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  • Mediator Interview Topic - What types of resources from within the community would you use? How did you get them involved?
    what we needed to and well I m a mediator and that s what I do But I really thought in this particular setting we must have had at least thirty people in the room that we needed mediation We had many response agencies maybe about twenty people and six maybe eight Korean representatives So we had to have some kind of a structured process so this discussion could actually take place Part of what came out of that is that after all the broad issues were addressed was there were then sort of splinter mediations if you will or splinter meetings And the one that comes particularly to mind was with the Small Business Administration Besides FEMA SBA ended up being one of the major sources for financial assistance They had an excellent director there on site who really bent over backwards to understand and meet the needs and be flexible He was one of the least bureaucratic bureaucrats So that made a big difference They helped out with business loans because it was mostly businesses that were destroyed during that time We helped facilitate the Koreans applications helping them to apply by giving them technical assistance to make the application process easier Question So the negotiations were basically over what kind of assistance was going to be provided and how and when Answer Yes And what the procedures would be for making that happen A lot of it was even just how you get access to some of the leadership of some of those agencies if you know there s a particular issue in your community that isn t being responded to And in some cases the time line was a problem because when people apply for a loan they ll get an answer within a month But these folks were looking for an answer next week So how do you handle some of those emergency situations In some cases it was just a matter of really clarifying what the procedures are and what has to be done to have to go through that Will Reed Full Interview Topic Top Question Do you get these people from Denver or do you try to get them from the local community Answer Oh we get these people from across the world In other words we did have the resources enough to get people from everywhere If we wanted somebody from a university we got somebody who used to be with CRS We ve got two people We ve got the former national director the first director of CRS in a university One year I brought him in and he met with a group of historians and everybody else He s in the history department of George Mason University Brought him in A friend of mine from George Washington University Brought him in a thousand times in education When we started doing the Denver bussing plan we had all kinds of experts coming in So many people that you can t even begin to count I can t even remember half the guys we ve brought in as consultants about some issue You stretch around the world to find an expert when needed Question Did you ever allow the parties to bring in people they considered consultants did you accept who they referred to you Answer It wasn t up to us to accept or not accept We were the neutral third party so we said why of course We didn t call the shots We might have been responsible for manipulating some shots but we didn t call any shots Renaldo Rivera Full Interview Topic Top We also have our FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency responsibilities for recovery Question What do you do there Answer What we ve done there is again balance the playing field Ground Zero is about seven blocks from our office and most of the attention around Ground Zero went to the communities of Battery Park City and Tribeca which are on the west side of Manhattan Equally distant from Ground Zero was China Town and the Lower East Side A large degree of media and political attention tended to be focused on the more affluent communities immediately surrounding Ground Zero Immediately adjacent to it were lower income populations mostly jurisdictional populations for CRS differences in race color and national origin So CRS our usual relationship is to work with FEMA because we had a responsibility to helping create the community relations function in FEMA and participate in training of that function may years back traditionally works along with FEMA to be more of its advanced arm in particular issues that they should be taking a look at particular problems that they are going to face in outreach giving them a better assessment of the communities that they are going to outreach to and what they are going to encounter We immediately found language and cultural issues for their telephone lines and registration at their 800 lines We had to help FEMA address those because the only languages you were getting were English and Spanish Also they needed to have their fliers and other materials translated into Chinese We assisted them to determine what other languages they would need for their flyers so people could get in touch and register We also helped them identify translators because they didn t have the staff available when they set up their disaster resistance recovery center We did the outreach through our existing network of organizations and community groups to help them identity translators to both work with the community relations outreach team and in human services at the disaster recovery resistance center Then we moved them to consider subcontracting this effort with some local umbrella groups so they had the temporary staff needed to work with the populations they were going to be facing These two communities represented special challenges to FEMA given its usual composition and because of linguistic and economic issues In addition to assisting FEMA in these ways we helped them to think through how their staff deployment FEMA s initial concern was pretty much at the rescue effort as it should have been but we noticed that a large number of the people who were impacted by this disaster were wage earners who were in occupations that were ancillary to or support of what happened in the financial district So while the primary attention was placed on getting Wall Street up and running there were a large number of displaced wage earners living in the outer boroughs who used to work in and around the Trade Center We needed to help them connect with our federal partners to work that through We began to reach out to the borough presidents and the community boards in the areas immediately adjacent to Ground Zero both in Brooklyn and Manhattan and then reaching out as far as the borough presidents in the Bronx and Queens and their community boards so that we could get a better handle on how much displacement of workers had taken place and what level of disaster relief was necessary in those areas After our initial outreach FEMA came along with us to present its programs to them so that the borough president s office would have a better sense of what was available We had been working pretty much with the city administration and the state office of emergency management but we needed to move it into the boroughs because we saw clearly that there would be widespread and potentially disparate impact in terms of access to service or service delivery This was because of the attention being placed on large businesses primarily financial The need for attention to be paid to wage earners who were affected non professionals who provided a tremendous amount of work between clean up food services deliveries etc of all kinds to that financial district was critical for us We saw it as important and so did the borough presidents offices In fact they and their community outreach people were so concerned that they asked for additional sessions with us because they are looking at expanding the number of FEMA disaster recovery resistance centers There is only one place in lower Manhattan with long lines Question Like the ones we saw outside the federal building Answer Yes There are along the lines on the other street around the corner Some of the boroughs and the community boards are looking at how do we get these into each of the boroughs for a short period of time Then if they aren t necessary we can get rid of them We can get to the people more directly affected much more easily They ve asked to meet with us and so have some of the clergy groups that we had met with earlier to see about working together with FEMA to get the services more decentralized Question Has CRS done this kind of work with FEMA before or is this something new Answer We ve worked with some of the natural disasters before but working through this kind of national disaster and in this particular way I don t think so FEMA has a community relations unit that does outreach work to let people know how to get in touch but it doesn t do the conciliation or conflict resolution work that is occurring as special challenges are met That s where CRS has been very helpful to FEMA working along with them It has always been CRS jurisdiction to work in partnership with FEMA And then we go beyond FEMA s work because we have community tension that is showing up To us as we looked at how we did here with our limited resources and we brought in some teams from outside out region since day three of FEMA s operation we were located at their site We ve been able to work through all the issues I identified earlier and continue to help them work them through Then we were able to quickly identify other problems like the lack of phone service in China Town at a time when you had call in to get to be a part of FEMA to get your number identification Well if there were no phones in China Town you couldn t even get on the phone And once you got in there was the language problem which I mentioned earlier So we ve been assisting FEMA to work through all those kinds of things and to anticipate them in the future Also the way in which the police barricades were located for the purpose of the rescue and the recovery were adversely impacting China Town The merchants were experiencing a 70 business loss 95 of the businesses so everybody who was marginal was gone as were a lot of others who were on the edge So we were able to work along with NYPD in Manhattan South and also their emergency command center to allow some access for vehicles for food distribution businesses and others during certain hours of the day That s something CRS can do but FEMA cannot It s just not part of their mission We were able to work with merchants and business men and leadership locally to at least alleviate some of their early concerns We are continuing to work it through because some of the business leadership from China Town has asked for an additional town meeting with the SBA Small Business Administration and FEMA where they would bring in their merchants lawyers and insurance associations to talk directly with FEMA representatives even though FEMA has had a site set up in China Town since the second or third week This is a larger scale interest for them to speak more directly with a broad array of leadership than the ones around FEMA services CRS has been asked to facilitate that So that s an additional role that is beyond