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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    a voice from heaven says This is my Son my Chosen listen to him 294 555 For a moment Jesus discloses his divine glory confirming Peter s confession He also reveals that he will have to go by the way of the cross at Jerusalem in order to enter into his glory 295 Moses and Elijah had seen God s glory on the Mountain the Law and the Prophets had announced the Messiah s sufferings 296 Christ s Passion is the will of the Father the Son acts as God s servant 297 the cloud indicates the presence of the Holy Spirit The whole Trinity appeared the Father in the voice the Son in the man the Spirit in the shining cloud 298 You were transfigured on the mountain and your disciples as much as they were capable of it beheld your glory O Christ our God so that when they should see you crucified they would understand that your Passion was voluntary and proclaim to the world that you truly are the splendour of the Father 299 556 On the threshold of the public life the baptism on the threshold of the Passover the Transfiguration Jesus baptism proclaimed the mystery of the first regeneration namely our Baptism the Transfiguration is the sacrament of the second regeneration our own Resurrection 300 From now on we share in the Lord s Resurrection through the Spirit who acts in the sacraments of the Body of Christ The Transfiguration gives us a foretaste of Christ s glorious coming when he will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body 301 But it also recalls that it is through many persecutions that we must enter the kingdom of God 302 Peter did not yet understand this when he wanted to remain with

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    Feeds Contact Us Advertise Subscribe Login Donate Resources Home Library Website Reviews What You Need to Know Catholic Dictionary Catechism Church Fathers Most Collection Free eBooks Catechism of the Catholic Church Jesus ascent to Jerusalem 557 When the days drew near for him to be taken up Jesus set his face to go to Jerusalem 304 By this decision he indicated that he was going up to Jerusalem prepared to die there Three times he had announced his Passion and Resurrection now heading toward Jerusalem Jesus says It cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem 305 558 Jesus recalls the martyrdom of the prophets who had been put to death in Jerusalem Nevertheless he persists in calling Jerusalem to gather around him How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings and you would not 306 When Jerusalem comes into view he weeps over her and expresses once again his heart s desire Would that even today you knew the things that make for peace But now they are hid from your eyes 307 Notes 304 Lk 9 51 cf Jn 13 1 305 Lk 13 33 cf

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    of the Eucharistic liturgy that introduces the memorial of the Lord s Passover 560 Jesus entry into Jerusalem manifested the coming of the kingdom that the King Messiah was going to accomplish by the Passover of his Death and Resurrection It is with the celebration of that entry on Palm Sunday that the Church s liturgy solemnly opens Holy Week IN BRIEF 561 The whole of Christ s life was a continual teaching his silences his miracles his gestures his prayer his love for people his special affection for the little and the poor his acceptance of the total sacrifice on the Cross for the redemption of the world and his Resurrection are the actualization of his word and the fulfilment of Revelation John Paul II CT 9 562 Christ s disciples are to conform themselves to him until he is formed in them cf Gal 4 19 For this reason we who have been made like to him who have died with him and risen with him are taken up into the mysteries of his life until we reign together with him LG 4 563 No one whether shepherd or wise man can approach God here below except by kneeling before the manger at Bethlehem and adoring him hidden in the weakness of a new born child 564 By his obedience to Mary and Joseph as well as by his humble work during the long years in Nazareth Jesus gives us the example of holiness in the daily life of family and work 565 From the beginning of his public life at his baptism Jesus is the Servant wholly consecrated to the redemptive work that he will accomplish by the baptism of his Passion 566 The temptation in the desert shows Jesus the humble Messiah who triumphs over Satan

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    destruction of this splendid building of which there would not remain one stone upon another 356 By doing so he announced a sign of the last days which were to begin with his own Passover 357 But this prophecy would be distorted in its telling by false witnesses during his interrogation at the high priest s house and would be thrown back at him as an insult when he was nailed to the cross 358 586 Far from having been hostile to the Temple where he gave the essential part of his teaching Jesus was willing to pay the Temple tax associating with him Peter whom he had just made the foundation of his future Church 359 He even identified himself with the Temple by presenting himself as God s definitive dwelling place among men 360 Therefore his being put to bodily death 361 presaged the destruction of the Temple which would manifest the dawning of a new age in the history of salvation The hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father 362 III JESUS AND ISRAEL S FAITH IN THE ONE GOD AND SAVIOUR 587 If the Law and the Jerusalem Temple could be occasions of opposition to Jesus by Israel s religious authorities his role in the redemption of sins the divine work par excellence was the true stumbling block for them 363 588 Jesus scandalized the Pharisees by eating with tax collectors and sinners as familiarly as with themselves 364 Against those among them who trusted in themselves that they were righteous and despised others Jesus affirmed I have not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance 365 He went further by proclaiming before the Pharisees that since sin is universal those who pretend not to need salvation are blind to themselves 366 589 Jesus gave scandal above all when he identified his merciful conduct toward sinners with God s own attitude toward them 367 He went so far as to hint that by sharing the table of sinners he was admitting them to the messianic banquet 368 But it was most especially by forgiving sins that Jesus placed the religious authorities of Israel on the horns of a dilemma Were they not entitled to demand in consternation Who can forgive sins but God alone 369 By forgiving sins Jesus either is blaspheming as a man who made himself God s equal or is speaking the truth and his person really does make present and reveal God s name 370 590 Only the divine identity of Jesus person can justify so absolute a claim as He who is not with me is against me and his saying that there was in him something greater than Jonah greater than Solomon something greater than the Temple his reminder that David had called the Messiah his Lord 371 and his affirmations Before Abraham was I AM and even I and the Father are one 372 591 Jesus asked the religious authorities of Jerusalem to believe in him because of the Father s works which he accomplished 373 But such an act of faith must go through a mysterious death to self for a new birth from above under the influence of divine grace 374 Such a demand for conversion in the face of so surprising a fulfilment of the promises 375 allows one to understand the Sanhedrin s tragic misunderstanding of Jesus they judged that he deserved the death sentence as a blasphemer 376 The members of the Sanhedrin were thus acting at the same time out of ignorance and the hardness of their unbelief 377 IN BRIEF 592 Jesus did not abolish the Law of Sinai but rather fulfilled it cf Mt 5 17 19 with such perfection cf Jn 8 46 that he revealed its ultimate meaning cf Mt 5 33 and redeemed the transgressions against it cf Heb 9 15 593 Jesus venerated the Temple by going up to it for the Jewish feasts of pilgrimage and with a jealous love he loved this dwelling of God among men The Temple prefigures his own mystery When he announces its destruction it is as a manifestation of his own execution and of the entry into a new age in the history of salvation when his Body would be the definitive Temple 594 Jesus performed acts such as pardoning sins that manifested him to be the Saviour God himself cf Jn 5 16 18 Certain Jews who did not recognize God made man cf Jn 1 14 saw in him only a man who made himself God Jn 10 33 and judged him as a blasphemer Paragraph 2 Jesus Died Crucified I THE TRIAL OF JESUS Divisions among the Jewish authorities concerning Jesus 595 Among the religious authorities of Jerusalem not only were the Pharisee Nicodemus and the prominent Joseph of Arimathea both secret disciples of Jesus but there was also long standing dissension about him so much so that St John says of these authorities on the very eve of Christ s Passion many believed in him though very imperfectly 378 This is not surprising if one recalls that on the day after Pentecost a great many of the priests were obedient to the faith and some believers belonged to the party of the Pharisees to the point that St James could tell St Paul How many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed and they are all zealous for the Law 379 596 The religious authorities in Jerusalem were not unanimous about what stance to take towards Jesus 380 The Pharisees threatened to excommunicate his followers 381 To those who feared that everyone will believe in him and the Romans will come and destroy both our holy place and our nation the high priest Caiaphas replied by prophesying It is expedient for you that one man should die for the people and that the whole nation should not perish 382 The Sanhedrin having declared Jesus deserving of death as a blasphemer but having lost the right to put anyone to death hands him over to the Romans accusing him of political revolt a charge that puts him in the same category as Barabbas who had been accused of sedition 383 The chief priests also threatened Pilate politically so that he would condemn Jesus to death 384 Jews are not collectively responsible for Jesus death 597 The historical complexity of Jesus trial is apparent in the Gospel accounts The personal sin of the participants Judas the Sanhedrin Pilate is known to God alone Hence we cannot lay responsibility for the trial on the Jews in Jerusalem as a whole despite the outcry of a manipulated crowd and the global reproaches contained in the apostles calls to conversion after Pentecost 385 Jesus himself in forgiving them on the cross and Peter in following suit both accept the ignorance of the Jews of Jerusalem and even of their leaders 386 Still less can we extend responsibility to other Jews of different times and places based merely on the crowd s cry His blood be on us and on our children a formula for ratifying a judicial sentence 387 As the Church declared at the Second Vatican Council neither all Jews indiscriminately at that time nor Jews today can be charged with the crimes committed during his Passion the Jews should not be spoken of as rejected or accursed as if this followed from holy Scripture 388 All sinners were the authors of Christ s Passion 598 In her Magisterial teaching of the faith and in the witness of her saints the Church has never forgotten that sinners were the authors and the ministers of all the sufferings that the divine Redeemer endured 389 Taking into account the fact that our sins