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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    term soul often refers to human life or the entire human person 230 But soul also refers to the innermost aspect of man that which is of greatest value in him 231 that by which he is most especially in God s image soul signifies the spiritual principle in man 364 The human body shares in the dignity of the image of God it is a human body precisely because it is animated by a spiritual soul and it is the whole human person that is intended to become in the body of Christ a temple of the Spirit 232 Man though made of body and soul is a unity Through his very bodily condition he sums up in himself the elements of the material world Through him they are thus brought to their highest perfection and can raise their voice in praise freely given to the Creator For this reason man may not despise his bodily life Rather he is obliged to regard his body as good and to hold it in honour since God has created it and will raise it up on the last day 233 365 The unity of soul and body is so profound that one has to consider the soul to be the form of the body 234 i e it is because of its spiritual soul that the body made of matter becomes a living human body spirit and matter in man are not two natures united but rather their union forms a single nature 366 The Church teaches that every spiritual soul is created immediately by God it is not produced by the parents and also that it is immortal it does not perish when it separates from the body at death and it will be reunited with the body at the final Resurrection 235 367 Sometimes the soul is distinguished from the spirit St Paul for instance prays that God may sanctify his people wholly with spirit and soul and body kept sound and blameless at the Lord s coming 236 The Church teaches that this distinction does not introduce a duality into the soul 237 Spirit signifies that from creation man is ordered to a supernatural end and that his soul can gratuitously be raised beyond all it deserves to communion with God 238 368 The spiritual tradition of the Church also emphasizes the heart in the biblical sense of the depths of one s being where the person decides for or against God 239 III MALE AND FEMALE HE CREATED THEM Equality and difference willed by God 369 Man and woman have been created which is to say willed by God on the one hand in perfect equality as human persons on the other in their respective beings as man and woman Being man or being woman is a reality which is good and willed by God man and woman possess an inalienable dignity which comes to them immediately from God their Creator 240 Man and woman are both

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    love that no other creature can give in his stead 358 God created everything for man 222 but man in turn was created to serve and love God and to offer all creation back to him What is it that is about to be created that enjoys such honour It is man that great and wonderful living creature more precious in the eyes of God than all other creatures For him the heavens and the earth the sea and all the rest of creation exist God attached so much importance to his salvation that he did not spare his own Son for the sake of man Nor does he ever cease to work trying every possible means until he has raised man up to himself and made him sit at his right hand 223 359 In reality it is only in the mystery of the Word made flesh that the mystery of man truly becomes clear 224 St Paul tells us that the human race takes its origin from two men Adam and Christ The first man Adam he says became a living soul the last Adam a life giving spirit The first Adam was made by the last Adam from whom he also received his soul to give him life The second Adam stamped his image on the first Adam when he created him That is why he took on himself the role and the name of the first Adam in order that he might not lose what he had made in his own image The first Adam the last Adam the first had a beginning the last knows no end The last Adam is indeed the first as he himself says I am the first and the last 225 360 Because of its common origin the human race

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    the image of God it is a human body precisely because it is animated by a spiritual soul and it is the whole human person that is intended to become in the body of Christ a temple of the Spirit 232 Man though made of body and soul is a unity Through his very bodily condition he sums up in himself the elements of the material world Through him they are thus brought to their highest perfection and can raise their voice in praise freely given to the Creator For this reason man may not despise his bodily life Rather he is obliged to regard his body as good and to hold it in honour since God has created it and will raise it up on the last day 233 365 The unity of soul and body is so profound that one has to consider the soul to be the form of the body 234 i e it is because of its spiritual soul that the body made of matter becomes a living human body spirit and matter in man are not two natures united but rather their union forms a single nature 366 The Church teaches that every spiritual soul is created immediately by God it is not produced by the parents and also that it is immortal it does not perish when it separates from the body at death and it will be reunited with the body at the final Resurrection 235 367 Sometimes the soul is distinguished from the spirit St Paul for instance prays that God may sanctify his people wholly with spirit and soul and body kept sound and blameless at the Lord s coming 236 The Church teaches that this distinction does not introduce a duality into the soul 237 Spirit signifies that from

