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  • Questions Exploring Cultures Approach to Negotiation - Peacebuilding
    process at the IV step with the other groups Note If you work with a group that is culturally homogenous you can ask them to focus on another culture that they think they know enough Alternatively you can ask them to focus on themselves when answering the questions i e assess how their culture affects the way they negotiate Handout Questions for Exploring Cultures Approach to Negotiation Think at their culture Are there cultural dimensions that would be relevant if you are to negotiate with one of them Could you identify and articulate these Explore the following dimensions 1 Individualism collectivism How much emphasis do the members of the group put on the individual or on the group or community To what extent do they value individual autonomy initiative creativity and authority in decision making To what extent do they value group cohesion harmony and decision making that involves either consultation with group members before deciding or consideration of the well being of the group over that of the individual If you are to imagine a spectrum that has individualism and collectivism at its extremes where would you place their group 2 Situations issues or problems that must be addressed How do they define the social situations they face How do they define the problems they encounter How do they define the issues or topics that are important to discuss or not discuss How do they define the issues at stake in your negotiation 3 Needs or interests they wish to have met in the outcome of problem solving What are the interests of the other party What interests are more important and what less according to their culture What do they consider to be an adequate satisfaction of their interests based on their culture 4 Sources of power and influence What are the preferred forms of power and influence according to their culture What are the options available when a party has more or less power than the other according to their culture How do they define a subordinate or superior position And what does that imply in negotiation 5 Establishing building and maintaining relationships How do they establish relationship And how has my relationship with the other party been established How shall my relationship with the other party be interpreted according to their culture What makes a strong relationship for them What can harm or strengthen a relationship for them 6 Orientation toward cooperation competition and conflict To what extent do they accept overt confrontation What are common patterns of behaviour according to their culture in situations that imply potential cooperation or competition between people What in their culture favours cooperation or competition between people What can I do that is culturally appropriate that makes it easier for the other party cooperate with me 7 Appropriate and effective communications To what extent does their culture favour a direct or indirect way of communication Do they talk explicitly or do they let you understand implicitly what they think To

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Questions_Exploring_Cultures_Approach_to_Negotiation (2016-02-13)
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  • Dealing with Emotions - Peacebuilding
    brainstorming session invite participants to respond and report their ideas on the flip chart discuss III Introduce the following Roger Fisher and Daniel Shapiro suggest that dealing directly with emotions in most cases won t work They identify three main ways people usually deal with emotions They try to stop having them pretending to be just rational cold blooded But emotions usually fail to stop they can t just decide to stop feeling They try to ignore them but usually they fail as emotions affect their body thinking and behaviour They try to deal directly with them both theirs and the others but it is extremely difficult to deal with every emotions that comes up during a negotiation even for a talented psychologist Thus instead of dealing with emotions Fisher and Shapiro suggest addressing the core concerns that generate them A concern is something that is important to someone something you worry about and that you have a desire to protect Concerns are often implicit even experienced negotiators can be unaware of the concerns that motivate them and their decisions IV Divide the plenary in sub groups of 3 7 individuals distribute flip chart pages and markers and assign them this task What are the core concerns that stimulate emotions arising in negotiation Discuss and respond report your findings on a flip chart page and prepare to present them to the plenary V Invite each sub group to present their findings to the rest of the plenary take note on a flip chart page to summarise all core concerns identified Note You can separate this activity in two parts and play these at different times during the workshop The first part of the activity includes steps I to II of the process the second part includes steps III to V

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Dealing_with_Emotions (2016-02-13)
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  • Shall We Negotiate - Peacebuilding
    But with brown cards you just lose your card without receiving anything Blue Can be exchanged with yellow red and brown cards Yellow Can be exchanged with red and brown cards Red Can be exchanged with brown and blue cards Brown Cannot be exchanged with other cards However with orange cards a brown card takes the other person s card without giving anything back Scoring system Each orange card is worth 1 point Each blue yellow and red card is worth 2 points Each brown card is worth 3 points Write the above characteristics and scoring system on a flip chart or overhead slide or PowerPoint slide so that all participants can read them III Give an additional instruction participants should conduct their negotiations in secret so that the other participants cannot see the colour of their cards A negotiation takes place when two players meet One asks Shall we negotiate and the other agrees When two people meet to negotiate they shouldn t know what colour cards the other person has If the person accepts each one takes a card and shows it to the other person if according to the characteristics of the respective colour they can exchange they do so If not they look for another person and carry on negotiating IV To start the game say Ready Three two one Negotiate V After 3 5 minutes stop the game and ask How do you feel How s it going VI Then restart the game for another 3 5 minutes VII After the game ask the participants to form a circle Ask each person to show the cards he she has and to announce his her score You can decide to congratulate the winner here VIII Remaining in a circle debrief Debriefing Questions you might use include

