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  • Conservation - California Native Plant Society
    Garden Arboretums Botanic Gardens Invasive Weeds Pest Mgmt Invasive Weeds Managing Pests Native Plant Lists Horticultural Research Gardening Blog About the Program Rare Plant Inventory Lichens of Conservation Concern Rare Plant Ranking System Ranks 2A and 2B Rare Plant Data Status Review Process Rare Plant Forums Rare Plant Status Review Rare Plant Phenology Rare Plant Photos Locally Rare Plants Botanical Survey Guidelines Rare Plant Treasure Hunt Background and Results Volunteer Signup RPTH Event Calendar Critical Rare Plant Data Needs Data Collection Reporting Annual RPTH Award Winners Stories from the Field Funding and Support Rare Campaign About the Program Vegetation Program Services Manual of CA Vegetation The Online Manual 2009 2nd Edition of the Manual State Natural Communities List MCV State Classification List Vegetation Sampling Classification Mapping Mapping Guidelines Field Forms Protocols Classification Map Reports Sampler Newsletters Alliances Associations Vegetation Resources Vegetation Program Initiatives Carrizo Plain NM Veg Project Grassland Initiative MCV Database Project N Sierra Foothills Veg Map S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Conservation Program About the Program Actions Archives Statewide Initiatives Chapter Conservation Map Past Initiatives Comment Letters Legislation Tracker Why Conserve Rare Plants Conservation Resources Positions Policies California Native Plant Week Forestry Program Weburg v Board of Forestry Botanical protections on private timberlands continue to be upheld thanks to the vigilance of Forestry Program volunteers and botanists at the Department of Fish and Game DFG In a case monitored by the Forestry Program since 2001 the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection CDF recently rejected a Timber Harvesting Plan THP that did not adequately address botanical issues When the original plan was denied the landowner sued the Board of Forestry Weburg v Board of Forestry and CNPS filed an amicus brief to legally support the agency s position that CNPS

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/conservation/forestry/weburg.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Conservation - California Native Plant Society
    higher density stands are definitely a conservation priority for Joshua tree woodland they must not be the type and density that defines a DRECP conservation requirement We recommend removing the term dense from Joshua tree woodland natural community BGOs If the term is not removed the NVCS membership rule of 1 canopy cover should define dense Joshua tree woodland For a subsequent draft revision we recommend establishing a range of conservation targets for Joshua tree woodland whereby a 100 aerial extent BGO target is set for the uncommon 5 canopy cover stands of Joshua tree and for Joshua tree woodlands in transitional habitat areas In other areas a lower aerial extent target could be appropriate We offer the following model from which to build quantitative BGOs for Joshua tree woodland and other rare natural communities within the DRECP Plan Area a Conserve 100 of the aerial extent of Joshua tree woodland alliance with 5 canopy cover within the subareas where they occur See Joshua tree conflicts in Bird Spring Canyon related to the proposed Tehachapi Wind project and SRMA that highlight the need for this conservation target b Conserve 100 of the aerial extent of Joshua tree woodland alliance with 1 canopy cover in priority transitional habitat areas where the community has the potential to expand its range across elevation and temperature gradients in response to climate change Some of these are within Preferred Alternative DFAs Because of their location in potential transitional habitat and their uncommon density their conservation should be a high priority c Conserve 95 of the aerial extent of Joshua tree woodland alliance with 1 canopy cover within the subareas where they occur d Conserve Joshua tree woodland alliance with 1 canopy cover to the maximum extent practicable as per the avoidance and minimization CMA for Joshua tree woodland See below for recommendations for Joshua tree CMA language ii Revise DRECP Joshua tree distribution map see Figures JT 1 Large Small JT 2 Large Small JT 3 Large Small JT 4 Large Small JT 5 Large Small and JT 6 Large Small Three vegetation maps that identify Joshua tree woodland at the alliance level are publicly available the 2013 DRECP vegetation map the 2013 revised Joshua Tree National Park JTNP vegetation map and the 2004 Mojave Desert Ecosystem Project MDEP vegetation map The draft DRECP Joshua tree map Appendix C Figure C 17 displays a combination of Joshua tree woodland distribution from the 2013 DRECP and 2013 JTNP vegetation maps but not the 2004 MDEP map Rather the DRECP combines the MDEP Joshua tree information into its related vegetation Macrogroup the Mojave and Great Basin upper bajada and toe slope MGUT community Furthermore Joshua tree woodland alliance mapped by the MDEP within the CDCA but outside the DRECP boundary has been clipped from the draft DRECP map since it is not a resource within the Plan Area As a result important Joshua tree woodland areas originally in the MDEP map that occur in important CDCA LUPA conservation areas are indistinguishable from the aggregated MGUT layer and become in practice invisible to planning and conservation considerations A revised DRECP must include a complete Joshua tree woodland distribution map CNPS recommends revising the DRECP distribution map for Joshua tree alliance to show all available mapped distribution information for California This can improve conservation planning decisions by helping to prioritize conservation actions for Joshua tree especially at the periphery of its range and or where populations have the opportunity to expand into new transitional habitats without direct management intervention i