what FEMA would usually do but it s clearly jurisdictional for us and allows us to build our jurisdictional work around these sets of community concerns back to FEMA for service delivery For the foreseeable future our work is around the road to recovery and the encouraging community stability I think the last area about the WTC and where we are right now is the attention that CRS has had to pay to the impact on displaced workers There are a large number of them who are in the immigrant community or have immigration status questions We work with everyone regardless of their status but immigration status is not a trigger for CRS Our jurisdiction is race color and national origin What has happened in the WTC disaster is that individuals between language difficulty and immigration questions even if they are legally here have not always been able to get what they need from FEMA So from very early on we worked with the New York Community Trust and the United Way of New York which had already set up the September 11 Fund They had determined they were going to use Safe Horizons a community agency we had met with to provide relief services regardless of immigration status That was an important entree for people across the board particularly in the lower income areas in New York and those who might have immigration status questions to actually be able to get some relief Also the Department of Justice victims assistance money flows through the State Crimes Victims Assistance Board We were able to work with them and the New York State Crimes Victims Assistance Board and Safe Horizons so that people in this immigrant community would feel more comfortable coming forward to look for services or assistance for the recovery That continues to be something we pay attention to The boroughs surprisingly enough are particularly interested in that question as well It is something that wouldn t hit at the city wide level or state officials although the Attorney General for New York State has already said once you are here you are eligible for service that immigration status questions are something for INS to deal with not for local determination Working within that framework and within CRS s framework what we noticed is that there was a large degree of tension in the advocacy community around relief and recovery services for these communities We ve been working with the advocacy community and the immigration groups around those questions with Safe Horizons and the State Crime Victims Assistance Board Those activities have also been supported by the Catholic the Lutheran churches The services have been located at Pier 94 There has been some interest because of security concerns about getting into Pier 94 of also getting that service decentralized So between the requests we ve been receiving from the community boards and the borough presidents offices and the concerns from the advocacy community and the immigration community both people with legal status and those without legal status and our work with the State Crimes Victims Assistance Board and Safe Horizons CRS is in the position to try to facilitate the communication so that service delivery can get to the points of impact where they are most needed I think nobody else has been in a position to do that and deal with all the cross level of concerns that are raised with a multitude of issues ranging from language to immigration status We ve been able to get agreements from INS because it is not undertaking raids or indicating any additional concerns around status questions for those who have an inquiry because they were effected by the disaster They re able to process those inquiries without triggering the enforcement arm at the IRS district office We have been able to develop those relationships pretty well here I don t know how the rest of the country is doing but we were able to get that determination Then also to get the INS Commissioner to make statements of clarifications so that the INS in general from the policy level in its law enforcement would be more responsive in a compassionate way to the recovery and relief efforts rather then to penalize people whose status may have been affected by the loss of a loved one So CRS has been able to coordinate and facilitate an enormous amount of communication related to the recovery effort particularly for specialized populations like this I don t think that any other agency would have been able to do that We were fortunate to both be able to have the insight to see it as something that needed to be done and then have the staff capability to be able to effectuate it There is one other component to this We worked through channels to make INS as well as the State Department and the Attorney General s office aware that there were some people whose status may have been undocumented whose loved ones perished in the disaster The numbers range into the 400 plus that are known so far to various community based organizations Their loved ones and their countries of origin are unable to claim whatever remains may be here or even the symbolic urns that Mayor Guilianni is making available with some of the debris from the World Trade Center site They haven t been able to get to the consulates to get the visas to come to this country to be able to deal with recovering the remains or whatever symbolic remains there are of their loved one We were able to raise that through channels and highlight that as a focus question to provide the advisories to the Attorney General the INS and the state Then we were in attendance when the Mexican and Central American consulates were making outreach presentations through community organizations on how to access the visas for this purpose They are not able to do very much at this time the borders are closed because of the war effort It s difficult but we ve at least provided the advisories and we also clarified the ability to apply for advanced parole provisions with INS for people to come into the country We at least clarified that for local groups Other than the advisories and providing that information and being in attendance with sets of national departments and international consulates we ve at least crystallized the problem that people are facing That is as far as our jurisdiction will take us Question Since September 11 have you not withstanding the good relations and the receptivity to CRS had any conflicts with other agencies organizations or key individuals where you had to begin applying some of your conflict management techniques Answer That s a good question because my description makes it sounds like everything was just easy to do Well what happens is that a large number of agencies both state and federal law enforcement and other have missions that are more delineated then ours So it s my job to do immigration either in enforcement or some services it s my job to do law enforcement it s my job to do the investigation of the terrorist attack it s my job to do hate or biased crimes it s my job to provide services to citizens on FEMA The broad overview of how this tragedy is impacting a larger community and then jurisdictional populations doesn t fit neatly into anybody s daily work But it is how CRS looks at its work for reducing community tension preventing the escalation of tensions and in this case promoting community stability We had to take this work forward in the field We were often in advance of our federal and local partners to such a point that we established relationships with affected parties sooner and in more effective ways Then we wound up being able to assess the community tension levels in a much more fundamental and profound way than any narrower view is able to take in Because of the narrower focus that s what their missions and charges are it s not through any fault of their own but our mission and mandate being broader and focused around community tension questions we were able to provide a fundamental assessment of what is taking place both for racial and community tensions as well as community stability issues and provide that information in a cogent way to each of the affected departments Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Give us an overview Answer There was a young black man 22 years of age shot and killed by a police marksman after he was a barricaded suspect in an apartment complex This was in Anchorage The reaction of the African American community was very predictable Outrage and so on As often happens there are other incidents that have occurred that are brought to mind and the Alaskan community had similar issues Hey this happened to us too Local human rights commissions held a community meeting and as I understand it pretty well lost control The outrage was so strong that they were not able to provide any effective leadership and CRS came in a little bit later This was going to be ongoing and we helped to organize community representatives of a number of groups that had become involved into a community coalition The Native Alaskan Organization the statewide organization the local Native Alaskan Organization the NAACP and the Black Leadership Conference After the assessment recommended mediation with the police department the police chief agreed to enter into mediation we met in a federal building in a little auditorium where eventually we were able to hammer out a fourteen point agreement This took maybe eight sessions We had two sessions that first week and came back the next week It made some real breakthroughs That s the first time I m aware of that a firearms policy of a police department was revised by mediation agreement Use of deadly force was sharply curtailed to a defense only policy which was certainly not the standard in that time Among other things we found a graduate student of criminology who was unemployed living out in the community We brought her in and created a position for her because we needed that influence It was virtually an all white department too The things that were dealt with in the agreement firearms policy was number one of course training black and Native American leadership and cultural awareness training both in service and in the local police academy It was affirmative action Not only recruiting the community agreed to assist in promoting careers in the department and agents from the community There were promotions for those who worked within They established a community relations unit more or less around the criminologist although she wasn t a sworn officer Those were the regular kinds of elements of an agreement In the event of any racially based crisis the members in the negotiating teams would establish communication In other words either could initiate contact and there were co chair persons I believe and either of them could initiate a joint meeting to ensure communication and to secure factual information over police reports so that they could effectively address the issues involved So that grievance channel was established Lastly was the review of the agreement In three months the mediator will return This time I learned my lesson and was trying to get it incorporated in all of the agreements Everybody agreed to that Every three months for about three quarters I would go back and convene such a meeting But the