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  • HOW Decisions - 4 Principles - Peacebuilding
    are from Anderson Mary B ed Options for Aid in Conflict Lessons From Field Experience Cambridge CDA Inc 2000 http www cdainc com publications dnh options for aid in conflict lessons from field experience php pp 67 78 Handout1 One General Principle on HOW to Provide Aid Inclusivity The Do No Harm PILOT IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTs found principles of operation that were consistent across all project sites One of this is INCLUSIVITY Under most circumstances representatives from all sub groups in conflict should be included in a programming decisions b among recipients c on staff and d among partners Source Adapted from Anderson Mary B ed Options for Aid in Conflict Lessons from Field Experience Cambridge CDA Inc 2000 Your task is to answer the following questions Why and how the application of this principle can avoid exacerbating conflict and improve inter group connections When is inclusivity as described above not possible What problems might result from including all sub groups in programming decisions among recipients on staff and among partners What are the special attentions precautions that should be taken in order to assure that inclusivity works Can you make an example from your experience illustrating either negatively or positively this principle Handout2 One General Principle on HOW to Provide Aid Transparency The Do No Harm PILOT IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTs found principles of operation that were consistent across all project sites One of this is TRANSPARENCY When decisions about how aid is to be distributed are open and public and when the actual distribution is also open for all to see this can reduce intergroup competition and TENSIONS Lack of transparency creates fertile ground for rumors about inequitable aid and enables manipulators to generate animosity around this Transparency needs to include explicit messages about the purpose of aid and criteria for beneficiaries without this open distribution can simply feed into and worsen intergroup relationships Source Adapted from Anderson Mary B ed Options for Aid in Conflict Lessons from Field Experience Cambridge CDA Inc 2000 Your task is to answer the following questions Why and how the application of this principle can avoid exacerbating conflict and improve inter group connections When is transparency as described above not possible What problems might result from open and public decisions about how aid is distributed and from distribution open for all to see What are the special attentions precautions that should be taken in order to assure that transparency works Can you make an example from you experience illustrating either negatively or positively this principle Handout3 One General Principle on HOW to Provide Aid Demonstrating Strengthening Community The Do No Harm PILOT IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTs found principles of operation that were consistent across all project sites One of this is DEMONSTRATING STRENGTHENING COMMUNITY Reinforcing the strength of civilian structures reduces the vacuum where military authority can assume power It helps keep decisions about civilian welfare free from military strategic considerations Source Adapted from Anderson Mary B ed Options for Aid in Conflict Lessons from Field Experience

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/HOW_Decisions_-_4_Principles (2016-02-13)
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  • Exploring the Basics of Conflict Sensitivity - Peacebuilding
    the essential formula of conflict sensitivity a flip chart page Power Pointä or over head slides Paper and pencils for participants Process I Before of the training prepare a visual aid illustrating the essential formula of conflict sensitivity as follows Conflict sensitivity means the ability of your organisation to Understand the context in which you operate Understand the interaction between your interaction and the context Act upon the understanding of this interaction in order to avoid negative impacts and maximise positive impacts Source FEWER International Alert Saferworld APFO CECORE and CHA Resource Pack on Conflict Sensitive Approaches http www conflictsensitivity org You can choose to integrate the above with more introductory information from the same source In any case keep it short and simple 3 5 min II Divide the plenary in triads and allow members to sit close one another III After your presentation ask triads to generate a list of questions related to the content introduced and further exploring it Tell them to generate as many questions as possible and write them down on a paper Allow sufficient time IV Now ask triads to select the top five questions those they think most relevant V Invite each triad to couple with another triad Have them asking and answering each other Note Alternatives to this process You can have larger groups with 5 6 people You can have it as an individual work after the presentation ask each participant to generate a list of questions Then form couples and have individuals exchanging Q As Again as an individual work you can ask participants to write down their questions on index cards Then let circulate the cards with questions and have each one individually reflect on the questions Let the cards circulate several times Retrieved from http peacebuilding caritas org