e assisted migration A more complete map will also better illustrate where this community occurs within proposed BLM LUPA designations and add to the importance and relevance of administering proposed ACECs and or NLCSs for Joshua tree conservation iii Revise BLM LUPA ACEC NLCS worksheet language to state that Joshua tree woodland natural community conservation is a management priority For proposed ACEC NLCS designations on lands with Joshua tree woodland natural community occurrences CNPS recommends adding language to the BLM LUPA worksheets that will highlight the importance and relevance of conserving Joshua tree through the administration of these designations We propose the following language to be added to NLCS designation worksheets listed below Joshua tree woodland is an iconic natural community of the Mojave Desert that supports a high biological diversity including nesting habitat for native birds and a food source for Mohave ground squirrels Joshua tree woodland vegetation alliance has a rank of S3 and is threatened by many factors including development grazing vandalism direct removal habitat fragmentation exposure to increased wildfire from the result of continuing urbanization and agricultural expansion and climate change Management of the name ACEC NLCS will address the conservation of Joshua tree woodlands by monitoring population trends removing and or preventing threats to this natural community and taking remedial actions when impacts to Joshua tree woodland occurs List of LUPA designations to which Joshua tree language should be added Cerro Gordo Congolomerate Mesa ACEC designation Castle Mountain NLCS designation Shadow Valley and Halloran Wash ACEC NLCS designations Old Woman Springs Wildlife Linkage NLCS designation Granite Mountain corridor ACEC designation Jawbone Butterbredt ACEC add language via expansion NLCS designation Kelso Creek Monkeyflower ACEC add language to existing ACEC CNPS does not support removal of ACEC and incorporation into Jawbone Butterbredt Middle Knob NLCS designation iv Prioritize Joshua tree conservation in potential transitional habitat areas Below we identify five areas within the DRECP Plan Area and one outside the DRECP boundary but within the CDCA LUPA boundary where elevation and climate gradients occur that could provide favorable conditions for future Joshua tree recruitment and or range expansion under changing climate conditions Many of these areas occur across BLM managed lands that are proposed or capable of being proposed for conservation designation through the DRECP LUPA process Although each of these areas is consistent with draft BGO Goal L1 and Objective L1 4 and the information presented in the following Figures JT 7 13 JT 7 Large Small JT 8 Large Small JT 9 Large Small JT 10 Large Small JT 11 Large Small JT 12 Large Small JT 13 Large Small is available though not easily accessible within the DRECP none of the six areas shown are noted in the Plan for Joshua tree woodland conservation Along with the lack of quantitative BGO conservation targets for natural communities we highlight these areas as examples of additional analysis and revisions needed in the draft DRECP Western Antelope Valley Tehachapi Mountains transitional habitat Figure JT 9 Large Small Western Antelope Valley into the Tehachapi Mountains Some of the densest woodlands occur on private lands in Kern County within a developing wind resource area Other stands occur across BLM checkerboard lands These are priority for long term conservation and management through LUPA conservation designations Add conservation and management of Joshua tree to proposed LUPA NLCS ACEC designations in this area including Middle Knob Jawbone Butterbredt and Kelso Creek Monkeyflower and Tehachapi Linkage units Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains transitional habitat Figure JT 10 Large Small Ensemble climate model projections for Joshua tree woodland in the Tehachapi and Southern Sierra Nevada SSN mountains developed by The Nature Conservancy TNC categorize lands along the SSN boundary from low to high habitat stress for Joshua tree woodland Model results point to areas of lower habitat stress for Joshua tree under several future climate scenarios occurring on lands west of HW 395 north of the Kern Inyo County line and into the SSN range See Figure JT10 3 Much of this area occurs on BLM managed lands west of Rose Valley along the Inyo Tulare County line and bordering the eastern boundaries of the Inyo and Sequoia National Forests Figure JT 8a Large Small We recommend managing lands across this area to conserve Joshua tree woodland and transitional habitat from Rose Valley into the Southern Sierra Nevada mountains Joshua tree stands occur across BLM managed lands in this area however new vegetation mapping for Joshua tree is needed to map their distribution with accuracy A composite range map of available vegetation maps literature search results and expert opinion was compiled by Kenneth Cole and others in 2003 This range map together with TNC forecast model results provide a guide to transitional Joshua tree range in this area Centennial Flats Conglomerate Mesa transitional habitat Figure JT 11 Large Small This is another important area and one where the Joshua tree population is exhibiting vigorous regeneration Joshua tree individuals 40cm or less in height which generally correspond to 10 15 years growth 4 are scattered throughout this transitional margin between the Mojave and Great Basin Desert ecoregions Additional Joshua tree habitat occurs in Lower Centennial Flat and the extensive Joshua tree habitat in Santa Rita Flat to the north of the Talc City Hills near the Death Valley National Park boundary Both these areas will be increasingly important for Joshua tree recruitment and survival as climate change further effects desert landscapes These and other ecologically significant lands harboring Joshua tree woodlands should also be designated for conservation through the DRECP BLM LUPA