participants said Can you come back next month I had to say My budget won t allow me to travel every month up here why don t you meet on your own You ve got two co chairs That was fine They began to meet every month I was overjoyed at this it was succeeding They said What about the Koreans the Korean Human Rights Committee They ve had a lot of problems accusations of drug dealing and so on LULAC is here so they expanded it to involve these other organizations that weren t involved on the initial negotiating team Then a black sergeant had soldiers at the local military base bring in some of them dressed as Klansmen and burn a cross on the door in the barracks of a black sergeant trying to scare him playing a prank This was publicized and the community the black community in particular was outraged Nobody had a channel a line out to Ft Richardson and they weren t involved and the community was all uptight So I went out and talked with the Marshall and it happened to be that he was from Anniston Alabama right next to where I was raised in Gaston Anyway I got him to become involved as a member of this committee and also with the permission of the others invited the US Attorney But he sent an assistant The FBI agent in charge was very interested and she went out I spoke to her and she became involved and she had some very good ideas and suggestions a very effective member of this group So this Anchorage Police Minority Community Relations Task Force and also the local Human Rights Commission under a new director became involved It s still going on ten years later It took on a life of its own and it is the primary channel for police grievances as it relates to any of the minority communities and has taken on a wide range of projects over these years But that came out of a mediation agreement And at first I would start out and remind them This is the agreement let s see how the implementation is going after about a year of this They say Why do we have to start way back there And the mediation agreement was laid aside Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Describe a typical kind of case You said The kind of thing I was getting involved in What was that thing Answer Let me answer you with this In 1981 it was virtually all mediation fishing rights issues and other Indian relation issues But one day in November of 1981 I received a phone call from the NAACP president in Spokane and she said There s a picture in today s newspaper of a big cross being burned with a bunch of men in uniforms and hoods all around the cross It says it s the Old Hinge Coeur d Alene Idaho It says Aryan Nations What s that I said Aryan what And I didn t know So I go over and meet with her and then I realize that I m going to Coeur d Alene to meet the undersheriff for the first time He s looking for somebody like me and I was looking for somebody like him We worked very closely together After a number of contacts I realized that there needed to be an entity to countervail the influence of the Aryan Nations They weren t interested in sitting down with a Jewish person or a black person or anything like that But I began the process of identification and I realized that the Spokane area had a minority community that was concerned about these activities And the Jewish community was concerned about these activities But there was no minority community to speak of in Coeur d Alene or in Northern Idaho And so whatever was worked out would need to be worked out on the joint basis for both geographies So I pulled together NAACP representatives from Spokane and the one Jewish Rabbi serving that whole area as well as the representative from the school superintendent s office the prosecuting attorney the US attorney the police chief and the sheriff of Spokane County Also we had the Methodist district superintendent and businessmen and the secretary of the bar association And on the other side that undersheriff in Northern Idaho and the representatives from the police departments over there There was one Jewish resident but I couldn t find a black person at that point who lived in Coeur d Alene I found out later that there were several but I couldn t find them Oh and the state s Human Rights Commission had an office there so that director joined us and a United Church of Christ minister over in Coeur d Alene And we pulled them together after a lot of discussion I was the common link between all of them They didn t know each other even in Spokane I was the convener It was important that we stay together long enough to formulate a program and for me to get out of that role as quickly as possible Because if anything s going to evolve here the last thing that should be done is that this group was formed by the US Department of Justice on one hand and secondly somebody from Seattle Those are the bad people I mean Seattle is in competition with Spokane Seattleites don t understand people east of the mountains But in essence what we did was form an ad hoc organization sponsor the first conference on hate groups and hate activity in the Northwest TAPE CHANGE QUESTION UNKNOWN Answer Not directly I had contact with Reverend Butler the head of it But he really wasn t interested in dealing with me in anyway over that And that was it And I don t think that there would be anybody in these organizations that would have any interest in meeting with him either There was a two day seminar it was statewide Northern Idaho with the state of Washington And at the end of my plan we had already drawn up a constitution by laws for the Interstate Task Force on Human Rights And that conference gave it legitimacy and we went from there to do a number of things in supporting each other in both areas Question So I gather you did a lot more of this sort of thing afterwards Answer Yeah out of that model came the Interstate Task Force on Human rights that we eventually formed Hate group activity began to manifest itself cross burning incidents harassment and organized activity and this was before skinheads surfaced We had Klan activity and Aryan activity and your Christian patriots and various assorted organizations that had not been present before or known to be present We became aware of the territorial imperative of these groups they were organizing to form a state within a state The Northwest Aryan Empire Question So what did these groups do to try to counter that Answer Well every year the World Aryan Congress met at Coeur d Alene out at Aryan Headquarters seven miles North of Coeur d Alene You had up to three or four hundred people coming there The Kootenai County Task Force on Human Rights broke off from the Interstate Task Force so you had two different groups after a couple of years They formed Human Rights Observances in the City Park downtown with several thousand people in attendance and greetings from the governors of Oregon and Washington That was my job to generate these It was to say the media was coming to cover the Aryans that was news So this was to say in effect that there are other people besides them and we stand for human rights fairness and say yes to equity and so on But they took on a lot of different projects and programs Then there were incidents in Coeur d Alene Pocatello Boise Portland Seattle and it was just cropping up all over the place I pulled together about fourteen people from over in Spokane to sit down and consult together these would be the NAACP regional president Human Rights Commission Representative and LULAC and so on But after we had this initial meeting we then decided there was a need for more input So we held a series of consultations over a year First in Spokane and then in Seattle then in Portland then in Coeur d Alene and then at the end of a year formed the Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment And that has now expanded to include Colorado Surely you know this or do you Question I don t Answer Oh Well it s ten years old now the Northwest Coalition But it has representatives from the Governors offices from each of the five original states that we had involved Montana Wyoming Idaho Oregon and Washington It s a mix of officials and community leadership The NAACP regional offices and somebody from an Urban League Latino organizations one representative from a police organization in each state a representative of the Governor s office in each state a Human Rights Commission representative from each state general local coalition organizational representatives from each state This is on the Board of Directors And we ve held a full time staff of five people A foundation support of 265 organizations of different kinds ranging from the police department to state departments of education and Diocese The local Methodist Church on Mercer Island was the first church That s where I lived The annual Methodist conference and even the Northwest Kite Flyers organization You don t have to be a civil rights organization to be concerned about these things It is 265 organizations But it s educational programs conferences and there s a big annual conference held in each of the three states annually And then smaller conferences are supported When an incident occurs a team will be formed to go there and respond to the problem I was the chair of the monitoring committee which is the main role we had and that was to document incidents If we could document incidents and show by compilation of credible data that this number of incidents had occurred in this community Or then over to the Northwest so many homicides kidnapping all of the different forms of violence We could persuade officials and public opinion that we have a problem And that s what we did We were doing bias crime data collection on a five state basis way before the FBI started Question We being CRS Answer No No The Northwest Coalition was involved in urging National Data Collection for some time before it became mandated by Congress In fact I d done that kind of work in Alabama in the 1950 s state wide Efrain Martinez Full Interview Topic Top I used other resources in that case officers from Houston that I know work with the community quite well In fact I asked the community services division to help that police department learn how to deal with communities especially the black community So I took the Houston officers to meet with the community first and they got acquainted with the community and had a meeting with the police officials We can only do that if the police officials and the community agree to them coming in Because we re not going to impose it on them So we had these pre meetings and they saw the benefit of having them in So then we brought them all together One of the police officers from Houston had been a gang member He d really reformed so he was sharing his past experiences with that side of the law Question And he did this with both groups together Answer Yes See after I cleared it with both sides and they said yes to the officers that were coming over So both sides met with them And they discussed what they were going to talk about and how they re going to be helpful and everybody agreed to it and it just went

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - Did you ever draw upon resources or refer parties to resources from outside the community?
