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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    291 Because of this certainty of faith the Church baptizes for the remission of sins even tiny infants who have not committed personal sin 292 404 How did the sin of Adam become the sin of all his descendants The whole human race is in Adam as one body of one man 293 By this unity of the human race all men are implicated in Adam s sin as all are implicated in Christ s justice Still the transmission of original sin is a mystery that we cannot fully understand But we do know by Revelation that Adam had received original holiness and justice not for himself alone but for all human nature By yielding to the tempter Adam and Eve committed a personal sin but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state 294 It is a sin which will be transmitted by propagation to all mankind that is by the transmission of a human nature deprived of original holiness and justice And that is why original sin is called sin only in an analogical sense it is a sin contracted and not committed a state and not an act 405 Although it is proper to each individual 295 original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam s descendants It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice but human nature has not been totally corrupted it is wounded in the natural powers proper to it subject to ignorance suffering and the dominion of death and inclined to sin an inclination to evil that is called concupiscence Baptism by imparting the life of Christ s grace erases original sin and turns a man back towards God but the consequences for nature weakened and inclined to

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    the world By our first parents sin the devil has acquired a certain domination over man even though man remains free Original sin entails captivity under the power of him who thenceforth had the power of death that is the devil 298 Ignorance of the fact that man has a wounded nature inclined to evil gives rise to serious errors in the areas of education politics social action 299 and morals 408 The consequences of original sin and of all men s personal sins put the world as a whole in the sinful condition aptly described in St John s expression the sin of the world 300 This expression can also refer to the negative influence exerted on people by communal situations and social structures that are the fruit of men s sins 301 409 This dramatic situation of the whole world which is in the power of the evil one 302 makes man s life a battle The whole of man s history has been the story of dour combat with the powers of evil stretching so our Lord tells us from the very dawn of history until the last day Finding himself in the midst of the battlefield

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    one being and one in being translate the Greek word homoousios which was rendered in Latin by consubstantialis 67 Niceno Constantinopolitan Creed cf DS 150 68 Cf Gen 1 2 Nicene Creed DS 150 Jn 14 17 26 16 13 69 Cf Jn 14 26 15 26 16 14 70 Cf Jn 7 39 71 Nicene Creed cf DS 150 72 Council of Toledo VI 638 DS 490 73 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 527 74 Nicene Creed cf DS 150 75 Council of Florence 1439 DS 1300 1301 76 Cf Leo I Quam laudabiliter 447 DS 284 77 Jn 15 26 cf AG 2 78 Council of Florence 1439 DS 1302 79 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1331 80 Cf Council of Lyons II 1274 DS 850 81 2 Cor 13 14 cf I Cor 12 4 6 Eph 4 4 6 82 Paul VI CPG 2 83 Council of Constantinople II 553 DS 421 84 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 530 26 85 Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 804 86 Fides Damasi DS 71 87 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 530 25 88 Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 804 89 Council of Toledo XI 675 DS 528 90 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1330 91 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1331 92 St Gregory of Nazianzus Oratio 40 41 PG 36 417 93 LH Hymn for Evening Prayer 94 Eph 1 4 5 9 Rom 8 15 29 95 2 Tim 1 9 10 96 Cf AG 2 9 97 Council of Florence 1442 DS 1331 cf Council of Constantinople II 553 DS 421 98 Council of Constantinople II DS 421 99 Cf Jn 6 44 Rom 8 14 100 Cf Jn 17 21 23 101 Jn 14 23 102 Prayer of Blessed Elizabeth of the Trinity 103 Cf Gen 1 1 Jn 1 3 Mt 6 9 2 Cor 12 9 cf I Cor 1 18 104 Ps 115 3 105 Gen 49 24 Isa 1 24 etc Ps 24 8 10 135 6 106 Cf Jer 27 5 32 17 Lk 1 37 107 Wis 11 21 cf Esth 4 17b Prov 21 1 Tob 13 2 108 Wis 11 23 109 2 Cor 6 18 cf Mt 6 32 110 St Thomas Aquinas STh I 25 5 ad I 111 I Cor 1 24 25 112 Eph 1 19 22 113 Cf 2 Cor 12 9 Phil 4 13 114 Lk 1 37 49 115 Roman Catechism I 2 13 116 Gen 1 1 117 GCD 51 118 Gen 1 1 cf Rom 8 18 23 119 Cf Egeria Peregrinatio at loca sancta 46 PLS 1 1047 St Augustine De catechizantis rudibus 3 5 PL 40 256 120 Cf NA 2 121 Wis 7 17 22 122 Cf Vatican Council I can 2 1 DS 3026 123 Heb 11 3 124 Cf Acts 17 24 29 Rom 1 19 20 125 Cf Isa 43 1 Ps 115 15 124 8 134 3 126 Cf Gen 15 5 Jer 33 19 26 127 Cf Isa 44 24 Ps 104 Prov 8 22 31 128 Gen 1 1 129 Jn 1 1 3 130 Col 1 16 17 131 Cf Nicene Creed DS 150 Hymn Veni Creator Spiritus Byzantine Troparion of Pentecost Vespers O heavenly King Consoler 132 Cf Ps 33 6 104 30 Gen 1 2 3 133 St Irenaeus Adv haeres 2 30 9 4 20 I PG 7 1 822 1032 134 Dei Filius can 5 DS 3025 135 St Bonaventure In II Sent I 2 2 1 136 St Thomas Aquinas Sent II prol 137 Dei Filius I DS 3002 cf Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 800 138 Eph 1 5 6 139 St Irenaeus Adv haeres 4 20 7 PG 7 1 1037 140 AG 2 cf I Cor 15 28 141 Cf Wis 9 9 142 