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Shall_We_Negotiate (2016-02-13)
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  • Too Many People To Deal With - Peacebuilding
    breaks to reflect on what happened and fine tune their strategy before starting the next session To make the activity more difficult you can increase each role s bottom line For example from 30 to 35 points In this case make sure that reaching agreement doesn t become impossible To make it easier you can decrease each role s bottom line Debriefing How do you feel How do you feel about this activity How do you feel about your performance as a negotiator How do you feel about the outcome and specifically about what you obtained How did you feel about the other role players in your group How do you feel about their performance as negotiators How do you feel about the other groups To what extent do you think the other parties understood you What happened What happened during the negotiation What happened when you saw other people s performances Who was more effective and why Who was less effective and why How did your behaviour change during your negotiation How did you see your emotions playing a part in your negotiation And what about the other parties emotions What worked for you What didn t work What did you learn What was the most important point you learned from this activity What insights did you get into negotiation How different is it negotiating with several parties rather than just one To what extent were people detached from the problem and interests rather than positions focused on during the role play How can emotions play a part in negotiation In general how relevant is rationality in negotiation and in this negotiation in particular How do local culture and tradition influence or condition this kind of interaction How does it relate to you How does this role play relate

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Too_Many_People_To_Deal_With (2016-02-13)
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  • Gromit Village Representative - Peacebuilding
    500 kg of best quality corn seed 50 apple trees 1 large 800 hp Fiat tractor 4 Lamborghini 50 hp power cultivators 2 Mitsubishi vans for transporting people or goods 60 pregnant cows 3 bulls 50 sheep A milk pasteurisation unit The Caritas representative has said she wants us the village representatives to decide how to distribute the goods among ourselves with only one condition each item on the list cannot be divided between different villages e g 500 kg of corn can be assigned to one village only and may not be divided among two or more villages If you and the representatives of the other four villages cannot reach unanimous agreement Caritas will sell the goods on the free market at whatever price it feels reasonable donate half the money to a charity organisation from another district and distribute the remainder in equal parts to the five villages Your interests Your village Gromit is well known for its cattle and dairy products Most of the fields are pastureland although some families have apple and pear orchards Mostly you would need the animals cows bulls and sheep The milk pasteurisation unit would also be important for the village s economy Apple trees would be useful for some families You could obtain the fertiliser use it in part and sell the rest to neighbouring villages The power cultivators could be rented to neighbouring villages To help you decide what you want with a total of 100 points you have assigned 20 points for the milk pasteurisation unit 15 points for the cows 15 points for the bulls 15 points for the sheep 10 points for apple trees 10 points for the fertiliser 15 points for the power cultivators You cannot reveal the above information to other village representatives You can

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Gromit_Village_Representative (2016-02-13)
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  • Situation and Roles - Peacebuilding
    Rural Development Association of Farmers RDAF The Family Association of Victims of War FAVOW The Municipal Office for Social Development MOSD Caritas has acted very transparently They ve said they can allocate a total budget of 242 000 for operations in your community However they want this money to be spent on the basis of projects proposed by a coalition of these three actors or at least two of them Here are Caritas conditions Project proposed by Budget allocated RDAF alone 0 FAVOW alone 0 MOSD alone 0 RDAF FAVOW 236 000 RDAF MOSD 168 000 FAVOW MOSD 100 000 RDAF FAVOW MOSD 242 000 Note that Caritas doesn t make any stipulations about how the budget is shared within a coalition For example if RDAF and FAVOW have an agreement this might envisage RDAF getting 70 of the budget allocated for the agreement 70 of 236 000 corresponding to 165 200 and FAVOW getting 30 of the budget allocated for the agreement 30 corresponding to 70 800 In brief how the money is divided within the coalition is totally up to the local agencies Also note that once a coalition is formed the remaining budget must be distributed on the basis of an agreement approved by the three agencies For example if RDAF and MOSD form a coalition they ll get 168 000 and this amount will be divided between them on the basis of their agreement However Caritas still has 74 000 to allocate and this amount can only be allocated on the basis of an agreement involving all three parties If the three parties fail to agree the remaining sum cannot be distributed Your role Your team represents either RDAF FAVOW of MOSD Your task is to create the best possible deal for your association namely to