    SPIRIT program and trained the human relations commission to work with Students Problem Identifying and Resolving Issues Together SPIRIT Programs like SPIRIT can be provided within the schools it enhances their capability and it also means that we re touching more people Stephen Thom Full Interview Topic Top Do you have expertise in each of these areas or did you bring in other resources Answer I did the anger management and problem solving The Centinala Valley dispute resolution center and CRS joined up and developed the curriculum package and they took over the peer mediation program They are in the community and they should The Collaborative brought in an outside consultant to do the peace builders It also brought in an evaluator to look us over and give us a written evaluation because we didn t want to be tied into the money without outcomes It brought in a mental health service from the county that was interested in putting counselors into the schools Prior to that if you had psychological problems or needs you would go to their offices Those are the systematic kinds of things we tried to do with that particular school district That is one example how local resources were brought in to allow CRS to go on to other case work Nancy Ferrell Full Interview Topic Top Question Did you sometimes use outside community resources to help resolve conflict Answer Yeah again it would always depend on how the case played itself out The situation in the small community where the Iranian students were coming into the community college and they were really being discriminated against by the community is an example The incident occurred because some high school students had been driving along and used a baseball bat on an Iranian student as he was walking That was the triggering incident that got our attention and brought us into it I went to the police department and it was a boys will be boys kind of thing I went to the school board and the principal and it was Well they re dating some of the girls and the boys were mad and that s what happens in small towns I wasn t getting any empathy They wouldn t generate any understanding from the Iranian students perspective at all I talked with the community college about their guardian responsibility to these students There really wasn t any strong support there because they saw their funding and support coming from the community at large which was an Anglo white farming community I was just pretty much saying to myself This is going to have to take some legal action or the students are going to have to do something in terms of protecting themselves from the legal perspective The community s not open and they re not going to listen to the interests of these Iranian students I started thinking about that small rural community and they would have 200 Iranian students come in there It had become a place they would come for two years to get their English up to a level where they could be admitted to the University of Tulsa in the Petroleum and Engineering school So it was a pipeline for that community college I thought about how much money had to be coming into that community because of those students and what impact would this have on the community if those two hundred students a year went away The network that got them there could certainly stop them and pretty quickly cut that off And if they kept treating them as badly as they were and there was physical danger they d leave So I decided to go to the chamber of commerce and talk to them about What is the impact on this community economically about having these students and what s gonna be the impact if the student s are gone And so they got involved and of course that meant the business leadership got involved and things began to change then We began to see some empathy and some understanding that we need to do something different But again I appealed to their self interest I think in most instances that s where you have to start with people and try to figure out what is in it for them What s it gonna cost them if this continues and if I point that out then they re more likely to listen In another situation there were some educational issues for migrant workers And I learned through just talking with some people listening to people that the great operator was really the power broker in the community And I had never sat down and talked with him directly so I made an appointment went in and spent a couple of hours just talking to him about what we were doing and what our interests were and what would happen in the community in the long term if these kids don t ever get an education It was almost just honoring him by the appointment He opened the doors and things started moving then So that s part of the dance If you go in and you re not ready to move wherever the thing s going then you re gonna miss something good Q Now he didn t feel threatened by you A No He didn t project that He probably felt he was finally honored Q And he wasn t being personally accused A No But everyone knew that as soon as he said to the school board Let s go for it it would happen As a mediator you could go in there and try to strong arm but we didn t have any strong arm to go with except if this is not resolved then the agencies who do enforce may come in But it was persuasion and working from a perspective of good will and to appeal to people s higher being And 90 of the time people will respond to that And that s what this man did He made a call to the president of the school board and all of a sudden the school board president was open to some ideas And he hadn t been I m not sure that he had talked to that operator He just historically thought he knew what he wanted and he wasn t going to violate that That s the nuance and that s the dance It s following those trails and seeing where they go It s finding out who the power structures are and where the doors get opened and then appealing to their higher being And most of them will respond to that Anybody who s self interest is greed or power is not going to respond And that s when you have to know to hand it over to whoever the law enforcement people are and let go of it But most often when you give people an opportunity they ll respond Stephen Thom Full Interview Topic Top Some cultures have indigenous types of mediation I wonder if you ever use any elements of those traditional types of mediation Answer I m familiar with what probably is the most overt type of mediation that s more indigenous to any group I ve trained under a guy from Hawaii He was an amazing guy but he uses a lot of shuttle diplomacy because of the Asian hesitancies to participate in face to face conflict But I don t want to compromise that In those cases you do a lot of private meetings before you bring them together and you even move the agenda but at some point you ve got to come together I feel strongly that you have to do that to reach where you can come together That s probably the only one All the mediations that I ve been involved in are so multi ethnic so western predominantly I haven t been into any international things where I would feel required cultural variance Even though we may work with some first generation like Vietnamese mediation we usually work with the one and a half generation because of the language barrier Unfortunately too often when we work with some of the different ethnic indigenous populations we re really dealing with a western hybrid because of the language barrier and so they become the brokers for the traditionalists in the mediation process So I haven t had to use various techniques other than being very sensitive to the time factors that Native Americans act out the reticence of the Native American at the table Some of these general guidelines that I m aware of I think we want to be sensitive to we want to move it at a pace that they re comfortable with I don t recall any thing more unique than that in the situations I ve had Were you thinking of something particular Edward Howden Full Interview Topic Top Question How did you identify the community resources that would help you resolve your conflict Answer Well we used the hydrologist from the state university in that one case and in that other case involving the county welfare department outside assistance was very vital there We needed