Rev 4 11 143 Ps 104 24 145 9 144 Cf Dei Filius cann 2 4 DS 3022 3024 145 Lateran Council IV 1215 DS 800 cf DS 3025 146 St Theophilus of Antioch Ad Autolycum II 4 PG 6 1052 147 2 Macc 7 22 21 28 148 Cf Ps 51 12 149 Rom 4 17 150 Cf Gen 1 3 2 Cor 4 6 151 Wis 11 20 152 Col 1 15 Gen 1 26 153 Cf Ps 19 2 5 Job 42 3 154 Gen 1 4 10 12 18 21 31 155 Cf DS 286 455 463 800 1333 3002 156 Ps 8 1 cf Sir 43 28 157 Ps 145 3 158 Acts 17 28 159 St Augustine Conf 3 6 11 PL 32 688 160 Wis 11 24 26 161 Vatican Council I Dei Filius I DS 3003 cf Wis 8 1 Heb 4 13 162 Ps 115 3 163 Rev 3 7 164 Prov 19 21 165 Cf Isa 10 5 15 45 51 Deut 32 39 Sir 11 14 166 Cf Ps 22 32 35 103 138 et al 167 Mt 6 31 33 cf 10 29 31 168 Cf Gen 1 26 28 169 Cf Col 1 24 170 I Cor 3 9 I Thess 3 2 Col 4 11 171 Phil 2 13 cf I Cor 12 6 172 GS 36 3 173 Cf Mt 19 26 Jn 15 5 14 13 174 Cf St Thomas Aquinas STh I 25 6 175 Cf St Thomas Aquinas SCG III 71 176 Cf St Augustine De libero arbitrio I 1 2 PL 32 1221 1223 St Thomas Aquinas STh I II 79 1 177 St Augustine Enchiridion II 3 PL 40 236 178 Gen 45 8 50 20 cf Tob 2 12 Vulgate 179 Cf Rom 5 20 180 Rom 8 28 181 St Catherine of Siena Dialogue IV 138 On Divine Providence 182 The Correspondence of Sir Thomas More ed Elizabeth F Rogers Princeton Princeton University Press 1947 letter 206 lines 661 663 183 Julian of Norwich The Revelations of Divine Love tr

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    mission 280 He gives the Twelve a share in his authority and sent them out to preach the kingdom of God and to heal 281 They remain associated for ever with Christ s kingdom for through them he directs the Church As my Father appointed a kingdom for me so do I appoint for you that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel 282 552 Simon Peter holds the first place in the college of the Twelve 283 Jesus entrusted a unique mission to him Through a revelation from the Father Peter had confessed You are the Christ the Son of the living God Our Lord then declared to him You are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it 284 Christ the living Stone 285 thus assures his Church built on Peter of victory over the powers of death Because of the faith he confessed Peter will remain the unshakeable rock of the Church His mission will be to keep this faith from every lapse and to strengthen his brothers in it 286 553 Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven 287 The power of the keys designates authority to govern the house of God which is the Church Jesus the Good Shepherd confirmed this mandate after his Resurrection Feed my sheep 288 The power to bind and loose connotes the authority to absolve sins to pronounce doctrinal judgements and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church Jesus entrusted this authority to the Church through the ministry of the apostles 289 and in particular through the ministry of Peter the only one to whom he specifically entrusted the keys of the kingdom A foretaste of the kingdom the Transfiguration 554 From the day Peter confessed that Jesus is the Christ the Son of the living God the Master began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things and be killed and on the third day be raised 290 Peter scorns this prediction nor do the others understand it any better than he 291 In this context the mysterious episode of Jesus Transfiguration takes place on a high mountain 292 before three witnesses chosen by himself Peter James and John Jesus face and clothes become dazzling with light and Moses and Elijah appear speaking of his departure which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem 293 A cloud covers him and a voice from heaven says This is my Son my Chosen listen to him 294 555 For a moment Jesus discloses his divine glory confirming Peter s confession He also reveals that he will have to go by the way of the cross at Jerusalem in order to enter into his glory 295 Moses and Elijah had seen God s glory on the Mountain the Law and the Prophets had announced the Messiah s sufferings 296 Christ s Passion is the will of the Father the Son acts as God s servant 297 the cloud indicates the presence of the Holy Spirit The whole Trinity appeared the Father in the voice the Son in the man the Spirit in the shining cloud 298 You were transfigured on the mountain and your disciples as much as they were capable of it beheld your glory O Christ our God so that when they should see you crucified they would understand that your Passion was voluntary and proclaim to the world that you truly are the splendour of the Father 299 556 On the threshold of the public life the baptism on the threshold of the Passover the Transfiguration Jesus baptism proclaimed the mystery of the first regeneration namely our Baptism the Transfiguration is the sacrament of the second regeneration our own Resurrection 300 From now on we share in the Lord s Resurrection through the Spirit who acts in the sacraments of the Body of Christ The Transfiguration gives us a foretaste of Christ s glorious coming when he will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body 301 But it also recalls that it is through many persecutions that we must enter the kingdom of God 302 Peter did not yet understand this when he wanted to remain with Christ on the mountain It has been reserved for you Peter but for after death For now Jesus says Go down to toil on earth to serve on earth to be scorned and crucified on earth Life goes down to be killed Bread goes down to suffer hunger the Way goes down to be exhausted on his journey the Spring goes down to suffer thirst and you refuse to suffer 303 Jesus ascent to Jerusalem 557 When the days drew