process We recommend designating Upper and Lower Centennial Flats as NLCS lands as proposed in Alternative 2 Joshua tree woodland conservation must be a priority management goal for this designation Shadow Valley Mesquite Mountains Kingston Range transitional habitat Figure JT 12 Large Small Shadow Valley rising north into the Mesquite and Kingston mountain ranges Include the conservation and management of Joshua tree woodland community as a resource management priority for the NLCS designation proposed for Shadow Valley in the DRECP Preferred Alternative Lucerne Valley transitional habitat Figure JT 13 Large Small Lucerne Valley into the San Gabriel mountains and San Bernardino NF Include conservation and management of Joshua tree woodland microphyll woodlands and other rare S1 S3 ranked natural communities as resource conservation priorities within proposed ACEC and NLCS designations in the DRECP Preferred Alternative Refine Johnson Valley DFA boundaries to avoid the densest stands of Joshua tree and of creosote clones natural communities Refine Lucerne DFA to avoid 1 cover Joshua tree woodland stands microphyll woodlands and other rare natural communities Pinon Hills Countyline transitional habitat ACEC Figure JT 14 Large Small Conserve Joshua tree habitat on BLM managed lands near Pinon Hills CA by pulling the DFA boundary to the north of CA HW 18 and make conservation of Joshua tree woodland a management priority on BLM parcels south of HW 18 v Establish an avoidance and minimization CMA for Joshua tree woodlands in DFAs At the project level draft DRECP CMAs for JT and all other natural communities will default to doing a habitat assessment based on available map information and surveys as described in CMA AM PW 1 and Appendix H The loss of Joshua tree woodland as the result of projects within proposed DFAs should be recognized by the DRECP agencies as a significant impact from covered activities unless mitigated below a significant level The draft DRECP needs to include a more stringent CMA for natural communities that occur within DFAs including Joshua tree woodland We off the following mitigation concepts related to Joshua tree for inclusion in a revised CMA Joshua tree woodland on project sites should be avoided and preserved in perpetuity from further development If avoidance is not feasible off site Joshua tree woodland of equal or superior quality should be acquired at no less than a 1 1 mitigation ratio where a minimum of 1 1 mitigation ratio should be employed only for degraded Joshua tree woodland habitat Greater than 1 1 mitigation is required for impacts to higher quality habitat The 2013 DRECP vegetation map includes 5 specific attributes that quantify disturbance within Joshua tree habitat occurring within the DFAs of the Western Mojave and Eastern Slopes ecoregion subarea These habitat quality map attributes along with project level habitat assessment can be used to determine woodland habitat quality and appropriate mitigation ratios Mitigation for remaining Joshua tree woodland must occur within the same subarea to avoid local extirpation and promote population resiliency to climate change Acquired habitat should be adjacent to large tracts of existing Joshua tree woodland that have been identified by resource agencies as having a high priority for acquisition for conservation All mitigation lands preserved on site or acquired off site should be deeded to a local land conservancy and protected in perpetuity under a conservation easement to prohibit incompatible uses on the site Salvage and transplantation of Joshua trees should not be considered the default mitigation action for loss of Joshua tree woodland vegetative communities as these methods are experimental and there are no assurances of their success If used as mitigation and or restoration action of last resort CNPS recommends following Joshua tree salvage transplantation and management protocols practiced by BLM Nevada Las Vegas District and by the California Wildlands Conservancy Both entities have transplanted Joshua tree individuals while monitoring and measuring their success and failure and tracking resources required to maintain transplanted individuals over several years Summary of recommendations for Joshua tree woodlands i Establish clear quantitative and measurable Plan wide BGOs for Joshua tree ii Revise the draft DRECP to include a more complete map of areas where Joshua tree woodland alliance has been mapped to date iii Revise LUPA ACEC and or NLCS worksheet language to identify Joshua tree woodland as a natural resource conservation priority within ACECs and NLCSs where Joshua tree woodlands occur iv Prioritize conservation designations and management actions for Joshua tree woodlands in areas of potential range expansion under changing climate conditions including establishing new ACECs where priority habitats occur on currently undesignated BLM managed lands v Establish an avoidance and minimization CMA for Joshua tree woodlands in DFAs Microphyll Woodlands Microphyll woodlands are desert woodlands comprised of specific vegetation alliances typically associated with the desert wash systems that provide high quality habitat values for desert birds mammals and reptiles The general term microphyll woodlands includes four vegetation alliances that occur across the Plan Area Chilopsis linearis alliance Desert willow Prosopis glandulosa alliance Mesquite Psorothamnus spinosus alliance Smoke tree and Parkinsonia florida Olneya tesota alliance Blue palo verde Ironwood Desert willow Mesquite and Smoke tree are rare vegetation alliances A significant portion of all Blue palo verde Ironwood alliance distribution in California occurs within and adjacent to the Riverside East DFA SEZ All four microphyll woodland vegetation alliances are classified within the broader NVCS vegetation Group Sonoran Coloradan semi desert wash woodland scrub SCOWS In the DRECP all microphyll woodlands alliances are treated under the SCOWS natural community heading