affect Christ himself 390 the Church does not hesitate to impute to Christians the gravest responsibility for the torments inflicted upon Jesus a responsibility with which they have all too often burdened the Jews alone We must regard as guilty all those who continue to relapse into their sins Since our sins made the Lord Christ suffer the torment of the cross those who plunge themselves into disorders and crimes crucify the Son of God anew in their hearts for he is in them and hold him up to contempt And it can be seen that our crime in this case is greater in us than in the Jews As for them according to the witness of the Apostle None of the rulers of this age understood this for if they had they would not have crucified the Lord of glory We however profess to know him And when we deny him by our deeds we in some way seem to lay violent hands on him 391 Nor did demons crucify him it is you who have crucified him and crucify him still when you delight in your vices and sins 392 II CHRIST S REDEMPTIVE DEATH IN GOD S PLAN OF SALVATION Jesus handed over according to the definite plan of God 599 Jesus violent death was not the result of chance in an unfortunate coincidence of circumstances but is part of the mystery of God s plan as St Peter explains to the Jews of Jerusalem in his first sermon on Pentecost This Jesus was delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God 393 This Biblical language does not mean that those who handed him over were merely passive players in a scenario written in advance by God 394 600 To God all moments of time are present in their immediacy When therefore he establishes his eternal plan of predestination he includes in it each person s free response to his grace In this city in fact both Herod and Pontius Pilate with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel gathered together against your holy servant Jesus whom you anointed to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place 395 For the sake of accomplishing his plan of salvation God permitted the acts that flowed from their blindness 396 He died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures 601 The Scriptures had foretold this divine plan of salvation through the putting to death of the righteous one my Servant as a mystery of universal redemption that is as the ransom that would free men from the slavery of sin 397 Citing a confession of faith that he himself had received St Paul professes that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures 398 In particular Jesus redemptive death fulfils Isaiah s prophecy of the suffering Servant 399 Indeed Jesus himself explained the meaning of his life and death in the light of God s suffering Servant 400 After his Resurrection he gave this interpretation of the Scriptures to the disciples at Emmaus and then to the apostles 401 For our sake God made him to be sin 602 Consequently St Peter can formulate the apostolic faith in the divine plan of salvation in this way You were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your fathers with the precious blood of Christ like that of a lamb without blemish or spot He was destined before the foundation of the world but was made manifest at the end of the times for your sake 402 Man s sins following on original sin are punishable by death 403 By sending his own Son in the form of a slave in the form of a fallen humanity on account of sin God made him to be sin who knew no sin so that in him we might become the righteousness of God 404 603 Jesus did not experience reprobation as if he himself had sinned 405 But in the redeeming love that always united him to the Father he assumed us in the state of our waywardness of sin to the point that he could say in our name from the cross My God my God why have you forsaken me 406 Having thus established him in solidarity with us sinners God did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all so that we might be reconciled to God by the death of his Son 407 God takes the initiative of universal redeeming love 604 By giving up his own Son for our sins God manifests that his plan for us is one of benevolent love prior to any merit on our part In this is love not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins 408 God shows his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us 409 605 At the end of the parable of the lost sheep Jesus recalled that God s love excludes no one So it is not the will of your Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish 410 He affirms that he came to give his life as a ransom for many this last term is not restrictive but contrasts the whole of humanity with the unique person of the redeemer who hands himself over to save us 411 The Church following the apostles teaches that Christ died for all men without exception There is not never has been and never will be a single human being for whom Christ did not suffer 412 III CHRIST OFFERED HIMSELF TO HIS FATHER FOR OUR SINS Christ s whole life is an offering to the Father 606 The Son of God who came down from heaven not to do his own will but the will of him who sent him 413 said on coming into the world Lo I have come to do your will O God And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all 414 From the first moment of his Incarnation the Son embraces the Father s plan of divine salvation in his redemptive mission My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work 415 The sacrifice of Jesus for the sins of the whole world 416 expresses his loving communion with the Father The Father loves me because I lay down my life said the Lord for I do as the Father has commanded me so that the world may know that I love the Father 417 607 The desire to embrace his Father s plan of redeeming love inspired Jesus whole life 418 for his redemptive passion was the very reason for his Incarnation And