near for him to be taken up Jesus set his face to go to Jerusalem 304 By this decision he indicated that he was going up to Jerusalem prepared to die there Three times he had announced his Passion and Resurrection now heading toward Jerusalem Jesus says It cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem 305 558 Jesus recalls the martyrdom of the prophets who had been put to death in Jerusalem Nevertheless he persists in calling Jerusalem to gather around him How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings and you would not 306 When Jerusalem comes into view he weeps over her and expresses once again his heart s desire Would that even today you knew the things that make for peace But now they are hid from your eyes 307 Jesus messianic entrance into Jerusalem 559 How will Jerusalem welcome her Messiah Although Jesus had always refused popular attempts to make him king he chooses the time and prepares the details for his messianic entry into the city of his father David 308 Acclaimed as son of David as the one who brings salvation Hosanna means Save or Give salvation the King of glory enters his City riding on an ass 309 Jesus conquers the Daughter of Zion a figure of his Church neither by ruse nor by violence but by the humility that bears witness to the truth 310 And so the subjects of his kingdom on that day are children and God s poor who acclaim him as had the angels when they announced him to the shepherds 311 Their acclamation Blessed be he who comes in the name of the Lord 312 is taken up by the Church in the Sanctus of the Eucharistic liturgy that introduces the memorial of the Lord s Passover 560 Jesus entry into Jerusalem manifested the coming of the kingdom that the King Messiah was going to accomplish by the Passover of his Death and Resurrection It is with the celebration of that entry on Palm Sunday that the Church s liturgy solemnly opens Holy Week IN BRIEF 561 The whole of Christ s life was a continual teaching his silences his miracles his gestures his prayer his love for people his special affection for the little and the poor his acceptance of the total sacrifice on the Cross for the redemption of the world and his Resurrection are the actualization of his word and the fulfilment of Revelation John Paul II CT 9 562 Christ s disciples are to conform themselves to him until he is formed in them cf Gal 4 19 For this reason we who have been made like to him who have died with him and risen with him are taken up into the mysteries of his life until we reign together with him LG 4 563 No one whether shepherd or wise man can approach God here below except by kneeling before the manger at Bethlehem and adoring him hidden in the weakness of a new born child 564 By his obedience to Mary and Joseph as well as by his humble work during the long years in Nazareth Jesus gives us the example of holiness in the daily life of family and work 565 From the beginning of his public life at his baptism Jesus is the Servant wholly consecrated to the redemptive work that he will accomplish by the baptism of his Passion 566 The temptation in the desert shows Jesus the humble Messiah who triumphs over Satan by his total adherence to the plan of salvation willed by the Father 567 The kingdom of heaven was inaugurated on earth by Christ This kingdom shone out before men in the word in the works and in the presence of Christ LG 5 The Church is the seed and beginning of this kingdom Its keys are entrusted to Peter 568 Christ s Transfiguration aims at strengthening the apostles faith in anticipation of his Passion the ascent on to the high mountain prepares for the ascent to Calvary Christ Head of the Church manifests what his Body contains and radiates in the sacraments the hope of glory Col 1 27 cf St Leo the Great Sermo 51 3 PL 54 310C 569 Jesus went up to Jerusalem voluntarily knowing well that there he would die a violent death because of the opposition of sinners cf Heb 12 3 570 Jesus entry into Jerusalem manifests the coming of the kingdom that the Messiah King welcomed into his city by children and the humble of heart is going to accomplish by the Passover of his Death and Resurrection ARTICLE 4 JESUS CHRIST SUFFERED UNDER PONTIUS PILATE WAS CRUCIFIED DIED AND WAS BURIED 571 The Paschal mystery of Christ s cross and Resurrection stands at the centre of the Good News that the apostles and the Church following them are to proclaim to the world God s saving plan was accomplished once for all 313 by the redemptive death of his Son Jesus Christ 572 The Church remains faithful to the interpretation of all the Scriptures that Jesus gave both before and after his Passover Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory 314 Jesus sufferings took their historical concrete form from the fact that he was rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes who handed him to the Gentiles to be mocked and scourged and crucified 315 573 Faith can therefore try to examine the circumstances of Jesus death faithfully handed on by the Gospels 316 and illuminated by other historical sources the better to understand the meaning of the Redemption Paragraph 1 Jesus and Israel 574 From the beginning of Jesus public ministry certain Pharisees and partisans of Herod together with priests and scribes agreed together to destroy him 317 Because of certain acts of his expelling demons forgiving sins healing on the sabbath day his novel interpretation of the precepts of the Law regarding purity and his familiarity with tax collectors and public sinners 318 some ill intentioned persons suspected Jesus of demonic possession 319 He is accused of blasphemy and false prophecy