Therefore all BGOs and CMAs that apply to SCOWS cover microphyll woodlands In terms of vegetation classification hierarchy the microphyll woodland containing natural community SCOWS along with the Mojavean semi desert wash scrub MOWS natural community both belong within the vegetation MacroGroup Madrean Warm Semi Desert Wash Woodland Scrub or MAWW natural community This has relevance to microphyll woodlands since all microphyll woodlands belong within both the SCOWS Group natural community and the MAWW MacroGroup natural community BGO and CMA references Therefore all Plan references to SCOWS and or MAWW natural communities can apply to microphyll woodlands including map references BGOs and CMAs Our comments regarding the insufficient conservation value of draft BGOs and CMAs for the Joshua tree woodland natural community extend to the microphyll woodland natural community DRECP natural community map information for microphyll woodland distribution are incomplete and need revision The draft Plan lacks quantitative conservation targets for microphyll woodlands and CMAs for microphyll woodland communities must be strengthened i The draft DRECP microphyll woodland map and BGO subarea list are incomplete and need to be revised Figure MW 1 Large Small displays the DRECP microphyll woodland map available on the DRECP DataBasin Gateway 5 Figure MW 2 Large Small displays the distribution of all microphyll woodland alliance polygons extracted from publicly available map datasets containing microphyll woodland alliance layers 6 And Figure MW 3 displays the distribution by alliance There are microphyll woodland mesquite stands in Preferred Alternative DFAs within the West Mojave and Eastern Slopes subarea that do not appear on the DRECP microphyll woodland map or the DRECP SCOWS natural community map Appendix C Figure C 25 See Figure MW 3 Large Small The West Mojave and Eastern Slopes subarea needs to be added to the BGO for the SCOWS natural community Appendix C p C 19 as one of the Plan subareas where microphyll woodlands occur There are additional microphyll communities that do not appear on DRECP maps that intersect or are adjacent to the Charleston View DFA and Variance lands in Mesquite Valley both within the Kingston and Funeral Mountains subarea The Mesquite Valley mesquite bosque UPA occurs here yet this microphyll vegetation does not appear on DRECP maps The area encircling the mesquite bosque is designated Variance land that should be removed to protect this example of a vanishing groundwater dependent microphyll community type Figure MW 3 Large Small More microphyll woodland occurs within the Daggett Triangle DFA in the Mojave and Silurian Valley subarea Including these woodland areas on DRECP maps will help identify potential development conflicts with these resources The draft DRECP appears to have overlooked these rare natural community occurrences Figure MW 3 Large Small It is not clear how the DRECP baseline acreage totals for microphyll woodlands were calculated There is no explanation within draft Plan documents and acreages listed within the attribute table of the DRECP microphyll woodland map are confusing For example all records sourced from the NECO vegetation map are duplicated within the attribute table If baseline acreage was calculated using this data table then we question the veracity of the values that appear in the Baseline Biology Natural Communities table Appendix Q Table 4 1 More importantly as with Joshua tree woodland natural community the baseline mapping and acreage calculations for microphyll woodland needs to be revised and reanalyzed and the methods used clarified ii establish quantitative measurable BGO conservation targets for microphyll woodland natural communities The Plan lacks quantitative conservation targets for natural communities e g aerial extent of community to be conserved The DRECP December Document 2012 and Spring 2013 BGO Driver memos cited above all indicated that target conservation percentages would be used to drive the DRECP conservation strategy The draft Plan provides no explanation or rationale for abandoning this strategy Our concern with the lack of quantitative conservation targets extends to dune communities and all other rare S1 S3 ranked natural communities We recommend the draft DRECP be revised to among other things reestablish quantitative BGOs for microphyll woodlands and other natural communities With them the process for determining allowable impacts becomes more transparent Without them it is unclear how one can assess the efficacy of the DRECP conservation strategy or by what measure the DRECP Coordinating Group would evaluate cumulative impacts from previously permitted impacts and conservation when determining whether or not to allow unavoidable impacts to resources iii clarify what activities if any are allowed within riparian and wetland buffers The purpose of riparian and wetland avoidance and setback buffers CMA AM DFA RIPWET 1 p II 3 48 are to avoid and minimize impacts to riparian wash species and natural communities The draft DRECP is not clear regarding what activities if any would be allowable within buffers and setbacks The draft is not clear whether there is avoidance from all covered activities within buffers and whether all proposed incursions into buffers will be reviewed and decided by DRECP Coordination Committee Additionally if incursions into buffers and setbacks fall into the unavoidable impacts to resources category then the plan needs to clarify what criteria will be considered when making determinations about what activities are allowable within buffers Summary of recommendations for microphyll woodlands i Revise the draft DRECP microphyll woodland map and BGO subarea list ii Establish quantitative measurable BGO conservation targets for microphyll woodland natural communities iii Clarify what activities if any are allowed within riparian and wetland buffers Other DRECP Natural Communities Crucifixion thorn Crucifixion thorn Castela