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Situation_and_Roles (2016-02-13)
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  • Trucks - Peacebuilding
    start and be ready to play again At every turn when rolling the dice each team can decide whether to move a truck that is already on the road or start a new one Each team can have more trucks on the road and decide which to move Every truck can be moved in both directions ex if two trucks meet on the Blue road and Green Team decides to back up they can roll the dice and move their truck back correspondently III Play a few demonstrative rounds in order to help participants understand the game IV Assign a time limit and start the game Help participants if needed but do not suggest any best strategy for the play V Stop the play when the time is over Check the scores and distribute as many chocolate candies as points to each team celebrate the moment Note When originally designed see below the experiment analysed how the players behaviour would change if teams were allowed to communicate to each other or not To introduce this variable you can allow truck blocking each other head to head to talk and negotiate who should back up Or not you can also impose as a rule that trucks of different teams cannot talk to each other Debriefing The following questions are not normative You can use these and or other questions as the situation and your judgement requires How do you feel How do you feel about this activity How do you feel about how your team played How do you feel about your team mates How do you feel about the other team How do you feel about how the other team played What happened What happened when you started the game How was your strategy at the beginning How was the other team s strategy in your opinion What happened when two trucks met head to head on the Blue Road Who backed up Why What kind of reward did the team s that backed up get What have you learned What have you learned from this activity What strategy would have worked best in order to maximise your profit What tends to happen in a situation like this game To what extent people tend to be confrontational in a situation such as this game How the way you played was influenced by assumptions expectations about what the other team would do Can you qualify these expectations assumptions What does it take to favour cooperation How would you define winning in this game Then who won How does this relate How does this game relate to the real world Can you see it applied to likely situations in your work place or family community Could you describe these situations Can you make examples of situations you have witnessed or been through that seem connected to the dynamics of this game What tends to happen in real life when people are confronted with situations similar to the one depicted in this game

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Trucks (2016-02-13)
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  • Workers' Payoff - Peacebuilding
    in this negotiation What have you learned What learning points can you extract from this activity In your opinion what strategy works best in order to maximise your profit What strategy works best when you are negotiating with someone who has a stronger BATNA that yours or what strategy works best when you are negotiating with someone who has more negotiating power How can you maximise your profit when you have more negotiating power than the other party How does this relate What if What next Source Selten used this game dynamic in an economics experimental setting see Selten R A Noncooperative Model of Characteristic Function Bargaining in Aumann R J et al eds Essays in Game Theory and Mathematical Economics Mannheim Wien Zurich Bibliographisches Institut AG 1981 pp 131 151 A similar format was also used in Heike Hennig Schmidt Li Zhu Yu Yang Chaoliang A Cross cultural Study on Negotiation Behavior A Video Experimental Investigation in Germany and the People s Republic of China 2002 This study is available at http bonneconlab uni bonn de people hschmidt Chingpap3 pdf Both experiments reproduced an artificial and context free situation where two parties where called to bargain on a coalition value v 10 while each party received a different value in case of breaking off the negotiation One party received a comparatively higher value but the sum of both equated ½ of the total coalition value That is to say if you don t agree you loose half of what you could get The value that both parties receive in case they break off the negotiation can be seen as their bargaining power Roger Fisher and William Ury would call it their BATNA Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement Handout for the team of fill and seal workers Your team is composed of three individuals you all work at the factory at the production of Really Good Canned Corn Your job is to fill and seal each can with boiled corn ready made for selling Your department is composed of your team and of a second team who cleans and boils the corn The owner of the factory tired with endless fights with trade unions and willing to make his employees happy a few years back decided to let to the teams in each departments decide their weekly wages The factory pays max 1 000 USD a week for the total of labour of your department that is for your team and the clean and boil team Your task is to negotiate with the clean and boil team in order to generate agreement on how split the total amount Though if you can t generate agreement and break off the negotiation your minimum guaranteed wage is 400 USD thanks to the trade unions while the clean and boil team s minimum guaranteed wage is 100 USD When negotiating with the other team you have four options Make a proposal to the other team on how to split the maximum total

    Original URL path: http://peacebuilding.caritas.org/index.php/Workers%27_Payoff (2016-02-13)
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