clarification about the exact meaning of complex statutes and federal and state regulations regarding welfare aid to dependent children and a whole lot of other stuff Here again most of us certainly myself and I think most of the community people were not experts on any of that So it was agreed in advance that we would get two experts up from Sacramento to help us They were from the State Department of Social Welfare and each had his or her area of expertise with respect to the statutes and regulations and that was agreed to by all sides in advance They participated in the sessions so they were there and could answer if any questions arose as to what the regulation was Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Did you bring any outside resources in to help resolve this conflict like an expert on treaties or the sheriff Was there any outsider that you brought in to help with this Answer Yes The North West Indian Fishers Commission which is an intertribal organization that coordinates tribal positions operations fisheries hatcheries and so on I brought a representative from that group in with the consent of all the parties I thought this was a person whose organization would have some insights into some of this Question So were they used as experts to suggest solutions Answer I don t remember specifically There would probably have been a valuable use of such a resource I also had the Washington State Department of Fisheries Enforcement there It was a special patrol unit within the State Department of Fisheries that had a specific area of interest in these issues They were involved as well Usually I try to have everybody start off together rather than calling people in I know that I had the North West Indian Fishers Commission State Department of Fisheries the sheriff s office I think all of those may have been involved from the beginning Although they re not parties to the issues they would have a role they would have information that might be helpful For their own policies they needed to know what was going on Hopefully they would be supportive of the implementation that was needed Thirdly they would be a part of the solutions involved in the implementation not just support it They were involved in some of these things We never did go into who s allowed to be in the room as part of ground rules Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Yes and then the Nesquallas had that problem over in Olympia where there was another place on the Nesqualli River that flows on the reservation but through privately owned property of the Mormon church They had a number of acres right on the river that were for sportsman s events Their people came to fish there legally and so on from maybe Seattle There was also a supply center They stockpiled supplies in a building on this property They keep food for a year in advance Anyway this is where clothing was stockpiled and poor Mormons I gather could come and get needed supplies But there was a gate which took a magnetic card for it to slide back and let you in otherwise it was all barred off This was a prime fishing area on the Nesqualli River Every time we come there that gate s locked And we can t get in You can imagine I don t remember specifics besides that But we worked out a very simplistic approach as compared with these others But again we secured the recognition of the right of access through that gate through the private property over to the waterfront during fishing season And of course one magnetic card was given to the Fisheries Chairperson and of course that card got lost and we can t get through That s not an objective statement to make but there were problems with keeping up with that card and then there were some problems involving the other tribe that we were able to help They had treaty rights issues on another island The teamsters union had a recreation property a very tough outfit We met in the National Marine Fisheries office in the Olympia area a neutral location non tribal and not a teamsters union office And again using the basic model that we had developed on Squackson Island for this as well that is access to this property owner and this caretaker down there who was a pretty tough person He was retired from truck driving I guess to take care of this recreation property He had been accused of not allowing tribal members to fish along their waterfront Then there was another tribe with the same issues One was in the town of Stillicum They had a private park which is on the tribal land It was on an inlet and they had wanted it used as a custom fishing area and this park was on a little point that had often been used for fishing and they objected to access through their land There was no parking here and they built campfires where they were camping out and so on That kind of usage that was illegal for citizens but the Indians did use it in this way We were able to work out that again pulling in State Department of Fisheries See they took it as a mission They had begun to catch the significance of what they were doing We were pioneering some area here that nobody s done before But anyway I had an afternoon mediation and still looked in on the evening negotiations up in Olympia and I had other casework besides just this And I remember once I was trying to address some tribal issues over in Washington and in Northern Idaho and getting from this area to there I was really stretched thin Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Give us an overview Answer There was a young black man 22 years of age shot and killed by a police marksman after he was a barricaded suspect in an apartment complex This was in Anchorage The reaction of the African American community was very predictable Outrage and so on As often happens there are other incidents that have occurred that are brought to mind and the Alaskan community had similar issues Hey this happened to us too Local human rights commissions held a community meeting and as I understand it pretty well lost control The outrage was so strong that they were not able to provide any effective leadership and CRS came in a little bit later This was going to be ongoing and we helped to organize community representatives of a number of groups that had become involved into a community coalition The Native Alaskan Organization the statewide organization the local Native Alaskan Organization the NAACP and the Black Leadership Conference After the assessment recommended mediation with the police department the police chief agreed to enter into mediation we met in a federal building in a little auditorium where eventually we were able to hammer out a fourteen point agreement This took maybe eight sessions We had two sessions that first week and came back the next week It made some real breakthroughs That s the first time I m aware of that a firearms policy of a police department was revised by mediation agreement Use of deadly force was sharply curtailed to a defense only policy which was certainly not the standard in that time Among other things we found a graduate student of criminology who was unemployed living out in the community We brought her in and created a position for her because we needed that influence It was virtually an all white department too The things that were dealt with in the agreement firearms policy was number one of course training black and Native American leadership and cultural awareness training both in service and in the local police academy It was affirmative action Not only recruiting the community agreed to assist in promoting careers in the department and agents from the community There were promotions for those who worked within They established a community relations unit more or less around the criminologist although she wasn t a sworn officer Those were the regular kinds of elements of an agreement In the event of any racially based crisis the members in the negotiating teams would establish communication In other words either could initiate contact and there were co chair persons I believe and either of them could initiate a joint meeting to ensure communication and to secure factual information over

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - Did other organizations or people within the community help limit the intensity of the conflict or help resolve it? Who? How?