emoryi is not listed as a component of the SCOWS natural community and should be added to this list as a rare S1 1 special stand Since the original CDCA Plan Crucifixion thorn stands have been recognized for enhanced conservation by BLM through the Unusual Plan Assemblage UPA designation The draft DRECP recognizes rare special stands of vegetation technically not an alliance and provides conservation measures for them as exemplified by Wislizenia refracta a special stand of dune vegetation listed in the North American warm desert dunes and sand flats community The same treatment must be applied to Crucifixion thorn special stands Additionally botanists have recently documented perhaps the largest Crucifixion thorn stand in California north of the Rice Valley wilderness area This occurrence falls within the proposed Chuckwalla Chemehuevi desert tortoise linkage ACEC We recommend the following language be added to the Vegetation section of the BLM worksheet for this proposed designation Appendix L1 Part5 2 Management Action Protect special status vegetation including rare plants and rare natural communities including Crucifixion thorn Castela emoryi special stands The largest documented Crucifixion thorn population in California occurs in Rice Valley within this ACEC as described in Bell and Herskovits 2013 7 We have included the Bell and Herskovits article as an attachment for your reference Wetland CMA requirements It is not clear whether the ALSH and SOMA natural communities are included under Other Riparian and Wetland Related Features in Table II 3 6 and thereby require a 200 foot RIPWET avoidance setback This needs to be clarified in subsequent Plan revision Additional LRO natural community A Locally Rare Occurrence LRO designation should be applied to the Sarcobatus vermiculatus alliance within the Wetland Communities natural community It meets the same description of a natural community LRO as those currently labeled as LRO Elements of the draft that should be retained in future revisions Some elements of the draft DRECP s conservation framework for natural communities represent parts of a strong foundation for a desert wide conservation strategy We strongly recommend that they be retained in subsequent Plan revisions These include Identification of Locally Rare Occurrences LROs of natural communities within the Baseline Biology Report s Natural Communities table and an excellent description of the ecological and evolutionary importance of these peripheral populations and rationale for their conservation in the Plan Area see Chapter III 7 4 Section Ecological Context of Plan Area pp III 7 31 32 Identification of natural communities using national vegetation classification standards NVCS including identification of vegetation Alliances and Special Stands e g Wislizenia refracta Special Stands in the SAND community especially Alliances and Special Stands with state rarity ranks of S1 S2 or S3 and more common Alliances that have uncommon desert representation i e Locally Rare Occurrences or LRO This can facilitate planning by allowing agencies and stakenholders to speak the same language when discussing natural community conservation The acreage of Variance lands has been reduced in the Preferred Alternative though additional acreage still needs to be removed e g see Mesquite Flats notes above The process of refiltering Variance land areas demonstrates that through the DRECP there can be a process of considering new information and revising Plan Area designations based on that information in a manner that can both improve conservation through avoidance and improve project siting by elimination high conflict areas from development potential The 2013 DRECP Vegetation Map provides alliance scale mapping of approximately 7 million acres of Plan Area Of equal importance to planning is the attribute information available in the map s geodatabase This information can facilitate the prioritization of conservation decisions e g 5 terrestrial disturbance related attributes associated with every mapped polygon that can be used to quantify which areas of mapped natural communities are higher quality and less impacted than others 8 We recommend facilitating the accessibility of this information via the DRECP DataBasin Gateway top of page 2 Refining Preferred Alternative DFAs There are areas of DFAs proposed in the Preferred Alternative that should be refined in order to avoid sensitive biological resources important ecological processes and project siting conflicts We recommend making the following DFA refinements Riverside East DFA The draft DRECP specifies a 200 setback for microphyll woodlands MW and several other covered natural communities CMA AM DFA RIPWET 1 Circled areas on the map in Figure LUPA 1 Large Small highlight areas of dense microphyll woodland and other rare MOWS SCOWS riparian natural communities where siting of PV modules would be challenging without extensive removal of microphyll woodland These areas should redesignated from DFA and Solar PEIS SEZ to ACECs as described below 1 McCoy Wash area Figures LUPA 2 Large Small LUPA 3 Large Small LUPA 4 Large Small LUPA 5 Large Small Microphyll woodland washes cover areas on both sides of upper McCoy Wash Desert lavender rare and Blue palo verde Ironwood vegetation alliances require a 200 setback Because of budget and timing constraints the 2013 DRECP vegetation mapping effort adopted a 90 minimum mapping width for microphyll woodlands Project level vegetation mapping as per CMA AM PW 1 and Appendix H will delineate additional stands that meet the NVCS membership rules for microphyll woodlands 9 and are 90 feet wide further complicating the siting of PV arrays due to the density of microphyll woodland channels and associated setback buffers see Figure LUPA 3 Large Small and LUPA 5 Large Small for examples To conserve microphyll woodlands and avoid complications with project siting we recommend refining both the Preferred Alternative DFA and the Solar PIES SEZ boundaries to the southeast in alignment with the proposed Alternative 3 DFA boundary for this area Figure LUPA 14 Large Small The Alternative 3 DFA boundary conforms to the microphyll woodland wash avoidance approach we have described We further recommend that avoided lands be redesignated from DFA SEZ to ACEC and thereby expand the McCoy Wash ACEC designation proposed in the Preferred Alternative 2 Blythe Variance lands Figure LUPA 6 Large Small We apply the same rationale and approach for refining the DFA SEZ boundary around upper McCoy Wash to the Blythe Variance lands where the draft DRECP has already modified this Solar PEIS Variance area to remove delineated microphyll woodlands 90 feet wide from Variance designation Setback buffers would still need to be established Those buffers along with additional woodlands 90 wide will further complicate solar siting Therefore we recommend this area should be redesignated from Variance to McCoy Valley ACEC to protect microphyll woodland habitat 3 Southwest of McCoy Peak Figures LUPA 7 Large Small LUPA 8 Large Small Lands to the southwest of the McCoy Mountains and north of I 10 are another example of where densely braided microphyll washes present likely insurmountable challenges to designing a viable solar project footprint As for other like areas nearby we recommend refining the DFA boundary to the Alternative 3 boundary at this area and redesignating lands to into the McCoy Valley ACEC This will also increase connectivity within the DRECP NCCP Reserve lands across this area 5 Palen Dunes area Figures LUPA 9 Large Small LUPA 10 Large Small LUPA 11 Large Small Microphyll woodlands bordering the Palen Mountain wilderness rare Dune natural communities a rare Wetland community and an aeolian sand transport corridor make this area biologically rich and important to conserve and logistically challenging to develop Figure LUPA 11 Large Small shows where an aeolian sand transport corridor mixes with alluvial fans flowing downslope from the Palen Mountains wilderness These mixed soils support dense microphyll woodlands Blue palo verde Ironwood Dense microphyll woodland communities unstable soils and a sand transport corridor make this place a logistical challenge for project siting We recommend modifying the DFA boundary to avoid microphyll and rare dune natural communities and the Aeolian transport corridor as per Alternative 3 s DFA alignment Previously designated DFA lands should be redesignated as Palen Ford ACEC lands 5 Desert Center area Figures LUPA 12 Large Small LUPA 13 Large Small d Revise DFA and SEZ by removing from both DFA and SEZ designation all BLM managed lands south of Desert Center airport and north of I 10 and BLM managed lands immediately north of Desert Center to private land boundary These are lands that are logistically impracticable for PV due to density of MW channels and buffers Expand ACEC designation into MW areas removed from DFA Silurian Valley DFA Silurian Valley should be redesignated as NLCS lands and removed from SAA designation CNPS along with a coalition of conservation groups and local community stakeholders have submitted comments previously and often regarding the value and importance of an undeveloped Silurian Valley West Mojave DFAs As discussed in Section II project siting in DFAs along the north and south margins of the Antelope Valley will need to avoid significant populations of Joshua tree woodland and several rare natural community types that are living and evolving across the margins of their ranges Some of the rare natural communities living along these marginal lands occur more commonly elsewhere but represent Locally Rare Occurrences LROs in this part of the desert characterized by climate soil and elevational gradients California juniper Juniperus californica alliance Nevada joint fir scrub Ephedra nevadensis alliance and California poppy fields Eschscholzia californica alliance are examples of LRO communities living at the boundary of their ranges and in places within DFAs Figure LUPA 15 Large Small maps areas along the margins of Antelope Valley where rare natural communities living on the edges of their range are in conflict with DFA designations Lands south of HW 18 in the El Mirage Valley DFA are rich in higher density Joshua tree woodlands and a suite of rare natural communities Moving the DFA boundary north of HW 18 would avoid almost all these important communities The same issues occur on DFA designated lands near Palmdale in Fremont Valley and at the western most reaches of Antelope Valley We recommend selectively removing some Antelope Valley DFA lands to conserve components of these rare communities as per the intent of the Plan Wide BGO L1 and associated Objective L1 4 Johnson Valley DFA The proposed Johnson Valley DFA includes some of the oldest creosote plants discovered in the Mojave Desert to date The Soggy Dry Lake Creosote Rings ACEC was designated to protect creosote rings that have been estimated to reach over 10 000 years of age Even the average age of individual creosote bushes in this unique plant assemblage is likely well over 600 years old well beyond the projected life of this plan The contribution of these ancient creosote bushes to our global carbon sequestration equation is just now becoming more fully appreciated Deep rooted long lived desert plants have been documented to sequester CO2 along the hyphae of their connected mycorrhizal root partners and the longer lived the plants the more they contribute to the long term sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere Besides risking damage or destruction of clonal creosote rings that have garnered focused international scientific attention earned special designation by BLM and won approval by Congress for inclusion in an ACEC the loss of millennia old plants that began growing right after our last ice age in order to install a short term technology would be a tragic loss of heritage ecological stability and long term environmental benefit The