so he asked And what shall I say Father save me from this hour No for this purpose I have come to this hour 419 And again Shall I not drink the cup which the Father has given me 420 From the cross just before It is finished he said I thirst 421 The Lamb who takes away the sin of the world 608 After agreeing to baptize him along with the sinners John the Baptist looked at Jesus and pointed him out as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world 422 By doing so he reveals that Jesus is at the same time the suffering Servant who silently allows himself to be led to the slaughter and who bears the sin of the multitudes and also the Paschal Lamb the symbol of Israel s redemption at the first Passover 423 Christ s whole life expresses his mission to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many 424 Jesus freely embraced the Father s redeeming love 609 By embracing in his human heart the Father s love for men Jesus loved them to the end for greater love has no man than this that a man lay down his life for his friends 425 In suffering and death his humanity became the free and perfect instrument of his divine love which desires the salvation of men 426 Indeed out of love for his Father and for men whom the Father wants to save Jesus freely accepted his Passion and death No one takes my life from me but I lay it down of my own accord 427 Hence the sovereign freedom of God s Son as he went out to his death 428 At the Last Supper Jesus anticipated the free offering of his life 610 Jesus gave the supreme expression of his free offering of himself at the meal shared with the twelve Apostles on the night he was betrayed 429 On the eve of his Passion while still free Jesus transformed this Last Supper with the apostles into the memorial of his voluntary offering to the Father for the salvation of men This is my body which is given for you This is my blood of the covenant which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins 430 611 The Eucharist that Christ institutes at that moment will be the memorial of his sacrifice 431 Jesus includes the apostles in his own offering and bids them perpetuate it 432 By doing so the Lord institutes his apostles as priests of the New Covenant For their sakes I sanctify myself so that they also may be sanctified in truth 433 The agony at Gethsemani 612 The cup of the New Covenant which Jesus anticipated when he offered himself at the Last Supper is afterwards accepted by him from his Father s hands in his agony in the garden at Gethsemani 434 making himself obedient unto death Jesus prays My Father if it be possible let this cup pass from me 435 Thus he expresses the horror that death represented for his human nature Like ours his human nature is destined for eternal life but unlike ours it is perfectly exempt from sin

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    the Law and do them for his death took place to redeem them from the transgressions under the first covenant 339 581 The Jewish people and their spiritual leaders viewed Jesus as a rabbi 340 He often argued within the framework of rabbinical interpretation of the Law 341 Yet Jesus could not help but offend the teachers of the Law for he was not content to propose his interpretation alongside theirs but taught the people as one who had authority and not as their scribes 342 In Jesus the same Word of God that had resounded on Mount Sinai to give the written Law to Moses made itself heard anew on the Mount of the Beatitudes 343 Jesus did not abolish the Law but fulfilled it by giving its ultimate interpretation in a divine way You have heard that it was said to the men of old But I say to you 344 With this same divine authority he disavowed certain human traditions of the Pharisees that were making void the word of God 345 582 Going even further Jesus perfects the dietary law so important in Jewish daily life by revealing its pedagogical meaning through a divine interpretation Whatever goes into a man from outside cannot defile him Thus he declared all foods clean What comes out of a man is what defiles a man For from within out of the heart of man come evil thoughts 346 In presenting with divine authority the definitive interpretation of the Law Jesus found himself confronted by certain teachers of the Law who did not accept his interpretation of the Law guaranteed though it was by the divine signs that accompanied it 347 This was the case especially with the sabbath laws for he recalls often with rabbinical arguments that the sabbath rest is not violated by serving God and neighbour 348 which his own healings did II JESUS AND THE TEMPLE 583 Like the prophets before him Jesus expressed the deepest respect for the Temple in Jerusalem It was in the Temple that Joseph and Mary presented him forty days after his birth 349 At the age of twelve he decided to remain in the Temple to remind his parents that he must be about his Father s business 350 He went there each year during his hidden life at least for Passover 351 His public ministry itself was patterned by his pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the great Jewish feasts 352 584 Jesus went up to the Temple as the privileged place of encounter with God For him the Temple was the dwelling of his Father a house of prayer and he was angered that its outer court had become a place of commerce 353 He drove merchants out of it because of jealous love for his Father You shall not make my Father s house a house of trade His disciples remembered that it was written Zeal for your house will consume me 354 After his Resurrection his apostles retained