    called n s and all of that I said Do you hear that governor Do you see what I m talking about He was so incensed the next morning he called together the chief of police the head of the national guard unit and all of those He said Ozell persuaded me to get out you see they didn t know until then that the governor was out in the field Said Ozell persuaded me to go with him last night and I was so incensed I just want you to know that your conduct out of there is just wild and uncontrolled and unnecessary The mayor was there and he said Mr Mayor let me tell you one thing I will take over this city Ozell now told me there was a curfew and telling you and seeing it is a different matter I will take over this city so quickly it will get you swimming in your head Now I don t want any more conduct in that manner I m going to have the state police all out there where you are Everybody is going to be reporting to me every 15 minutes every time you stop a car I want to know what happened And he talked about it said Well that group was one man and three women coming from the hospital and they ran over there and stuck their guns in the window and made them get out of the car and were treated in such a way that nobody would want his wife treated I am incensed by the whole thing And the whole police methods changed after that So I just go around describing it Question Was that a long lasting kind of change Answer Yes because after the crisis was over the governor was insisting upon it Renaldo Rivera Full Interview Topic Top Question What is the response of the enforcement and investigatory communities to CRS intervention Answer They have come to see us as another federal partner that can build a bridge with them if they are unable to do it at that time It s important to be able to do that especially now since here in this part of the country they have less time available to the community They really have not logistically been able to get to talk with the communities themselves Our outreach and solidifying relationships help shapes the kinds of questions with which they are going to be faced We are setting up the second sets of meetings within the next several weeks with our federal partners so they will have better understanding of the types of scenarios and cases that the community has been presenting to us so that their time is reduced in terms of how they focus on the community concerns We are channeling information more directly around the community concerns and it s more preparatory for them It also functions in a second way for us systematically We have to

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - Did you provide information about outside resources that could help the parties in conflict?
    them help you Answer A lot Every situation that we identify as a potential dispute we go through this system we call an alert But I suspect that we will only work and document about a third of those alerts The others simply become statistics of what s out there and what we re able to document given the resources Efrain Martinez Full Interview Topic Top Question Who are the agencies that you most often refer people to Answer EEOC F B I U S Attorney District Attorney LULAC NAACP school districts police HUD etc agencies and organizations that work with civil rights In Houston I m fortunate I ve been here so long that I know all the police leadership some from back when they were captains or lieutenants and we work with them I try to purposely build a relationship with those people coming up because at some point when they make it to the top I want to be able to maintain their relationship Everybody s important no matter what their position is You don t know when you might need them or they might need you You ve gotta have that relationship and a high trust level Dick Salem Full Interview Topic Top Question Who decides what they need do you or do they Answer We always start with what the group says it needs It would be nice to sit here and say they tell us and we respond but the reality is when you do enough of these for enough years you can sort of pretty well see what s needed and what s happening and you can lead the community group into knowing what it needs very often One simple thing is helping a group understand it needs a good agenda if is going into negotiations with or without a mediator That grievances should be presented in a way that they can be responded to If the agenda is fire the school superintendent or fire the police chief you know that s not likely to be achievable You encourage them to shape an agenda that puts that at the bottom and started with some of the substantive changes they want to see So you put the achievable at the other at the top of the agenda and push fire the police chief to the bottom When they make enough progress at the top and middle of the agenda they realize that you don t have to fire the police chief if he ll abide by what you ve agreed to up above on the agenda So that s empowering helping the group understand the negotiation process And you re leading the group that way certainly You re saying I know what s best for this group in this negotiation I ve never seen a group when we suggest resources that are available that wouldn t be eager to accept them if they were serious about resolving problems Sometimes it was a consultant we

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - Did you ever bring in a neutral expert or other resource person to help with fact-finding problems?
    basically go to the key crisis where they are big and wide enough that our services are needed Question How do you do that Answer Well there are a couple things that I ve done I looked at what infrastructure there is within the states In California there is an organization called the School Law Enforcement Partnership Cadre It consists of 50 law enforcement related positions or officers and 50 educators and school administrators who work collectively They are spread out geographically throughout California to work on addressing school violence and violence prevention They are excellent partners for me When the shooting happened at Santana High School in San Diego County I think there were 13 shot and two killed my inclination was to first go and meet with people who work in the School Law Enforcement Cadre I have an excellent counterpart there with the San Diego county office of education He works in the area of violence prevention and intervention So I moved to his operation and very quickly got a briefing on what s going on where s it located how do I get there what s the circumstance what s his position what s their role at this point Then I move on to the scene and relay back to his organization what we need and begin to organize our whole crisis response to that situation Having these partners throughout the State is really helpful And I ve trained the Cadre in different things that we do to give them the skills to help empower school districts address some of their own racial conflicts I ve also joined the board of the California Association of Human Relations Organizations which is the state network for all the human relations commissions in the state of California Again this is a critical resource in terms of knowing where the human relations commissions are They give two training seminars one in Northern California one in Southern California which I try to participate in or network so that whenever a situation occurs we have partners to work with and we can also train these organizations I ve trained the Riverside Human Relations Commission in mediation I ve trained them in dealing with Study Circles dialogues as diffusion tactics and techniques We took our SPIRIT program and trained the human relations commission to work with Students Problem Identifying and Resolving Issues Together SPIRIT Programs like SPIRIT can be provided within the schools it enhances their capability and it also means that we re touching more people That s the way I try to respond There s a question that you ask What is the long term benefit that we try to leave a community when we go into a situation One of the objectives of CRS is to leave a mechanism to address the conflict and to try to give them the capability to resolve the conflict on their own So that s a big part I think of what we attempt

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - How did you deal with issues of confidentiality during your casework?
    share this about what we ve done about what we ve accomplished and this is what we re working on Then we need input from people on whether they feel comfortable about what we ve agreed to and what kind of suggestions they want you to bring back to the table Confidentiality in the strictest sense is generally a one on one kind of conversation Or one group saying I don t want you to tell the other group that I would do this I don t want you to tell them that I would And again if you violate that they re going to find it out and you don t have trust anymore and you don t have any currency anymore I used to say if you violate the trust of one superintendent after the next superintendent s meeting for the state you might as well move on to another state We have organizations that talk Yeah right She came over here and this is what happened to us And so you don t have a job if you don t honor that confidentiality and the trust relationship Q And do you tell people about that right up front that all of your conversations are confidential or do you wait until they ask for confidentiality A It s part of gaining entry that there s a safety there that you can confide in me and that I can help you The more you trust me to really understand your position the better And that will be held in confidence Now I may at some point come to you and say I think if I could share your perspective on student selection process it would be helpful I think the community would help us move along a little bit Are you willing for me to share that With that specific intent If they say no I don t share it it can t be shared If they say yes then I can go back and share that perspective And there are many instances like that where I have in the dance been going back to one or the other and said I think if I could share that piece of information it would move us a little further along Are you willing to let me do that Q And presumably they usually say yes A Generally yes Renaldo Rivera Full Interview Topic Top Question On the issue of confidentiality do you find situations where it s challenged or you feel the need to violate it Answer I never feel the need to violate it At CRS by statute we are not permitted to Question Have you ever had a situation where you felt the need to violate it Answer No because I ve been in situations where if I were to violate it it would help things move along at least in terms of what I perceived to be what s best for the situation or what I have perceived to be what s right or wrong Remember I said earlier what I perceive to be right or wrong is only based on what people have told me in my own experience If you know the process and you ve been through it enough times you know better or you should know better The example I give is two parties in a divorce the only people who know what happened in that relationship are those two people What they are telling you is the point of view that they want you to hear I don t think it s significantly different often times although you can have insight to human nature and the kinds of problems you re going to have in a relationship you may not know what went on in that relationship and that s similar to what s happening in a community setting You may have large degrees of experience and have good ideas of what s taking place and you ve seen similar dynamics but you don t know all the particulars Stephen Thom Full Interview Topic Top Usually after we go through the ground rules and there is concurrence and everybody understands I ask if there is anything else we need to put in the ground rules before we go Usually the only thing they question is confidentiality and most of the time that s the one that gets the most confusing Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Are those meetings private and confidential at that point once you decide to come on sight Answer Not necessarily At that point you re just talking discussing the situation with them You re not in the group I would offer confidence I remember in this particular case I would say If there s anything you wanna tell me in confidence I ll keep it in confidence I won t repeat it to anybody When that seems to be needed for the purpose of getting communication or frankness and openness I would certainly do that and respect it Question Is it commonly needed Answer No Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top How did you deal with confidentiality in the context of negotiations Answer As part of the ground rules this would be what we would talk about If anybody feels that they cannot make a statement unless there s an assurance of confidentiality I think we ought to respect that to accept it as confidential and not to be repeated outside this room by anybody here That s going to sound real hollow to people who don t trust them anyway I discourage the use of confidentiality because there is a need for each of the parties during the negotiations to keep their constituencies generally informed about what s happening inside Because they re not represented there they need to know Ultimately they will presumably be involved and approve or disapprove of what you do what we do So I say Don t tie your hands by

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - Can you recall any times when assuring confidentiality created a problem for you?