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    immediately from God their Creator 240 Man and woman are both with one and the same dignity in the image of God In their being man and being woman they reflect the Creator s wisdom and goodness 370 In no way is God in man s image He is neither man nor woman God is pure spirit in which there is no place for the difference between the sexes But the respective perfections of man and woman reflect something of the infinite perfection of God those of a mother and those of a father and husband 241 Each for the other A unity in two 371 God created man and woman together and willed each for the other The Word of God gives us to understand this through various features of the sacred text It is not good that the man should be alone I will make him a helper fit for him 242 None of the animals can be man s partner 243 The woman God fashions from the man s rib and brings to him elicits on the man s part a cry of wonder an exclamation of love and communion This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh 244 Man discovers woman as another I sharing the same humanity 372 Man and woman were made for each other not that God left them half made and incomplete he created them to be a communion of persons in which each can be helpmate to the other for they are equal as persons bone of my bones and complementary as masculine and feminine In marriage God unites them in such a way that by forming one flesh 245 they can transmit human life Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth 246 By transmitting

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    Us Advertise Subscribe Login Donate Resources Home Library Website Reviews What You Need to Know Catholic Dictionary Catechism Church Fathers Most Collection Free eBooks Catechism of the Catholic Church Equality and difference willed by God 369 Man and woman have been created which is to say willed by God on the one hand in perfect equality as human persons on the other in their respective beings as man and woman Being man or being woman is a reality which is good and willed by God man and woman possess an inalienable dignity which comes to them immediately from God their Creator 240 Man and woman are both with one and the same dignity in the image of God In their being man and being woman they reflect the Creator s wisdom and goodness 370 In no way is God in man s image He is neither man nor woman God is pure spirit in which there is no place for the difference between the sexes But the respective perfections of man and woman reflect something of the infinite perfection of God those of a mother and those of a father and husband 241 Notes 240 Cf Gen 2 7 22

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    good that the man should be alone I will make him a helper fit for him 242 None of the animals can be man s partner 243 The woman God fashions from the man s rib and brings to him elicits on the man s part a cry of wonder an exclamation of love and communion This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh 244 Man discovers woman as another I sharing the same humanity 372 Man and woman were made for each other not that God left them half made and incomplete he created them to be a communion of persons in which each can be helpmate to the other for they are equal as persons bone of my bones and complementary as masculine and feminine In marriage God unites them in such a way that by forming one flesh 245 they can transmit human life Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth 246 By transmitting human life to their descendants man and woman as spouses and parents co operate in a unique way in the Creator s work 247 373 In God s plan man and woman have the vocation of subduing