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    He is in fact the only one who could keep it perfectly 331 On their own admission the Jews were never able to observe the Law in its entirety without violating the least of its precepts 332 This is why every year on the Day of Atonement the children of Israel ask God s forgiveness for their transgressions of the Law The Law indeed makes up one inseparable whole and St James recalls Whoever keeps the whole law but fails in one point has become guilty of all of it 333 579 This principle of integral observance of the Law not only in letter but in spirit was dear to the Pharisees By giving Israel this principle they had led many Jews of Jesus time to an extreme religious zeal 334 This zeal were it not to lapse into hypocritical casuistry 335 could only prepare the People for the unprecedented intervention of God through the perfect fulfilment of the Law by the only Righteous One in place of all sinners 336 580 The perfect fulfilment of the Law could be the work of none but the divine legislator born subject to the Law in the person of the Son 337 In Jesus the Law no longer appears engraved on tables of stone but upon the heart of the Servant who becomes a covenant to the people because he will faithfully bring forth justice 338 Jesus fulfils the Law to the point of taking upon himself the curse of the Law incurred by those who do not abide by the things written in the book of the Law and do them for his death took place to redeem them from the transgressions under the first covenant 339 581 The Jewish people and their spiritual leaders viewed Jesus as a rabbi 340 He often argued within the framework of rabbinical interpretation of the Law 341 Yet Jesus could not help but offend the teachers of the Law for he was not content to propose his interpretation alongside theirs but taught the people as one who had authority and not as their scribes 342 In Jesus the same Word of God that had resounded on Mount Sinai to give the written Law to Moses made itself heard anew on the Mount of the Beatitudes 343 Jesus did not abolish the Law but fulfilled it by giving its ultimate interpretation in a divine way You have heard that it was said to the men of old But I say to you 344 With this same divine authority he disavowed certain human traditions of the Pharisees that were making void the word of God 345 582 Going even further Jesus perfects the dietary law so important in Jewish daily life by revealing its pedagogical meaning through a divine interpretation Whatever goes into a man from outside cannot defile him Thus he declared all foods clean What comes out of a man is what defiles a man For from within out of the heart of man

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    by his pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the great Jewish feasts 352 584 Jesus went up to the Temple as the privileged place of encounter with God For him the Temple was the dwelling of his Father a house of prayer and he was angered that its outer court had become a place of commerce 353 He drove merchants out of it because of jealous love for his Father You shall not make my Father s house a house of trade His disciples remembered that it was written Zeal for your house will consume me 354 After his Resurrection his apostles retained their reverence for the Temple 355 585 On the threshold of his Passion Jesus announced the coming destruction of this splendid building of which there would not remain one stone upon another 356 By doing so he announced a sign of the last days which were to begin with his own Passover 357 But this prophecy would be distorted in its telling by false witnesses during his interrogation at the high priest s house and would be thrown back at him as an insult when he was nailed to the cross 358 586 Far from having been hostile to the Temple where he gave the essential part of his teaching Jesus was willing to pay the Temple tax associating with him Peter whom he had just made the foundation of his future Church 359 He even identified himself with the Temple by presenting himself as God s definitive dwelling place among men 360 Therefore his being put to bodily death 361 presaged the destruction of the Temple which would manifest the dawning of a new age in the history of salvation The hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father 362

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    of a dilemma Were they not entitled to demand in consternation Who can forgive sins but God alone 369 By forgiving sins Jesus either is blaspheming as a man who made himself God s equal or is speaking the truth and his person really does make present and reveal God s name 370 590 Only the divine identity of Jesus person can justify so absolute a claim as He who is not with me is against me and his saying that there was in him something greater than Jonah greater than Solomon something greater than the Temple his reminder that David had called the Messiah his Lord 371 and his affirmations Before Abraham was I AM and even I and the Father are one 372 591 Jesus asked the religious authorities of Jerusalem to believe in him because of the Father s works which he accomplished 373 But such an act of faith must go through a mysterious death to self for a new birth from above under the influence of divine grace 374 Such a demand for conversion in the face of so surprising a fulfilment of the promises 375 allows one to understand the Sanhedrin s tragic misunderstanding of Jesus they judged that he deserved the death sentence as a blasphemer 376 The members of the Sanhedrin were thus acting at the same time out of ignorance and the hardness of their unbelief 377 IN BRIEF 592 Jesus did not abolish the Law of Sinai but rather fulfilled it cf Mt 5 17 19 with such perfection cf Jn 8 46 that he revealed its ultimate meaning cf Mt 5 33 and redeemed the transgressions against it cf Heb 9 15 593 Jesus venerated the Temple by going up to it for the Jewish feasts of pilgrimage and

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