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Exploring_the_Basics_of_Conflict_Sensitivity (2016-02-13)
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  • Overview Of Conflict Sensitive Planning - Peacebuilding
    the base of the conflict analysis In the second case the agency knows that they will build wells but relies on the conflict analysis to decide where when how with whom and for whom Also you can make reference to conflict analysis from the Resource Pack on Conflict Sensitive Approaches more particularly to when and how should reference to conflict analysis be made during the design and implementation of the program II Divide the plenary into sub groups of 3 7 members and distribute copies of the handout III Assign the groups task after reading and discussing the content of the handout each group has to answer the questions provided at the bottom of the page take note of their findings and be ready to share with other participants IV Start group work assign enough time and provide assistance where needed V After group work invite each group to share their findings with the rest of the plenary Note There are several alternatives to go with the V step of the process You can invite each group to choose a spokesperson and have her presenting the groups findings to the plenary Invite participants to ask questions and discuss each group s findings You can ask each group to stick their flip chart papers in a specific section of the room Then invite participants to walk the gallery After group work invite each group to join with another group Invite these bigger groups to share their findings discuss and agree on how to answer to the questions in the handout Source This activity has been designed with reference to the Resource Pack on Conflict Sensitive Approaches Chapter 3 Module 1 The text of the handout is adapted from pp 3 7 Handout 5 Steps to Conflict Sensitive Planning The key steps to conflict sensitive planning are 1 Defining the intervention or program project objective s At this step you decide WHAT to do and WHY Which issues e g water health care or aspects of an issue competition over scarce water resources between farmer and shepherd villages of the valley appear to be most important How do our choices relate to the context How will our intervention objectives improve the conflict situation 2 Defining the intervention process Here you decide WHO does it staff and partners WHO is going to benefit from the intervention beneficiaries WHERE which geographic area to support and WHEN timing and length of the intervention 3 Developing indicators Conflict sensitive indicators can be grouped into three general categories Conflict indicators used to monitor the progression of conflict factors Project indicators used to monitor the efficiency effectiveness impact and sustainability of the project Interaction indicators used to monitor i the impact that the project programme is having on the conflict and ii the impact that the conflict is having on the project programme 4 Preparing contingency plans Conflict can rapidly deteriorate to the point where continuing the project programme as originally planned might be impossible or inappropriate A

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Overview_Of_Conflict_Sensitive_Planning (2016-02-13)
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  • WITH WHOM Decisions - Peacebuilding
    Mary B ed Options for Aid In Conflict Lessons from Field Experience Cambridge CDA Inc 2000 p 79 II Divide the plenary into groups of the same size and invite groups to seat around separate tables Each participant s task within the groups is to think silently and come up with a story from her experience illustrating the issues challenges or successes related to decisions about working with local authorities Remember each participant has to do this silently no interaction at this stage III Then ask each participant to pair up with another participant from a different group and share their stories IV After sharing ask participants to return back to their original tables and invite each participant to share both of the stories they now know The group s task is to listen all the stories and identify the common themes emerging between them Distribute flip chart pages and markers and ask them to take note of common themes Example You are facilitating a workshop with 20 participants You divide the plenary into 4 groups with 5 participants each After having everyone thinking silently at her story you invite each participant to pair up with a member of another group When they return back to their groups each participants shares two stories no need to tell which one is theirs Each group has now the chance to listen to 10 stories and can identify common themes V Ask participants to stick their flip chart pages in a specific section of the room and invite all to walk the gallery VI Discuss common themes emerged Note You can complement the discussion a the VI step of the process by introducing finding from the Do No Harm experience Refer to Anderson Mary B ed Op cit pp 79 84 Source The

