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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    of gifts this month Goal 1 000 769 to go Catechism of the Catholic Church III THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SINS 1852 There are a great many kinds of sins Scripture provides several lists of them The Letter to the Galatians contrasts the works of the flesh with the fruit of the Spirit Now the works of the flesh are plain fornication impurity licentiousness idolatry sorcery enmity strife jealousy anger selfishness dissension factions envy drunkenness carousing and the like I warn you as I warned you before that those who do such things shall not inherit the Kingdom of God 127 1853 Sins can be distinguished according to their objects as can every human act or according to the virtues they oppose by excess or defect or according to the commandments they violate They can also be classed according to whether they concern God neighbor or oneself they can be divided into spiritual and carnal sins or again as sins in thought word deed or omission The root of sin is in the heart of man in his free will according to the teaching of the Lord For out of the heart come evil thoughts murder adultery fornication theft false

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    or adultery But when the sinner s will is set upon something that of its nature involves a disorder but is not opposed to the love of God and neighbor such as thoughtless chatter or immoderate laughter and the like such sins are venial 130 1857 For a sin to be mortal three conditions must together be met Mortal sin is sin whose object is grave matter and which is also committed with full knowledge and deliberate consent 131 1858 Grave matter is specified by the Ten Commandments corresponding to the answer of Jesus to the rich young man Do not kill Do not commit adultery Do not steal Do not bear false witness Do not defraud Honor your father and your mother 132 The gravity of sins is more or less great murder is graver than theft One must also take into account who is wronged violence against parents is in itself graver than violence against a stranger 1859 Mortal sin requires full knowledge and complete consent It presupposes knowledge of the sinful character of the act of its opposition to God s law It also implies a consent sufficiently deliberate to be a personal choice Feigned ignorance and hardness of heart 133 do not diminish but rather increase the voluntary character of a sin 1860 Unintentional ignorance can diminish or even remove the imputability of a grave offense But no one is deemed to be ignorant of the principles of the moral law which are written in the conscience of every man The promptings of feelings and passions can also diminish the voluntary and free character of the offense as can external pressures or pathological disorders Sin committed through malice by deliberate choice of evil is the gravest 1861 Mortal sin is a radical possibility of human freedom as is love itself It results in the loss of charity and the privation of sanctifying grace that is of the state of grace If it is not redeemed by repentance and God s forgiveness it causes exclusion from Christ s kingdom and the eternal death of hell for our freedom has the power to make choices for ever with no turning back However although we can judge that an act is in itself a grave offense we must entrust judgment of persons to the justice and mercy of God 1862 One commits venial sin when in a less serious matter he does not observe the standard prescribed by the moral law or when he disobeys the moral law in a grave matter but without full knowledge or without complete consent 1863 Venial sin weakens charity it manifests a disordered affection for created goods it impedes the soul s progress in the exercise of the virtues and the practice of the moral good it merits temporal punishment Deliberate and unrepented venial sin disposes us little by little to commit mortal sin However venial sin does not break the covenant with God With God s grace it is humanly reparable Venial