Johnson Valley DFA must be modified to avoid large contiguous and representative areas of dense creosote clone ring occurrences top of page 3 NLCS and ACEC LUPA Designations CNPS does not support modifying the designations of any existing ACECs or DWMAs through the DRECP LUPA process including but not limited to the Barstow wooly sunflower Kelso Creek monkeyflower Mojave monkeyflower Parish s Phacelia and Soggy Dry Lake creosote clone ring ACECs We do support the following designations proposed in the Preferred Alternative Chuckwalla to Chemehuevi Tortoise Linkage ACEC NLCS We support the Preferred Alternative s proposed designation of the Chuckwalla to Chemehuevi Tortoise Linkage to ACEC NLCS lands This would provide the opportunity to protect a significant and newly documented population of Crucifixion thorn in Rice Valley As noted above in Section II botanists from the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden have recently documented perhaps the largest Crucifixion thorn stand in California north of the Rice Valley wilderness area This occurrence falls within the proposed Chuckwalla Chemehuevi desert tortoise linkage ACEC We recommend the following language be added to the Vegetation section of the BLM worksheet for this proposed designation Appendix L1 Part5 2 in order to incorporate the protection and management of this rare natural community into the ACEC NLCS as a Vegetation management priority Vegetation Management Action Protect special status vegetation including rare plants and rare natural communities including Crucifixion thorn Castela emoryi special stands The largest documented Crucifixion thorn population in California occurs in Rice Valley within this ACEC as described in Bell and Herskovits 2013 10 We have included the Bell and Herskovits article as an attachment for your reference McCoy Valley ACEC As described above we recommend refining the Riverside East DFA and SEZ boundaries to avoid dense braided channels of microphyll woodlands and incorporate the undevelopable lands into the McCoy Valley ACEC A DFA alignment as proposed for this area in Alternative 3 would avoid removal of hundreds to thousands of acres of microphyll woodlands that would be necessary to site utility scale projects here see Figures LUPA 2 Large Small LUPA 3 Large Small LUPA 4 Large Small LUPA 5 Large Small and LUPA 14 Large Small Cadiz Valley The Cadiz Valley Iron Mountains region consisting of approximately 188 540 total acres is located in both San Bernardino and Riverside Counties south of the town of Cadiz The region is undoubtedly one of the most scenic and undeveloped areas remaining in the California desert In fact the region includes the largest remaining unprotected roadless area in southeastern California Only the northern portion of the Cadiz Valley Iron Mountain region is included in the National Conservation Lands in the Preferred Alternative It is critically important that with the exception of salt mines the Colorado River Aqueduct and other developments the remainder of this highly scenic ecologically important and still largely wild region be included as well Both north and south portions of Cadiz Valley should be added to BLM s NLCS for its wildlife values intactness and remoteness Creating further anthropogenic disturbance and habitat fragmentation in these areas would contradict the basic conservation principle of maintaining habitat resiliency particularly in light of climate change and contradict the conservation goals of the DRECP Castle Mountains CNPS supports the designation of the Castle Mountains ACEC The Castle Mountains are a fantastic example of the great diversity of relatively small mountain ranges in the California deserts Though only about 30 square miles the Castle Mountains are are home to over 30 rare plant species and hundreds of common species Walk any ridgeline or wash and you will find unique and interesting plant species some of which are found only in this rugged corner of the Mojave such as canyon bird s foot Lotus argyraeus var multicaulis and the showy pinto beardtongue Penstemon bicolor The center of the Castle Mountains is rugged and rocky with hidden canyons containing a diversity of rare desert annuals including nine awned pappus grass Enneapogon desvauxii and Clark Mountain spurge Euphorbia exstipulata Steep canyons spill out into wide valleys that surround the range They are home to dense and extraordinarily healthy stands of Joshua trees that are part of a desert savannah containing a diversity of native annual and perennial grasses Around two dozen grass species are found here of which half a dozen are rare grasses Some species such as burro grass Scleropogon brevifolius and false buffalo grass Munroa squarrosa are part of unique desert grasslands found nowhere else in California Closer inspection also reveals a plethora of other rare plant populations such as matted cholla Grusonia parishii Abert s sanvitalia aster Sanvitalia abertii and

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/conservation/letters/drecp/ (2016-04-26)
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  • Conservation - California Native Plant Society