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    parents Adam and Eve were constituted in an original state of holiness and justice 250 This grace of original holiness was to share in divine life 251 376 By the radiance of this grace all dimensions of man s life were confirmed As long as he remained in the divine intimacy man would not have to suffer or die 252 The inner harmony of the human person the harmony between man and woman 253 and finally the harmony between the first couple and all creation comprised the state called original justice 377 The mastery over the world that God offered man from the beginning was realized above all within man himself mastery of self The first man was unimpaired and ordered in his whole being because he was free from the triple concupiscence 254 that subjugates him to the pleasures of the senses covetousness for earthly goods and self assertion contrary to the dictates of reason 378 The sign of man s familiarity with God is that God places him in the garden 255 There he lives to till it and keep it Work is not yet a burden 256 but rather the collaboration of man and woman with God in perfecting the visible creation 379 This entire harmony of original justice foreseen for man in God s plan will be lost by the sin of our first parents IN BRIEF 380 Father you formed man in your own likeness and set him over the whole world to serve you his creator and to rule over all creatures Roman Missal EP IV 118 381 Man is predestined to reproduce the image of God s Son made man the image of the invisible God Col 1 15 so that Christ shall be the first born of a multitude of brothers and

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    God of whom they have conceived a distorted image that of a God jealous of his prerogatives 281 400 The harmony in which they had found themselves thanks to original justice is now destroyed the control of the soul s spiritual faculties over the body is shattered the union of man and woman becomes subject to tensions their relations henceforth marked by lust and domination 282 Harmony with creation is broken visible creation has become alien and hostile to man 283 Because of man creation is now subject to its bondage to decay 284 Finally the consequence explicitly foretold for this disobedience will come true man will return to the ground 285 for out of it he was taken Death makes its entrance into human history 286 401 After that first sin the world is virtually inundated by sin There is Cain s murder of his brother Abel and the universal corruption which follows in the wake of sin Likewise sin frequently manifests itself in the history of Israel especially as infidelity to the God of the Covenant and as transgression of the Law of Moses And even after Christ s atonement sin raises its head in countless ways among Christians 287 Scripture and the Church s Tradition continually recall the presence and universality of sin in man s history What Revelation makes known to us is confirmed by our own experience For when man looks into his own heart he finds that he is drawn towards what is wrong and sunk in many evils which cannot come from his good creator Often refusing to acknowledge God as his source man has also upset the relationship which should link him to his last end and at the same time he has broken the right order that should reign within himself as well as between himself and other men and all creatures 288 The consequences of Adam s sin for humanity 402 All men are implicated in Adam s sin as St Paul affirms By one man s disobedience many that is all men were made sinners sin came into the world through one man and death through sin and so death spread to all men because all men sinned 289 The Apostle contrasts the universality of sin and death with the universality of salvation in Christ Then as one man s trespass led to condemnation for all men so one man s act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men 290 403 Following St Paul the Church has always taught that the overwhelming misery which oppresses men and their inclination towards evil and death cannot be understood apart from their connection with Adam s sin and the fact that he has transmitted to us a sin with which we are all born afflicted a sin which is the death of the soul 291 Because of this certainty of faith the Church baptizes for the remission of sins even tiny infants who have not committed personal sin 292 404 How did the sin of Adam become the sin of all his descendants The whole human race is in Adam as one body of one man 293 By this unity of the human race all men are implicated in Adam s sin as all are implicated in Christ s justice Still the transmission of original sin is a mystery that we cannot fully understand But we do know by Revelation that Adam had received original holiness and justice not for himself alone but for all human nature By yielding to the tempter Adam and Eve committed a personal sin but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state 294 It is a sin which will be transmitted by propagation to all mankind that is by the transmission of a human nature deprived of original holiness and justice And that is why original sin is called sin only in an analogical sense it is a sin contracted and not committed a state and not an act 405 Although it is proper to each individual 295 original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam s descendants It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice but human nature has not been totally corrupted it is wounded in the natural powers proper to it subject to ignorance suffering and the dominion of death and inclined to sin an inclination to evil that is called concupiscence Baptism by imparting the life of Christ s grace erases original sin and turns a man back towards God but the