of recourse to violence with all its destruction and death Catechism of the Catholic Church 2306 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church 496

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Taking_a_position_on_nonviolence_and_just_war (2016-02-13)
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