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/WITH_WHOM_Decisions (2016-02-13)
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  • Conflict Analysis – Who, What and How of Conflict - Peacebuilding
    participants background The process described below refers to participants coming from the same context and analysing their conflict For a quick introduction to conflict analysis click here Purpose To provide a pictorial analytical tool for analysing conflict Time 90 120 minutes Participants At least 9 participants divided in three sub groups Materials Copies of handout 3 2 The Who What and How of Conflict at pp 74 75 of Peacebuilding A Caritas Training Manual see below Flip chart papers Markers Process I Introduce the activity with a presentation on conflict analysis specifically on the Who What and How tool For the content you can refer to pp 62 63 of Peacebuilding A Caritas Training Manual see below Explain the three frameworks who what how Give handout to participants II Divide the plenary into 3 or 6 sub groups to use one part of the framework to analyse the conflict With 3 groups assign one group the who another group the what and the last group the how framework With 6 groups assign two groups to each framework Distribute flip chart papers and markers to each group for taking note of their findings III After about 60 minutes of work in groups have groups return for large group reporting and discussion Debriefing Full group reporting for this exercise is necessary since each group will have an incomplete picture of the conflict Ask each group to report on their discussions and support participants linking the different aspects of analysis into a bigger picture Be careful to focus more on the process of using the tool than just on the actual findings The purpose of this activity is to introduce the tool and learn how to use it Source Adapted from Fast Larissa Neufeldt Reina Peacebuilding A Caritas Training Manual Vatican City Caritas

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Conflict_Analysis_%E2%80%93_Who%2C_What_and_How_of_Conflict (2016-02-13)
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  • Assessing the Impact of Aid on Conflict - Peacebuilding
    How do you feel about the decisions that are made past above your head in your agency s HQs or by donors and that affect your programme What happened What happened when you applied the framework to your work What potential do your programming decisions have to affect the lives of people in the given context How would you assess the decision making processes in your programme your agency What if anything changed in the way you see your work programme What have you learned What have you learned about the Do No Harm Framework How this framework might be useful for you your programme your agency What wouldn t work from this framework for you Why What would you change to make the framework more suitable to your needs Source This activity is based on a text extracted from CDA Inc The Do No Harm Handbook Cambridge CDA Inc 2004 http www cdainc com publications dnh do no harm handbook php pp 14 15 Handout Questions for Analysing the Impact of Aid on Conflict The following text is extracted from CDA Inc The Do No Harm Handbook Cambridge CDA Inc 2004 http www cdainc com publications dnh do no harm handbook php pp 14 15 Using the Framework Analyzing the Impacts of an Assistance Programme on Conflict or The Details Matter Any assistance programme whether a humanitarian intervention or development project an advocacy campaign or peace building effort embodies a series of decisions answering a fundamental set of questions Why have we chosen this activity with these resources in this place with these people How did we select these beneficiaries these resources and these staff Who made these decisions and how Every organization has a programme planning process that outlines how such decisions are to be made However these processes often leave the reasons behind the choices unspoken or implicit Because each of these choices potentially has an impact on the conflict it is necessary to make these decisions explicit and transparent It is important to remember that it is never a whole project that is having a negative impact A project may itself be doing the good it set out to do while at the same time some piece of the decision making is feeding into and exacerbating the conflict In these cases the programme does not need to be stopped it needs to be adapted The Do No Harm Framework captures the decision making process through seven basic questions It is not enough when analyzing a programme to ask these questions once It is necessary to ask them again and again until the whole structure of the programme has been made explicit and clear The basic questions are Why What are the needs that lead us to plan a programme in the first place What do we hope to stop or change through our intervention Why us What is the value added that our organization brings to addressing this need in this place Where Why did we