consequences for nature weakened and inclined to evil persist in man and summon him to spiritual battle 406 The Church s teaching on the transmission of original sin was articulated more precisely in the fifth century especially under the impulse of St Augustine s reflections against Pelagianism and in the sixteenth century in opposition to the Protestant Reformation Pelagius held that man could by the natural power of free will and without the necessary help of God s grace lead a morally good life he thus reduced the influence of Adam s fault to bad example The first Protestant reformers on the contrary taught that original sin has radically perverted man and destroyed his freedom they identified the sin inherited by each man with the tendency to evil concupiscentia which would be insurmountable The Church pronounced on the meaning of the data of Revelation on original sin especially at the second Council of Orange 529 296 and at the Council of Trent 1546 297 A hard battle 407 The doctrine of original sin closely connected with that of redemption by Christ provides lucid discernment of man s situation and activity in the world By our first parents sin the devil has acquired a certain domination over man even though man remains free Original sin entails captivity under the power of him who thenceforth had the power of death that is the devil 298 Ignorance of the fact that man has a wounded nature inclined to evil gives rise to serious errors in the areas of education politics social action 299 and morals 408 The consequences of original sin and of all men s personal sins put the world as a whole in the sinful condition aptly described in St John s expression the sin of the world 300 This expression can also refer to the negative influence exerted on people by communal situations and social structures that are the fruit of men s sins 301 409 This dramatic situation of the whole world which is in the power of the evil one 302 makes man s life a battle The whole of man s history has been the story of dour combat with the powers of evil stretching so our Lord tells us from the very dawn of history until the last day Finding himself in the midst of the battlefield man has to struggle to do what is right and it is at great cost to himself and aided by God s grace that he succeeds in achieving his own inner integrity 303 IV YOU DID NOT ABANDON HIM TO THE POWER OF DEATH 410 After his fall man was not abandoned by God On the contrary God calls him and in a mysterious way heralds the coming victory over evil and his restoration from his fall 304 This passage in Genesis is called the Protoevangelium first gospel the first announcement of the Messiah and Redeemer of a battle between the serpent and the Woman and of the final victory of a descendant of hers 411 The Christian tradition sees in this passage an announcement of the New Adam who because he became obedient unto death even death on a cross makes amends superabundantly for the disobedience of Adam 305 Furthermore many Fathers and Doctors of the Church have seen the woman announced in the Proto evangelium as Mary the mother of Christ the new Eve Mary benefited first of all and uniquely from Christ s victory over sin she was preserved from all stain of original sin and by a special grace of God committed no sin of any kind during her whole earthly life 306 412 But why did God not prevent the first man from sinning St Leo the Great responds Christ s inexpressible grace gave us blessings better than those the demon s envy had taken away 307 And St Thomas Aquinas wrote There is nothing to prevent human nature s being raised up to something greater even after sin God permits evil in order to draw forth some greater good Thus St Paul says Where sin increased grace abounded all the more and the Exsultet sings O happy fault which gained for us so great a Redeemer 308 IN BRIEF 413 God did not make death and he does not delight in the death of the living It was through the devil s envy that death entered the world Wis 1 13 2 24 414 Satan or the devil and the other demons are fallen angels who have freely refused to serve God and his plan Their choice against God is definitive They try to associate man in their revolt against God 415 Although set by God in a state of rectitude man enticed by the evil one abused his freedom at the very start of history He lifted himself up against God and sought to attain his goal apart from him GS 13 1 416 By his sin Adam as the first man lost the original holiness and justice he had received from God not only for himself but for all human beings 417 Adam and Eve transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice this deprivation is called original sin 418 As a result of original sin human nature is weakened in its powers subject to ignorance suffering and the domination of death and inclined to sin this inclination is called concupiscence 419 We therefore hold with the Council of Trent that original sin is transmitted with human nature by propagation not by imitation and that it is proper to each Paul VI CPG 16 420 The victory that Christ won over sin has given us greater