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    2 8 GS 17 9 GS 16 10 GS 13 1 11 GS 13 2 12 Mt 5 3 12 13 St Augustine De moribus eccl 1 3 4 PL 32 1312 14 St Augustine Conf 10 20 PL 32 791 15 St Thomas Aquinas Expos in symb apost I 16 Cf Mt 4 17 17 Mt 5 8 cf I Jn 2 I Cor 13 12 18 Mt 25 21 23 19 Cf Heb 4 7 11 20 St Augustine De civ Dei 22 30 5 PL 41 804 21 2 Pet 1 4 cf Jn 17 3 22 Cf Rom 8 18 23 St Irenaeus Adv haeres 4 20 5 PG 7 1 1034 1035 24 John Henry Cardinal Newman Saintliness the Standard of Christian Principle in Discourses to Mixed Congregations London Longmans Green and Co 1906 V 89 90 25 Cf the parable of the sower Mt 13 3 23 26 GS 17 Sir 15 14 27 St Irenaeus Adv haeres 4 4 3 PG 7 1 983 28 Cf Rom 6 17 29 Gen 3 13 30 Cf Gen 4 10 31 Cf 2 Sam 12 7 15 32 Cf DH 2 7 33 CDF instruction Libertatis conscientia 13 34 Gal 5 1 35 Cf Jn 8 32 36 2 Cor 3 17 37 Rom 8 21 38 Roman Missal 32nd Sunday Opening Prayer Omnipotens et misericors Deus universa nobis adversantia propitiatus exclude ut mente et corpore pariter expediti quae tua sunt liberis mentibus exsequamur 39 Cf Mt 6 24 40 Cf Mk 7 21 41 St Thomas Aquinas STh I II 26 4 corp art 42 Cf St Augustine De Trin 8 3 4 PL 42 949 950 43 St Augustine De civ Dei 14 7 2 PL 41 410 44 St Thomas Aquinas STh I II 24 1 corp art 45 Cf St Thomas Aquinas STh I II 24 3 46 Ps 84 2 47 GS 16 48 Cf Rom 2 14 16 49 Cf Rom 1 32 50 John Henry Cardinal Newman Letter to the Duke of Norfolk V in Certain Difficulties felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching II London Longmans Green 1885 248 51 St Augustine In ep Jo 8 9 PL 35 2041 52 I Jn 3 19 20 53 DH 3 2 54 Cf Ps 119 105 55 Cf DH 14 56 Mt 7 12 cf Lk 6 31 Tob 4 15 57 I Cor 8 12 58 Rom 14 21 59 GS 16 60 I Tim 5 cf 8 9 2 Tim 3 I Pet 3 21 Acts 24 16 61 GS 16 62 Phil 4 8 63 St Gregory of Nyssa De beatitudinibus 1 PG 44 1200D 64 Wis 8 7 65 Prov 14 15 66 I Pet 4 7 67 St Thomas Aquinas STh II II 47 2 68 Lev 19 15 69 Col 4 1 70 Ps 118 14 71 Jn 16 33 72 Sir 5 2 cf 37 27 31 73 Sir 18 30 74

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    of a kind of violence 22 1903 Authority is exercised legitimately only when it seeks the common good of the group concerned and if it employs morally licit means to attain it If rulers were to enact unjust laws or take measures contrary to the moral order such arrangements would not be binding in conscience In such a case authority breaks down completely and results in shameful abuse 23 1904 It is preferable that each power be balanced by other powers and by other spheres of responsibility which keep it within proper bounds This is the principle of the rule of law in which the law is sovereign and not the arbitrary will of men 24 II THE COMMON GOOD 1905 In keeping with the social nature of man the good of each individual is necessarily related to the common good which in turn can be defined only in reference to the human person Do not live entirely isolated having retreated into yourselves as if you were already justified but gather instead to seek the common good together 25 1906 By common good is to be understood the sum total of social conditions which allow people either as groups or as individuals to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily 26 The common good concerns the life of all It calls for prudence from each and even more from those who exercise the office of authority It consists of three essential elements 1907 First the common good presupposes respect for the person as such In the name of the common good public authorities are bound to respect the fundamental and inalienable rights of the human person Society should permit each of its members to fulfill his vocation In particular the common good resides in the conditions for the exercise of the natural freedoms indispensable for the development of the human vocation such as the right to act according to a sound norm of conscience and to safeguard privacy and rightful freedom also in matters of religion 27 1908 Second the common good requires the social well being and development of the group itself Development is the epitome of all social duties Certainly it is the proper function of authority to arbitrate in the name of the common good between various particular interests but it should make accessible to each what is needed to lead a truly human life food clothing health work education and culture suitable information the right to establish a family and so on 28 1909 Finally the common good requires peace that is the stability and security of a just order It presupposes that authority should ensure by morally acceptable means the security of society and its members It is the basis of the right to legitimate personal and collective defence 1910 Each human community possesses a common good which permits it to be recognized as such it is in the political community that its most complete realization is found It is the role of the state to defend and promote the common good of civil society its citizens and intermediate bodies 1911 Human interdependence is increasing and gradually spreading throughout the world The unity of the human family embracing people who enjoy equal natural dignity implies a universal common good This good calls for an organization of the community of nations able to provide for the different needs of men this will involve the sphere of social life to which belong questions of food hygiene education and certain situations arising here and there as for example alleviating the miseries of refugees dispersed throughout the world and assisting migrants and their families 29 1912 The common good is always oriented towards the progress of persons The order of things must be subordinate to the order of persons and not the other way around 30 This order is founded on truth built up in justice and animated by love III RESPONSIBILITY AND PARTICIPATION 1913 Participation is the voluntary and generous engagement of a person in social interchange It is necessary that all participate each according to his position and role in promoting the common good This obligation is inherent in the dignity of the human person 1914 Participation is achieved first of all by taking charge of the areas for which one assumes personal responsibility by the care taken for the education of his family by conscientious work and so forth man participates in the good of others and of society 31 1915 As far as possible citizens should take an active part in public life The manner of this participation may vary from one country or culture to another One must pay tribute to those nations whose systems permit the largest possible number of the citizens to take part in public life in a climate of genuine freedom 32 1916 As with any ethical obligation the participation of all in realizing the common good calls for a continually renewed conversion of the social partners Fraud and other subterfuges by which some people evade the constraints of the law and the prescriptions of societal obligation must be firmly condemned because they are incompatible with the requirements of justice Much care should be taken to promote institutions that improve the conditions of human life 33 1917 It is incumbent on those who exercise authority to strengthen the values that inspire the confidence of the members of the group and encourage them to put themselves at the service of others Participation begins with education and culture One is entitled to think that the future of humanity is in the hands of those who are capable of providing the generations to come with reasons for life and optimism 34 IN BRIEF 1918 There is no authority except from God and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God Rom 13 1 1919 Every human community needs an authority in order to endure and develop 1920 The political community and public authority are based on human nature and therefore belong