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Assessing_the_Impact_of_Aid_on_Conflict (2016-02-13)
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  • WHO Decisions - Staffing - Peacebuilding
    is at war We have been hiring English speakers to work with the IDPs here but this is now evoking a lot of grumbling from the local people We provide services to people from the surrounding area and they are offended by what they see as our favoritism to English speakers when they too need jobs After the war refuges who had resided in exile in neighboring English speaking countries returned to their home country which was francophone When agencies required English language skills for local staff this favored this ethnic group over others In this post war context we are not even allowed to mention the different groupings that fought Neither the government nor our local staff wants us to designate who belongs to which group This makes it impossible to know whether we have a mixed staff or whether we are hiring only from one group When we began to ask about DIVIDERS in this society the local staff assured us that since the war s end there are none They said that talking about the old DIVISIONS could possibly do more harm than good in that it could re awaken them We discovered that all of our staff come from one ethnic group When we began to try to hire more broadly however our current staff were insulted and threatened They could not understand why we thought it important to have other groups represented they say they are working with all the communities Even though our local staff come from both groups we have realized that there is some mistrust and resentment on both sides Some of this comes from the fact that they operate as virtually two separate staffs with almost no interaction with their counterparts even though they perform very similar functions on both sides of the line of conflict sometimes mere kilometers apart They almost never meet face to face because of travel restrictions and the difficulty of getting permits to cross lines So although each side is aware of the aid going to the other side and of the work of their fellow staff we have found that each group feels that the other receives a disproportionate share of the aid Even DO NO HARM is seen to belong to one side rather than to both groups Our hiring constitutes 90 of all paid local employment in the entire region Years ago the controlling militia established its right to appoint all our local staff as well as the staff of all other international agencies working in areas under their control One result of this has been that the military can put lots of pressure on our staff to use aid for their own purposes such as borrowing the radio equipment getting rides in our vehicles using our petrol for their own vehicles or even taking food supplies when they need them In addition we pay income taxes on our local staff salaries directly to the military Questions for group work Based on these

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/WHO_Decisions_-_Staffing (2016-02-13)
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  • Using 'Indications' of Impact from the Do No Harm Framework - Peacebuilding
    things that happen in conflict settings to which assistance is connected and on which it has an effect These events would happen whether assistance existed or not but because assistance is in the context where they occur it has an impact on them c Finally there are events that assistance itself causes to happen As we increase our awareness of the impacts that assistance can have on conflict it is critical that we remember to focus on the second and particularly on the third type of event where assistance has its greatest impact Through careful attention to the mechanisms whereby assistance has an impact on conflict through RESOURCE TRANSFERS and IMPLICIT ETHICAL MESSAGES we are able to identify the following indications of whether assistance is having a negative worsening impact on conflict The following questions highlight Indications of Negative Impacts A yes answer indicates a negative impact Are assistance goods stolen especially by those connected directly to a warring side What are the market impacts of assistance in the given area Specifically Are prices of goods connected to the war economy rising Are incentives for engaging in the war economy rising Are prices of goods connected to the peacetime economy falling Are incentives for engaging in peacetime economic activities falling Is assistance provided in ways that benefit one some sub group s over others Does the assistance agency employ people more from one group than others Do material goods go more to one group than others Is assistance providing a sufficiently significant amount of material to meet civilian needs that More local goods are freed up to be used in warfare by armies Local leaders take little or no responsibility for civilian welfare What are the manifestations of this Is assistance being given in ways that legitimize war related individuals giving them more power prestige or access to international attention or wealth Is assistance being given in ways that legitimize the actions of war for e g reinforcing patterns of population movements that warriors are causing linking to divisions in the society thus reinforcing them Is assistance being given in ways that legitimize warsupporting attitudes for e g rewarding those who are most violent being given separately to all groups in assumption that they cannot work together Does the assistance agency rely on arms to protect its goods and or workers Does the assistance agency refuse to cooperate or share information and planning functions with other assistance agencies local government or local NGOs Does it openly criticize the ways that others provide assistance and encourage local people to avoid working with other agencies Do field staff separate themselves from the local people with whom they are working and do they frequently use assistance goods or the power they derive from them for their personal benefit or pleasure Does the assistance agency apportion its institutional benefits salaries or per diem scales equipment such as cars phones offices expectations of time commitments to the job rewards for work done vacation R R

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Using_%27Indications%27_of_Impact_from_the_Do_No_Harm_Framework (2016-02-13)
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