    the business that we deal with is such that it becomes almost second nature to us that unless somebody specifically tells us not to say something we almost know not to The example that I gave you is a good example It s common that they will say Well I don t know what the heck they re talking about I mean look here s what I m going to do I did share these with one of them but also held that individual to the same confidentiality Because I ve always told employees and everybody else It is confidential only until we get to the point that it going to be public We have no secrets We do work with a lot of confidential information but it s confidential only for a very short period of time Bob Ensley Full Interview Topic Top Question Did you ever find that any of the assurances of confidentiality backfired Answer Well I d rather not answer that question if you don t mind Question You can say yes or no Answer Yes Efrain Martinez Full Interview Topic Top Have you ever run into a situation where you re doing well at building trust between the parties and then one of them does something that breaks it all down They violate an agreement or something they said they were going to do or they leak information Answer There might have been where they perceived that there was a breach of confidence We analyze whether there was or wasn t and if there was what effects does it have on the overall goal that they re trying to achieve If they see it to their benefit to keep discussions going because they see they re benefiting although somebody slipped up somewhere then it s not really important when you look at the big picture But they have to decide that Since discussions are voluntary they can withdraw any time They have to decide if it s worth it for them to keep going in spite of the fact they thought something had occurred But also you can have them talk it out and maybe it was a misunderstanding it wasn t that person s perception that what he or she was saying was violating the agreement or there was a breach of confidence let s say They need to see that by continuing the dialogue everybody s going to be better off Will Reed Full Interview Topic Top Question Did confidentiality ever become a problem Answer Oh yes Confidentiality became a problem a lot of times Question In what way Answer There were times when somebody wanted to come in and know who was responsible for something and you couldn t really say too much about it Like in Wounded Knee for example There were other agencies who came running in wanting to talk to us about who might have done something I would say I can t tell you that But you were

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  • Mediator Interview Topic - How did you deal with the media? Were they an asset or a liability to your work?
    Walsh Full Interview Topic Top Who handled the media Answer The mediators handled the media when we got started in mediation We would talk to the media afterwards and indicate to them the developments We preferred that the parties not talk to them about any of the specifics that were taking place Question Did everybody agree Answer Oh yeah Martin Walsh Full Interview Topic Top No The newspaper was covering the mediation sessions and it would come out with periodic reports on it So did the Globe The information was going back to the general campus and public That kept the sense of getting information back to the community The students did a lot of reporting back They had meetings with their constituents after the sessions Martin Walsh Full Interview Topic Top You spoke about the media and that you set some ground rules that during mediation you would speak for the teams Were the representatives with you when you met with the media Was there any resistance to them not being able to communicate with the media or did they anyway Answer No the only time we had everyone together was at the last session Other then that they let me be the spokesperson It was more a perfunctory type of thing We worked out a progress report at the table We wouldn t share with the media any of the specifics that we had agreed to during the interim period It was more pablum in many ways just to reinforce that we were meeting and that progress was being made We really wanted to get out the message that the groups were very serious about these issues The media spokesperson for the university worked closely with us She referred all the media people to us and the students abided by it as well Stephen Thom Full Interview Topic Top Question Was there any media coverage of this Answer There was no media coverage of this that I know of But I actually saw a picture there was a gentleman named White Owl who came in to bless the mediation process He came in and chanted a blessing and took a picture And I didn t think anything of it but what we didn t know was that he was writing a book Question And no one knew he was writing a book Answer I didn t know he was writing a book I don t think he said anything about it But one day a friend of mine said Steve I saw your picture in this book He had written a story about Native Americans spirits and beliefs and in it there is a picture of myself and the Dean of the Anthropology Department and Larry Myers and a caption saying this is a mediation case dealing with remains So it s not as though it was not made public but we did not have a press conference at that particular time Stephen Thom Full Interview Topic Top Speaking of the press do you work with the media How do you address the media How do they address you Answer I m not real strong with the media to be candid with you I work with the media because I know it s an important part of controlling rumors for school riots and things like that I was asked to be the spokesperson with the district in that situation and I was brought into every media event The key question that was always brought up is Was it Racial And I fixated and we encourage the districts to fixate on a statement that you can support and sustain and say to the media so that you can spin it in a way that is more positive That question always came up and I would say No it was not racial Just because you see African Americans Latinos Asians or whatever two groups with the appearance of going at it it usually starts with something very simple The real motivation for the conflict was believed to be the lack of recognition of ethnic celebrations Once two students get involved in a dispute other students join in because they feel a sense of allegiance to their ethnic group That s really what gives that flavor of a racial disturbance But in fact what was the real cause is very rarely totally race A lot of times it s gang instigated because a lot of recruitment goes on through playing off on race In this instance you could observe the way they threw the bottles at each other Did you ever play the game where you toss balloons and you see who can go the farthest before it breaks That s the way they were throwing these bottles at each other The bottles weren t being thrown at a straight level they were tossing them very high so that the other side could really catch it and throw it back So it was disturbing in the sense that you had bottles being thrown at each other but it wasn t malicious in a sense that they were really out to hurt each other and they happen to be African American and Latino And then when I saw the kids disperse when the police came in nobody was hitting anybody Even if two students of different racial groups were caught facing each other alone they didn t bother each other they just kept going So when the media asks Was it racial I say No and this is why and I talk to them about the bottles and I talk to them about what I saw and how the students didn t physically fight and then they don t ask me the race question anymore because I won t give them the headline they want Angel Alderete Full Interview Topic Top Can you tell us how media affected your job while you were at CRS Answer The media had very little effect on me personally I don t think the media had much affect on CRS as a whole even though they sought out that kind of thing I think in some rare instances they got in the way because they wanted you to play the case out through them and you had to say No I don t want to talk to you You didn t say it that way but you told them that you wanted to deal with the people by yourself Then when it was over sometimes if they were interested we would talk to them But if we talked to them we d have representatives from the parties there to talk about it and introduce themselves But the things that we got into weren t that big They were just local community kinds of things so they weren t really that earth shaking Even with the training we did in San Diego That was good publicity for everybody Corrections the Navy because they went from how the situation started all the way through how we got involved the University the school district and the community were all involved and they painted a picture of what happened Plus they explained what we were doing in the training sessions We got the media to agree to not hang around the training sessions We felt that if