blessings than those which sin had taken from us where sin increased grace abounded all the more Rom 5 20 421 Christians believe that the world has been established and kept in being by the Creator s love has fallen into slavery to sin but has been set free by Christ crucified and risen to break the power of the evil one GS 2 2 NOTES 1 Cf Isa 44 6 2 Roman Catechism I 2 2 3 Roman Catechism I 2 2 4 Deut 6 45 5 Isa 45 22 24 cf Phil 2 10 11 6 Mk 12 29 30 7 Cf Mk 12 35 37 8 Lateran Council IV DS 800 9 Ex 3 6 10 Ex 3 13 15 11 Cf Isa 45 15 Judg 13 18 12 Ex 3 6 12 13 Cf Ex 3 5 6 14 Isa 6 5 15 Lk 5 8 16 Hos 11 9 17 I Jn 3 19 20 18 Cf Ex 32 33 12 17 19 Ex 33 18 19 20 Ex 34 5 6 cf 34 9 21 Ex 34 7 22 Eph 2 4 23 Jn 8 28 Greek 24 Cf Isa 44 6 25 Ps 102 26 27 26 Jas 1 17 27 Ex 34 6 28 Ps 138 2 cf Ps 85 11 29 I Jn 1 5 4 8 30 Ps 119 160 31 2 Sam 7 28 32 Cf Deut 7 9 33 Cf Wis 13 1 9 34 Cf Ps 115 15 Wis 7 17 21 35 Mal 2 6 36 Jn 18 37 37 I Jn 5 20 cf Jn 17 3 38 Cf Deut 4 37 7 8 10 15 39 Cf Isa 43 1 7 Hos 2 40 Jn 3 16 cf Hos 11 1 Isa 49 14 15 62 4 5 Ezek 16 Hos 11 41 Isa 54 8 42 Isa 54 10 cf 54 8 43 Jer 31 3 44 l Jn 4 8 16 45 Cf I Cor 2 7 16 Eph 3 9 12 46 Job 36 26 47 St Joan of Arc 48 I Cor 4 7 49 Ps 116 12 50 Gen 1 26 51 St Nicholas of Flue cf Mt 5 29 30 16 24 26 52 St Teresa of Jesus Poesias 30 in The Collected Works of St Teresa of Avila vol III tr K Kavanaugh OCD and O Rodriguez OCD Washington DC Institute of Carmelite Studies 1985 386 no 9 tr John Wall 53 Mt 28 19 54 St Caesarius of Arles Sermo 9 Exp symb CCL 103 47 55 Cf Profession of faith of Pope Vigilius I 552 DS 415 56 GCD 43 57 GCD 47 58 Dei Filius 4 DS 3015 59 Cf Deut 32 6 Mal 2 10 60 Ex 4 22 61 Cf 2 Sam 7 14 Ps 68 6 62 Cf Isa 66 13 Ps 131 2 63 Cf Ps 27 10 Eph 3 14 Isa 49 15 64 Mt 11 27 65 Jn 1 1 Col 1 15 Heb 1 3 66 The English phrases of one being and one in being translate the Greek word homoousios which was rendered in Latin by consubstantialis 67 Niceno Constantinopolitan Creed cf DS 150 68 Cf Gen 1 2 Nicene Creed DS 150 Jn 14 17 26 16 13 69 Cf Jn 14 26 15 26 16 14 70 Cf Jn 7 39 71 Nicene Creed cf DS 150 72 Council of Toledo VI 638 DS 490 73 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 527 74 Nicene Creed cf DS 150 75 Council of Florence 1439 DS 1300 1301 76 Cf Leo I Quam laudabiliter 447 DS 284 77 Jn 15 26 cf AG 2 78 Council of Florence 1439 DS 1302 79 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1331 80 Cf Council of Lyons II 1274 DS 850 81 2 Cor 13 14 cf I Cor 12 4 6 Eph 4 4 6 82 Paul VI CPG 2 83 Council of Constantinople II 553 DS 421 84 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 530 26 85 Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 804 86 Fides Damasi DS 71 87 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 530 25 88 Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 804 89 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 528 90 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1330 91 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1331 92 St Gregory of Nazianzus Oratio 40 41 PG 36 417 93 LH Hymn for Evening Prayer 94 Eph 1 4 5 9 Rom 8 15 29 95 2 Tim 1 9 10 96 Cf AG 2 9 97 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1331 cf Council of Constantinople II 553 DS 421 98 Council of Constantinople II DS 421 99 Cf Jn 6 44 Rom 8 14 100 Cf Jn 17 21 23 101 Jn 14 23 102 Prayer of Blessed Elizabeth of the Trinity 103 Cf Gen 1 1 Jn 1 3 Mt 6 9 2 Cor 12 9 cf I Cor 1 18 104 Ps 115 3 105 Gen 49 24 Isa 1 24 etc Ps 24 8 10 135 6 106 Cf Jer 27 5 32 17 Lk 1 37 107 Wis 11 21 cf Esth 4 17b Prov 21 1 Tob 13 2 108 Wis 11 23 109 2 Cor 6 18 cf Mt 6 32 110 St Thomas Aquinas STh I 25 5 ad I 111 I Cor 1 24 25 112 Eph 1 19 22 113 Cf 2 Cor 12 9 Phil 4 13 114 Lk 1 37 49 115 Roman Catechism I 2 13 116 Gen 1 1 117 GCD 51 118 Gen 1 1 cf Rom 8 18 23 119 Cf Egeria Peregrinatio at loca sancta 46 PLS 1 1047 St Augustine De catechizantis rudibus 3 5 PL 40 256 120 Cf NA 2 121 Wis 7 17 22 122 Cf Vatican Council I can 2 1 DS 3026 123 Heb 11 3 124 Cf Acts 17 24 29 Rom 1 19 20 125 Cf Isa 43 1 Ps 115 15 124 8 134 3 126 Cf Gen 15 5 Jer 33 19 26 127 Cf Isa 44 24 Ps 104 Prov 8 22 31 128 Gen 1 1 129 Jn 1 1 3 130 Col 1 16 17 131 Cf Nicene Creed DS 150 Hymn Veni Creator Spiritus Byzantine Troparion of Pentecost Vespers O heavenly King Consoler 132 Cf Ps 33 6 104 30 Gen 1 2 3 133 St Irenaeus Adv haeres 2 30 9 4 20 I PG 7 1 822 1032 134 Dei Filius can 5 DS 3025 135 St Bonaventure In II Sent I 2 2 1 136 St Thomas Aquinas Sent II prol 137 Dei Filius I DS 3002 cf Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 800 138 Eph 1 5 6 139 St Irenaeus Adv haeres 4 20 7 PG 7 1 1037 140 AG 2 cf I Cor 15 28 141 Cf Wis 9 9 142 Rev 4 11 143 Ps 104 24 145 9 144 Cf Dei Filius cann 2 4 DS 3022 3024 145 Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 800 cf DS 3025 146 St Theophilus of Antioch Ad Autolycum II 4 PG 6 1052 147 2 Macc 7 22 21 28 148 Cf Ps 51 12 149 Rom 4 17 150 Cf Gen 1 3 2 Cor 4 6 151 Wis 11 20 152 Col 1 15 Gen 1 26 153 Cf Ps 19 2 5 Job 42 3 154 Gen 1 4 10 12 18 21 31 155 Cf DS 286 455 463 800 1333 3002 156 Ps 8 1 cf Sir 43 28 157 Ps

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