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    5 This socialization also expresses the natural tendency for human beings to associate with one another for the sake of attaining objectives that exceed individual capacities It develops the qualities of the person especially the sense of initiative and responsibility and helps guarantee his rights 6 1883 Socialization also presents dangers Excessive intervention by the state can threaten personal freedom and initiative The teaching of the Church has elaborated the principle of subsidiarity according to which a community of a higher order should not interfere in the internal life of a community of a lower order depriving the latter of its functions but rather should support it in case of need and help to co ordinate its activity with the activities of the rest of society always with a view to the common good 7 1884 God has not willed to reserve to himself all exercise of power He entrusts to every creature the functions it is capable of performing according to the capacities of its own nature This mode of governance ought to be followed in social life The way God acts in governing the world which bears witness to such great regard for human freedom should inspire the wisdom of those who govern human communities They should behave as ministers of divine providence 1885 The principle of subsidiarity is opposed to all forms of collectivism It sets limits for state intervention It aims at harmonizing the relationships between individuals and societies It tends toward the establishment of true international order II CONVERSION AND SOCIETY 1886 Society is essential to the fulfillment of the human vocation To attain this aim respect must be accorded to the just hierarchy of values which subordinates physical and instinctual dimensions to interior and spiritual ones 8 Human society must primarily be considered something pertaining to the spiritual Through it in the bright light of truth men should share their knowledge be able to exercise their rights and fulfill their obligations be inspired to seek spiritual values mutually derive genuine pleasure from the beautiful of whatever order it be always be readily disposed to pass on to others the best of their own cultural heritage and eagerly strive to make their own the spiritual achievements of others These benefits not only influence but at the same time give aim and scope to all that has bearing on cultural expressions economic and social institutions political movements and forms laws and all other structures by which society is outwardly established and constantly developed 9 1887 The inversion of means and ends 10 which results in giving the value of ultimate end to what is only a means for attaining it or in viewing persons as mere means to that end engenders unjust structures which make Christian conduct in keeping with the commandments of the divine Law giver difficult and almost impossible 11 1888 It is necessary then to appeal to the spiritual and moral capacities of the human person and to the permanent need for his