they were there some of these people would be playing to the cameras So we said No we don t want to do that I think more in some cases it was more of a trick on their part where they would call the media first and then they would call you It happened to me in San Diego with a group of Mexican Americans The problem was big enough to them so they called me down there and I went down there and I talked to them and they had set up a community meeting for that night So I went to the community meeting and it didn t register why are those lights so darn dim So we sat down the lights went on Alright Mr Alderete tell us about what it is that It was the San Diego Tribune and I don t know who else So I said Hey you guys tricked me into this thing I m not going to talk So the media agreed to leave and then we got down to business But I had a good laugh because this is something that I at times had wished on other people Angel Alderete Full Interview Topic Top Our goal as two guys out there was to keep each police unit and each group from going at each other which in the global picture was to keep violence from occurring We refused to use those kinds of words because we knew that they were designed mostly for the media and we didn t want to do that That s really it a very simple kind of approach to a problem that anybody with common sense and a little experience would have been able to handle It didn t take a PhD it didn t take a rocket scientist it didn t even take a guy with a B A necessarily It just took a guy with common sense to go out there Question You know it s interesting because the media didn t portray it that way This is a whole different image than what I m hearing from you because it almost sounds sane the way you re saying it But the way the media presented it is that something is out of control these are people that you cannot have a conversation with people who are determined to kill you I m getting a different feel from you that you were able to approach the people have a discussion with them that they were receptive to what you were saying Answer Even that poor guy that got his head bashed in that truck driver even that area wasn t as bad as they say made it seem We drove through that very area a few days after that happened and nobody ever hurt us Nobody ever threw rocks at us In fact they waved at us At night the LAPD would if four or five African Americans were gathered on a corner say Alright call the SWAT people out because we sense a potential problem So that kind of activity gave the newspaper people and the people on the radio a real sense of mayhem But nothing was really happening I remember one time we responded to a call and we got there and we couldn t find any problem at all A bunch of people ladies and kids were running around with sodas in their hands laughing They had the cops sitting up there and they didn t do anything about it Angel Alderete Full Interview Topic Top The thing we did in San Diego with the training attracted media but that s because the Navy was involved and they wanted to make sure they were recognized And I m not being cynical that s reality the Navy wanted people to know they were involved So did everyone else including us But these were official people providing a service to another official group so everyone wanted to share in the talking to the media Had it been a community group and official group I greatly doubt it Angel Alderete Full Interview Topic Top Also they were upset with the Latinos because the Latinos were against the Vietnam war and they were against the sheriff and all his shenanigans against the Latino community Rubin Salazar had written a really devastating report against law enforcement The chief of police of L A had gone to the L A Times and stated to the publisher that This reporter Rubin Salazar is out there agitating the Mexicans and they re not ready for this kind of activity It was like the former chief of Police of L A saying The Mexicans are just that far from running around from tree to tree with their tails He was no longer the chief then But the law enforcement types went up to him and said the Mexicans weren t ready to receive this kind of information that Rubin Salazar was expounding on So then Salazar responded by writing this huge report about law enforcement and actually chastising the L A Times for even being willing to listen to the cops about the Mexicans readiness to get this kind of information Bob Ensley Full Interview Topic Top And I said You don t have to get into any dialogue with these folks Just say yes or no or I don t know Then don t enter into any conversation with them because all of the news media from across the nation and the BBC and one from Hong Kong were there They were all there so I arranged every morning for us to meet with the media We would have a press conference and in the evening we d have a debriefing with the press to satisfy the media so they were not as aggressive as they normally would have been So this is the kind of thing you do in order to keep things from escalating It wouldn t have any effect upon the trial because had there been demonstrations outside the courtroom it certainly would not have helped her in her case It wasn t only CRS it was the Wake County Sheriff s Department the North Carolina State Patrol the State Bureau of Investigation and we all worked harmoniously toward keeping the peace with JoAnn Little Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top At different points the media came to me and said If you can t let us into the meeting will you have a press conference to tell us what s going on I did that and everybody was there including TV and radio This was the lead item on the news for days During the protests and during this final period all I could tell them was about the process that we were going through We have not succeeded in resolving issues in public so now we re going to see if we can resolve it behind closed doors And if we succeed you will be notified as to the results and you can ask questions But until then we will give them this chance to get together and work it out in private That seemed to go over very positively The media coverage of this was expected of course but they gave positive coverage to that meeting Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top We talked yesterday a little bit about power disparity and I think you said that you wouldn t mediate unless there was some close equality of power I was thinking at the time in the criminal justice cases where you have the police and a minority community it seems to me that would be an instance where you have a very vast power difference yet you still I gather mediated How did you deal with that kind of power difference Answer Well you ve got several elements here Publicity and public opinion are factors Say the police did not deal fairly there is always the possibility of publicity around their decisions that would make them look bad if they did this That s outside the room of course There are always potential pressure points that the minority community can use if they so chose that would make for potential build up of their negotiating position such as in the Portland case I mentioned They were up against a very strong rigid position yet they were able to change that position That kind of potential is always out there if it s resorted to and usually does not reflect well on say the institution that is involved Bob Hughes Full Interview Topic Top Did you ever do any mediation with the press involved Answer No Let me think if there was any No Question So the way you dealt with the media was to tell them that there s a process and this is what the process and we ll tell you the results when they come out Answer Yes And I don t recall any instances where either of the parties went to the media and violated that group rule Question Did any of the parties ever demand having the media present or give a report in order to continue any negotiation process Answer No I don t think so I remember one case where the media tried every way they could to get as close to us as they could We were in that Portland case and we were meeting in this conference room and it had big windows Low and behold I was facing the windows and the parties were on either side of this long table and I suddenly realized as my focus went out the window there was a camera team set up on the roof of the building across the street aimed right at us To us it was a joke because of course they didn t know what was being said but we laughed at it and closed the blinds or something like that or waved at them but that was funny Julian Klugman Full Interview Topic Top The media doesn t just report news they sometimes make the news and they do it in ways which don t necessarily have anything to do with really what s going on They re selling something so they want to prolong it Efrain Martinez Full Interview Topic Top For example in this issue in Houston the media finally got a hold of it because I made it public with the consent of the parties I did a presentation for a national panel I knew that it was going

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