religious crimes which the Law punished with death by stoning 320 575 Many of Jesus deeds and words constituted a sign of contradiction 321 but more so for the religious authorities in Jerusalem whom the Gospel according to John often calls simply the Jews 322 than for the ordinary People of God 323 To be sure Christ s relations with the Pharisees were not exclusively polemical Some Pharisees warn him of the danger he was courting 324 Jesus praises some of them like the scribe of Mark 12 34 and dines several times at their homes 325 Jesus endorses some of the teachings imparted by this religious elite of God s people the resurrection of the dead 326 certain forms of piety almsgiving fasting and prayer 327 the custom of addressing God as Father and the centrality of the commandment to love God and neighbour 328 576 In the eyes of many in Israel Jesus seems to be acting against essential institutions of the Chosen People submission to the whole of the Law in its written commandments and for the Pharisees in the interpretation of oral tradition the centrality of the Temple at Jerusalem as the holy place where God s presence dwells in a special way faith in the one God whose glory no man can share I JESUS AND THE LAW 577 At the beginning of the Sermon on the Mount Jesus issued a solemn warning in which he presented God s law given on Sinai during the first covenant in light of the grace of the New Covenant Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets I have come not to abolish but to fulfil For truly I tell you until heaven and earth pass away not one letter not one stroke of a letter will pass from the law until all is accomplished Therefore whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven but whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom of heaven 329 578 Jesus Israel s Messiah and therefore the greatest in the kingdom of heaven was to fulfil the Law by keeping it in its all embracing detail according to his own words down to the least of these commandments 330 He is in fact the only one who could keep it perfectly 331 On their own admission the Jews were never able to observe the Law in its entirety without violating the least of its precepts 332 This is why every year on the Day of Atonement the children of Israel ask God s forgiveness for their transgressions of the Law The Law indeed makes up one inseparable whole and St James recalls Whoever keeps the whole law but fails in one point has become guilty of all of it 333 579 This principle of integral observance of the Law not only in letter but in spirit was dear to the Pharisees By giving Israel this principle they had led many Jews of Jesus time to an extreme religious zeal 334 This zeal were it not to lapse into hypocritical casuistry 335 could only prepare the People for the unprecedented intervention of God through the perfect fulfilment of the Law by the only Righteous One in place of all sinners 336 580 The perfect fulfilment of the Law could be the work of none but the divine legislator born subject to the Law in the person of the Son 337 In Jesus the Law no longer appears engraved on tables of stone but upon the heart of the Servant who becomes a covenant to the people because he will faithfully bring forth justice 338 Jesus fulfils the Law to the point of taking upon himself the curse of the Law incurred by those who do not abide by the things written in the book of the Law and do them for his death took place to redeem them from the transgressions under the first covenant 339 581 The Jewish people and their spiritual leaders viewed Jesus as a rabbi 340 He often argued within the framework of rabbinical interpretation of the Law 341 Yet Jesus could not help but offend the teachers of the Law for he was not content to propose his interpretation alongside theirs but taught the people as one who had authority and not as their scribes 342 In Jesus the same Word of God that had resounded on Mount Sinai to give the written Law to Moses made itself heard anew on the Mount of the Beatitudes 343 Jesus did not abolish the Law but fulfilled it by giving its ultimate interpretation in a divine way You have heard that it was said to the men of old But I say to you 344 With this same divine authority he disavowed certain human traditions of the Pharisees that were making void the word of God 345 582 Going even further Jesus perfects the dietary law so important in Jewish daily life by revealing its pedagogical meaning through a divine interpretation Whatever goes into a man from outside cannot defile him Thus he declared all foods clean What comes out of a man is what defiles a man For from within out of the heart of man come evil thoughts 346 In presenting with divine authority the definitive interpretation of the Law Jesus found himself confronted by certain teachers of the Law who did not accept his interpretation of the Law guaranteed though it was by the divine signs that accompanied it 347 This was the case especially with the sabbath laws for he recalls often with rabbinical arguments that the sabbath rest is not violated by serving God and neighbour 348 which his own healings did II JESUS AND THE TEMPLE 583 Like the prophets before him Jesus expressed the deepest respect for the Temple in Jerusalem It was in the Temple that Joseph and Mary presented him forty days after his birth 349 At the age of twelve he decided to remain in the Temple to remind his parents that he must be about his Father s business 350 He went there each year during his hidden life at least for Passover 351 His public ministry itself was patterned by his pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the great