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    is at once visible and spiritual a society endures through time it gathers up the past and prepares for the future By means of society each man is established as an heir and receives certain talents that enrich his identity and whose fruits he must develop 3 He rightly owes loyalty to the communities of which he is part and respect to those in authority who have charge of the common good 1881 Each community is defined by its purpose and consequently obeys specific rules but the human person is and ought to be the principle the subject and the end of all social institutions 4 1882 Certain societies such as the family and the state correspond more directly to the nature of man they are necessary to him To promote the participation of the greatest number in the life of a society the creation of voluntary associations and institutions must be encouraged on both national and international levels which relate to economic and social goals to cultural and recreational activities to sport to various professions and to political affairs 5 This socialization also expresses the natural tendency for human beings to associate with one another for the sake of attaining objectives that exceed individual capacities It develops the qualities of the person especially the sense of initiative and responsibility and helps guarantee his rights 6 1883 Socialization also presents dangers Excessive intervention by the state can threaten personal freedom and initiative The teaching of the Church has elaborated the principle of subsidiarity according to which a community of a higher order should not interfere in the internal life of a community of a lower order depriving the latter of its functions but rather should support it in case of need and help to co ordinate its activity with the

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    and scope to all that has bearing on cultural expressions economic and social institutions political movements and forms laws and all other structures by which society is outwardly established and constantly developed 9 1887 The inversion of means and ends 10 which results in giving the value of ultimate end to what is only a means for attaining it or in viewing persons as mere means to that end engenders unjust structures which make Christian conduct in keeping with the commandments of the divine Law giver difficult and almost impossible 11 1888 It is necessary then to appeal to the spiritual and moral capacities of the human person and to the permanent need for his inner conversion so as to obtain social changes that will really serve him The acknowledged priority of the conversion of heart in no way eliminates but on the contrary imposes the obligation of bringing the appropriate remedies to institutions and living conditions when they are an inducement to sin so that they conform to the norms of justice and advance the good rather than hinder it 12 1889 Without the help of grace men would not know how to discern the often narrow path between the cowardice which gives in to evil and the violence which under the illusion of fighting evil only makes it worse 13 This is the path of charity that is of the love of God and of neighbor Charity is the greatest social commandment It respects others and their rights It requires the practice of justice and it alone makes us capable of it Charity inspires a life of self giving Whoever seeks to gain his life will lose it but whoever loses his life will preserve it 14 IN BRIEF 1890 There is a certain resemblance between the unity

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  • Catechism of the Catholic Church | Catholic Culture
    within proper bounds This is the principle of the rule of law in which the law is sovereign and not the arbitrary will of men 24 II THE COMMON GOOD 1905 In keeping with the social nature of man the good of each individual is necessarily related to the common good which in turn can be defined only in reference to the human person Do not live entirely isolated having retreated into yourselves as if you were already justified but gather instead to seek the common good together 25 1906 By common good is to be understood the sum total of social conditions which allow people either as groups or as individuals to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily 26 The common good concerns the life of all It calls for prudence from each and even more from those who exercise the office of authority It consists of three essential elements 1907 First the common good presupposes respect for the person as such In the name of the common good public authorities are bound to respect the fundamental and inalienable rights of the human person Society should permit each of its members to fulfill his vocation In particular the common good resides in the conditions for the exercise of the natural freedoms indispensable for the development of the human vocation such as the right to act according to a sound norm of conscience and to safeguard privacy and rightful freedom also in matters of religion 27 1908 Second the common good requires the social well being and development of the group itself Development is the epitome of all social duties Certainly it is the proper function of authority to arbitrate in the name of the common good between various particular interests but it should make accessible to each what is needed to lead a truly human life food clothing health work education and culture suitable information the right to establish a family and so on 28 1909 Finally the common good requires peace that is the stability and security of a just order It presupposes that authority should ensure by morally acceptable means the security of society and its members It is the basis of the right to legitimate personal and collective defence 1910 Each human community possesses a common good which permits it to be recognized as such it is in the political community that its most complete realization is found It is the role of the state to defend and promote the common good of civil society its citizens and intermediate bodies 1911 Human interdependence is increasing and gradually spreading throughout the world The unity of the human family embracing people who enjoy equal natural dignity implies a universal common good This good calls for an organization of the community of nations able to provide for the different needs of men this will involve the sphere of social life to which belong questions of food hygiene education and certain situations arising here and there as for

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