Jewish feasts 352 584 Jesus went up to the Temple as the privileged place of encounter with God For him the Temple was the dwelling of his Father a house of prayer and he was angered that its outer court had become a place of commerce 353 He drove merchants out of it because of jealous love for his Father You shall not make my Father s house a house of trade His disciples remembered that it was written Zeal for your house will consume me 354 After his Resurrection his apostles retained their reverence for the Temple 355 585 On the threshold of his Passion Jesus announced the coming destruction of this splendid building of which there would not remain one stone upon another 356 By doing so he announced a sign of the last days which were to begin with his own Passover 357 But this prophecy would be distorted in its telling by false witnesses during his interrogation at the high priest s house and would be thrown back at him as an insult when he was nailed to the cross 358 586 Far from having been hostile to the Temple where he gave the essential part of his teaching Jesus was willing to pay the Temple tax associating with him Peter whom he had just made the foundation of his future Church 359 He even identified himself with the Temple by presenting himself as God s definitive dwelling place among men 360 Therefore his being put to bodily death 361 presaged the destruction of the Temple which would manifest the dawning of a new age in the history of salvation The hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father 362 III JESUS AND ISRAEL S FAITH IN THE ONE GOD AND SAVIOUR 587 If the Law and the Jerusalem Temple could be occasions of opposition to Jesus by Israel s religious authorities his role in the redemption of sins the divine work par excellence was the true stumbling block for them 363 588 Jesus scandalized the Pharisees by eating with tax collectors and sinners as familiarly as with themselves 364 Against those among them who trusted in themselves that they were righteous and despised others Jesus affirmed I have not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance 365 He went further by proclaiming before the Pharisees that since sin is universal those who pretend not to need salvation are blind to themselves 366 589 Jesus gave scandal above all when he identified his merciful conduct toward sinners with God s own attitude toward them 367 He went so far as to hint that by sharing the table of sinners he was admitting them to the messianic banquet 368 But it was most especially by forgiving sins that Jesus placed the religious authorities of Israel on the horns of a dilemma Were they not entitled to demand in consternation Who can forgive sins but God alone 369 By forgiving sins Jesus either is blaspheming as a man who made himself God s equal or is speaking the truth and his person really does make present and reveal God s name 370 590 Only the divine identity of Jesus person can justify so absolute a claim as He who is not with me is against me and his saying that there was in him something greater than Jonah greater than Solomon something greater than the Temple his reminder that David had called the Messiah his Lord 371 and his affirmations Before Abraham was I AM and even I and the Father are one 372 591 Jesus asked the religious authorities of Jerusalem to believe in him because of the Father s works which he accomplished 373 But such an act of faith must go through a mysterious death to self for a new birth from above under the influence of divine grace 374 Such a demand for conversion in the face of so surprising a fulfilment of the promises 375 allows one to understand the Sanhedrin s tragic misunderstanding of Jesus they judged that he deserved the death sentence as a blasphemer 376 The members of the Sanhedrin were thus acting at the same time out of ignorance and the hardness of their unbelief 377 IN BRIEF 592 Jesus did not abolish the Law of Sinai but rather fulfilled it cf Mt 5 17 19 with such perfection cf Jn 8 46 that he revealed its ultimate meaning cf Mt 5 33 and redeemed the transgressions against it cf Heb 9 15 593 Jesus venerated the Temple by going up to it for the Jewish feasts of pilgrimage and with a jealous love he loved this dwelling of God among men The Temple prefigures his own mystery When he announces its destruction it is as a manifestation of his own execution and of the entry into a new age in the history of salvation when his Body would be the definitive Temple 594 Jesus performed acts such as pardoning sins that manifested him to be the Saviour God himself cf Jn 5 16 18 Certain Jews who did not recognize God made man cf Jn 1 14 saw in him only a man who made himself God Jn 10 33 and judged him as a blasphemer Paragraph 2 Jesus Died Crucified I THE TRIAL OF JESUS Divisions among the Jewish authorities concerning Jesus 595 Among the religious authorities of Jerusalem not only were the Pharisee Nicodemus and the prominent Joseph of Arimathea both secret disciples of Jesus but there was also long standing dissension about him so much so that St John says of these authorities on the very eve of Christ s Passion many believed in him though very imperfectly 378 This is not surprising if one recalls that on the day after Pentecost a great many of the priests were obedient to the faith and some believers belonged to the party of the Pharisees to the point that St James could tell St Paul How many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed and they are all zealous for the Law 379 596 The religious authorities in Jerusalem were not unanimous about what stance to take towards Jesus 380 The Pharisees threatened to excommunicate his followers 381 To those who feared that everyone will believe in him and the Romans will come and destroy both our holy place and our nation the high priest Caiaphas replied by prophesying It is expedient for you that one man should die for the people and that the whole nation should not perish 382 The Sanhedrin having declared Jesus deserving of death as a blasphemer but having lost the right to put anyone to death hands him over to the Romans accusing him of political revolt a charge that puts him in the same category as Barabbas who had been accused of sedition 383 The chief priests also threatened Pilate politically so that he would condemn Jesus to death 384 Jews are not collectively responsible for Jesus death 597 The historical complexity of Jesus trial is apparent in the Gospel accounts The personal sin of the participants Judas the Sanhedrin Pilate is known to God alone Hence we cannot lay responsibility for the trial on the Jews in Jerusalem as a whole despite the outcry of a manipulated crowd and the global reproaches contained in the apostles calls to conversion after Pentecost 385 Jesus himself in forgiving them on the cross and Peter in following suit both accept the ignorance of the Jews of Jerusalem and even of their leaders 386 Still less can we extend responsibility to other Jews of different times and places based merely on the crowd s cry His blood be on us and on our children a formula for ratifying a judicial sentence 387 As the Church declared at the Second Vatican Council neither all Jews indiscriminately at that time nor Jews today can be charged with the crimes committed during his Passion the Jews should not be spoken of as rejected or accursed as if this followed from holy Scripture 388 All sinners were the authors of Christ s Passion 598 In her Magisterial teaching of the faith and in the witness of her saints the Church has never forgotten that sinners were the authors and the ministers of all the sufferings that the divine Redeemer endured 389 Taking into account the fact that our sins affect Christ himself 390 the Church does not hesitate to impute to Christians the gravest responsibility for the torments inflicted upon Jesus a responsibility with which they have all too often burdened the Jews alone We must regard as guilty all those who continue to relapse into their sins Since our sins made the Lord Christ suffer the torment of the cross those who plunge themselves into disorders and crimes crucify the Son of God anew in their hearts for he is in them and hold him up to contempt And it can be seen that our crime in this case is greater in us than in the Jews As for them according to the witness of the Apostle None of the rulers of this age understood this for if they had they would not have crucified the Lord of glory We however profess to know him And when we deny him by our deeds we in some way seem to lay violent hands on him 391 Nor did demons crucify him it is you who have crucified him and crucify him still when you delight in your vices and sins 392 II CHRIST S REDEMPTIVE DEATH IN GOD S PLAN OF SALVATION Jesus handed over according to the definite plan of God 599 Jesus violent death was not the result of chance in an unfortunate coincidence of circumstances but is part of the mystery of God s plan as St Peter explains to the Jews of Jerusalem in his first sermon on Pentecost This Jesus was delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God 393 This Biblical language does not mean that those who handed him over were merely passive players in a scenario written in advance by God 394 600 To God all moments of time are present in their immediacy When therefore he establishes his eternal plan of predestination he includes in it each person s free response to his grace In this city in fact both Herod and Pontius Pilate with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel gathered together against your holy servant Jesus whom you anointed to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place 395 For the sake of accomplishing his plan of salvation God permitted the acts that flowed from their blindness 396 He died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures 601 The Scriptures had foretold this divine plan of salvation through the putting to death of the righteous one my Servant as a mystery of universal redemption that is as the ransom that would free men from the slavery of sin 397 Citing a confession of faith that he himself had received St Paul professes that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures 398 In particular Jesus redemptive death fulfils Isaiah s prophecy of the suffering Servant 399 Indeed Jesus himself explained the meaning of his life and death in the light of God s suffering Servant 400 After his Resurrection he gave this interpretation of the Scriptures to the disciples at Emmaus and then to the apostles 401 For our sake God made him to be sin 602 Consequently St Peter can formulate the apostolic faith in the divine plan of salvation in this way You were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your fathers with the precious blood of Christ like that of a lamb without blemish or spot He was destined before the foundation of the world but was made manifest at the end of the times for your sake 402 Man s sins following on original sin are punishable by death 403 By sending his own Son in the form of a slave in the form of a fallen humanity on account of sin God made him to be sin who knew no sin so that in him we might become the righteousness of God 404 603 Jesus did not experience reprobation as if he himself had sinned 405 But in the redeeming love that always united him to the Father he assumed us in the state of our waywardness of sin to the point that he could say in our name from the cross My God my God why have you forsaken me 406 Having thus established him in solidarity with us sinners God did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all so that we might be reconciled to God by the death of his Son 407 God takes the initiative of universal redeeming love 604 By giving up his own Son for our sins God manifests that his plan for us is one of benevolent love prior to any merit on our part In this is love not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins 408 God shows his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us 409 605 At the end of the parable of the lost sheep Jesus recalled that God s love excludes no one So it is not the will of your Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish 410 He affirms that he came to give his life as a ransom for many this last term is not restrictive but contrasts the whole of humanity with the unique person of the redeemer who hands himself over to save us 411 The Church following the apostles teaches that Christ died for all men without exception There is not never has been and never will be a single human being for whom Christ did not suffer 412 III CHRIST OFFERED HIMSELF TO HIS FATHER FOR OUR SINS Christ s whole life is an offering to the Father 606 The Son of God who came down from heaven not to do his own will but the will of him who sent him 413 said on coming into the world Lo I have come to do your will O God And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all 414 From the first moment of his Incarnation the Son embraces the Father s plan of divine salvation in his redemptive mission My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work 415 The sacrifice of Jesus for the sins of the whole world 416 expresses his loving communion with the Father The Father loves me because I lay down my life said the Lord for I do as the Father has commanded me so that the world may know that I love the Father 417 607 The desire to embrace his Father s plan of redeeming love inspired Jesus whole life 418 for his redemptive passion was the very reason for his Incarnation And so he asked And what shall I say Father save me from this hour No for this purpose I have come to this hour 419 And again Shall I not drink the cup which the Father has given me 420 From the cross just before It is finished he said I thirst 421 The Lamb who takes away the sin of the world 608 After agreeing to baptize him along with the sinners John the Baptist looked at Jesus and pointed him out as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world 422 By doing so he reveals that Jesus is at the same time the suffering Servant who silently allows himself to be led to the slaughter and who bears the sin of the multitudes and also the Paschal Lamb the symbol of Israel s redemption at the first Passover 423 Christ s whole life expresses his mission to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many 424 Jesus freely embraced the Father s redeeming love 609 By embracing in his human heart the Father s love for men Jesus loved them to the end for greater love has no man than this that a man lay down his life for his friends 425 In suffering and death his humanity became the free and perfect instrument of his divine love which desires the salvation of men 426 Indeed out of love for his Father and for men whom the Father wants to save Jesus freely accepted his Passion and death No one takes my life from me but I lay it down of my own accord 427 Hence the sovereign freedom of God s Son as he went out to his death 428 At the Last Supper Jesus anticipated the free offering of his life 610 Jesus gave the supreme expression of his free offering of himself at the meal shared with the twelve Apostles on the night he was betrayed 429 On the eve of his Passion while still free Jesus transformed this Last Supper with the apostles into the memorial of his voluntary offering to the Father for the salvation of men This is my body which is given for you This is my blood of the covenant which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins 430 611 The Eucharist that Christ institutes at that moment will be the memorial of his sacrifice 431 Jesus includes the apostles in his own offering and bids them perpetuate it 432 By doing so the Lord institutes his apostles as priests of the New Covenant For their sakes I sanctify myself so that they also may be sanctified in truth 433 The agony at Gethsemani 612 The cup of the New Covenant which Jesus anticipated when he offered himself at the Last Supper is afterwards accepted by him from his Father s hands in his

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    we might receive adoption as sons 1 This is the gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God 2 God has visited his people He has fulfilled the promise he made to Abraham and his descendants He acted far beyond all expectation he has sent his own beloved Son 3 423 We believe and confess that Jesus of Nazareth born a Jew of a daughter of Israel at Bethlehem at the time of King Herod the Great and the emperor Caesar Augustus a carpenter by trade who died crucified in Jerusalem under the procurator Pontius Pilate during the reign of the emperor Tiberius is the eternal Son of God made man He came from God 4 descended from heaven 5 and came in the flesh 6 For the Word became flesh and dwelt among us full of grace and truth we have beheld his glory glory as of the only Son from the Father And from his fullness have we all received grace upon grace 7 424 Moved by the grace of the Holy Spirit and drawn by the Father we believe in Jesus and confess You are the Christ the Son of the living God 8 On the rock

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    Catechism Church Fathers Most Collection Free eBooks Action Alert SOLIDARITY MONTH 10 is as good as 1 000 Help set a new record for the number of gifts this month Goal 1 000 769 to go Catechism of the Catholic Church To preach the unsearchable riches of Christ 10 425 The transmission of the Christian faith consists primarily in proclaiming Jesus Christ in order to lead others to faith in him From the beginning the first disciples burned with the desire to proclaim Christ We cannot but speak of what we have seen and heard 11 It And they invite people of every era to enter into the joy of their communion with Christ That which was from the beginning which we have heard which we have seen with our eyes which we have looked upon and touched with our hands concerning the word of life the life was made manifest and we saw it and testify to it and proclaim to you the eternal life which was with the Father and was made manifest to us that which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you so that you may have fellowship with us and our fellowship

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    a Person the Person of Jesus of Nazareth the only Son from the Father who suffered and died for us and who now after rising is living with us forever 13 To catechize is to reveal in the Person of Christ the whole of God s eternal design reaching fulfilment in that Person It is to seek to understand the meaning of Christ s actions and words and of the signs worked by him 14 Catechesis aims at putting people in communion with Jesus Christ only he can lead us to the love of the Father in the Spirit and make us share in the life of the Holy Trinity 15 427 In catechesis Christ the Incarnate Word and Son of God is taught everything else is taught with reference to him and it is Christ alone who teaches anyone else teaches to the extent that he is Christ s spokesman enabling Christ to teach with his lips Every catechist should be able to apply to himself the mysterious words of Jesus My teaching is not mine but his who sent me 16 428 Whoever is called to teach Christ must first seek the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus he must suffer the loss of all things in order to gain Christ and be found in him and to know him and the power of his resurrection and to share his sufferings becoming like him in his death that if possible he may attain the resurrection from the dead 17 429 From this loving knowledge of Christ springs the desire to proclaim him to evangelize and to lead others to the yes of faith in Jesus Christ But at the same time the need to know this faith better makes itself felt To this end following the order of

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    Israel 36 as its Messiah His works and words will manifest him as the Holy One of God 37 439 Many Jews and even certain Gentiles who shared their hope recognized in Jesus the fundamental attributes of the messianic Son of David promised by God to Israel 38 Jesus accepted his rightful title of Messiah though with some reserve because it was understood by some of his contemporaries in too human a sense as essentially political 39 440 Jesus accepted Peter s profession of faith which acknowledged him to be the Messiah by announcing the imminent Passion of the Son of Man 40 He unveiled the authentic content of his messianic kingship both in the transcendent identity of the Son of Man who came down from heaven and in his redemptive mission as the suffering Servant The Son of Man came not to be served but to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many 41 Hence the true meaning of his kingship is revealed only when he is raised high on the cross 42 Only after his Resurrection will Peter be able to proclaim Jesus messianic kingship to the People of God Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ this Jesus whom you crucified 43 III THE ONLY SON OF GOD 441 In the Old Testament son of God is a title given to the angels the Chosen People the children of Israel and their kings 44 It signifies an adoptive sonship that establishes a relationship of particular intimacy between God and his creature When the promised Messiah King is called son of God it does not necessarily imply that he was more than human according to the literal meaning of these texts Those who called Jesus son of God as the Messiah of Israel perhaps meant nothing more than this 45 442 Such is not the case for Simon Peter when he confesses Jesus as the Christ the Son of the living God for Jesus responds solemnly Flesh and blood has not revealed this to you but my Father who is in heaven 46 Similarly Paul will write regarding his conversion on the road to Damascus When he who had set me apart before I was born and had called me through his grace was pleased to reveal his Son to me in order that I might preach him among the Gentiles 47 And in the synagogues immediately Paul proclaimed Jesus saying He is the Son of God 48 From the beginning this acknowledgment of Christ s divine sonship will be the centre of the apostolic faith first professed by Peter as the Church s foundation 49 443 Peter could recognize the transcendent character of the Messiah s divine sonship because Jesus had clearly allowed it to be so understood To his accusers question before the Sanhedrin Are you the Son of God then Jesus answered You say that I am 50 Well before

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