    Gardening School Gardens Patio Gardens Sample Garden Plans Ditch Your Lawn Where to Buy Natives Events Calendar Identifying Native Plants Propagation Native Plant Resources For Your Home Garden Arboretums Botanic Gardens Invasive Weeds Pest Mgmt Invasive Weeds Managing Pests Native Plant Lists Horticultural Research Gardening Blog About the Program Rare Plant Inventory Lichens of Conservation Concern Rare Plant Ranking System Ranks 2A and 2B Rare Plant Data Status Review Process Rare Plant Forums Rare Plant Status Review Rare Plant Phenology Rare Plant Photos Locally Rare Plants Botanical Survey Guidelines Rare Plant Treasure Hunt Background and Results Volunteer Signup RPTH Event Calendar Critical Rare Plant Data Needs Data Collection Reporting Annual RPTH Award Winners Stories from the Field Funding and Support Rare Campaign About the Program Vegetation Program Services Manual of CA Vegetation The Online Manual 2009 2nd Edition of the Manual State Natural Communities List MCV State Classification List Vegetation Sampling Classification Mapping Mapping Guidelines Field Forms Protocols Classification Map Reports Sampler Newsletters Alliances Associations Vegetation Resources Vegetation Program Initiatives Carrizo Plain NM Veg Project Grassland Initiative MCV Database Project N Sierra Foothills Veg Map S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Conservation Program About the Program Actions Archives Statewide Initiatives Chapter Conservation Map Past Initiatives Comment Letters Legislation Tracker Why Conserve Rare Plants Conservation Resources Positions Policies California Native Plant Week Conservation Program Legislation Resources Influencing legislative actions requires raising the awareness of plant conservation needs among our elected officials Here is some helpful information for CNPS members who want to communicate effectively with their legislators CNPS Legislative Program Overview A handout to share with CNPS members Words Aren t They Awesome An article summarizing the negative public opinion of the words we use to describe the environment Writing to Your Legislator Some tips

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/conservation/legislation/resources.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Fire and Fuels Management - California Native Plant Society
    in an article by David Chipping in the CNPS Bulletin CNPS Policy on Seeding After Wildfire CNPS Policy on Introduction of Ryegrass CNPS Policy on Shrubland Management Sources for Native Plants in Southern California Sources for Seeds and Bulbs of California Natives Websites and Resources The California Chaparral Institute the voice of the chaparral The San Diego Wildfire Education Project Designed for the public and teachers Web Mapping Services for San Diego 2007 Wildfires Homeowner s Wildfire Mitigation Guide by University of California San Diego Fire Recovery Network Our mission is to foster the recovery of our human and natural environment through sound science public education land and community restoration Articles Books Letters and References Twice Bitten Native Species Now Jeopardized by Rob Davis Voice Staff Writer Nov 5 2007 Here are 80 photos of the fire damage around Bernardo Mountain on the north side of Lake Hodges It shows fire damage to structures and landscaping as well as to part of the San Dieguito River Park Brian M Godfrey The 2007 Fallbrook Fire A Fire In A Suburban Rural Landscape How The Winterwarm Area Was Saved by Tom Chester Protecting Property from Fire Losses pdf by Travis Longcore Ph D Science Director The Urban Wildlands Group Director of Urban Ecological Research USC Center for Sustainable Cities 310 247 9719 This article lays out the relationship between structure loss and fuel modification Fuel mod alone is not the answer see Table 2 Fire Reduction Policies by Kay Stewart An open letter after the 2007 fire Is Home Protection Impossible In San Diego Wildfires by Carrie Schneider Studying the houses that survived the 1993 Laguna Beach fire storm yields lessons in building to withstand the heat from the pages of Fine Homebuilding magazine by John Underwood After the 2003 Fire Revegetation and Recovery In the wake of the disastrous wildfires of 2003 much has been written on what to do now about revegetation whether to seed how to prevent erosion There is much scientific evidence that most native vegetation will recover on its own and that seeding with non native annual grasses can be harmful CNPS has developed policies and guidelines on shrubland management and fire safety Links to those as well as other resources and studies are included below CNPS Policies Guidelines and Resources Advice about Landscaping the Fire Zone in San Diego pdf CNPS Native Plant Landscaping To Reduce Wildfire Risk pdf CNPS Policy on Seeding After Wildfire CNPS Policy on Introduction of Ryegrass CNPS Policy on Shrubland Management Sources for Native Plants in Southern California Sources for Seeds and Bulbs of California Natives Articles Books Letters and References An Assessment of Fuel Treatment Effects on Fire Behavior Suppression Effectiveness and Structure Ignition on the Angora Fire A full report from United States Forest Service on the Angora Fire in the Lake Tahoe Region which started on June 24 2007 PDF 7667K Fuel Age and Shrubland Fire Management pdf The Effect of a Short Interval Between Fires in California

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  • 2011 Conservation Symposium - California Native Plant Society
    Certification Planning Your Garden Getting Started Habitat Gardening School Gardens Patio Gardens Sample Garden Plans Ditch Your Lawn Where to Buy Natives Events Calendar Identifying Native Plants Propagation Native Plant Resources For Your Home Garden Arboretums Botanic Gardens Invasive Weeds Pest Mgmt Invasive Weeds Managing Pests Native Plant Lists Horticultural Research Gardening Blog About the Program Rare Plant Inventory Lichens of Conservation Concern Rare Plant Ranking System Ranks 2A and 2B Rare Plant Data Status Review Process Rare Plant Forums Rare Plant Status Review Rare Plant Phenology Rare Plant Photos Locally Rare Plants Botanical Survey Guidelines Rare Plant Treasure Hunt Background and Results Volunteer Signup RPTH Event Calendar Critical Rare Plant Data Needs Data Collection Reporting Annual RPTH Award Winners Stories from the Field Funding and Support Rare Campaign About the Program Vegetation Program Services Manual of CA Vegetation The Online Manual 2009 2nd Edition of the Manual State Natural Communities List MCV State Classification List Vegetation Sampling Classification Mapping Mapping Guidelines Field Forms Protocols Classification Map Reports Sampler Newsletters Alliances Associations Vegetation Resources Vegetation Program Initiatives Carrizo Plain NM Veg Project Grassland Initiative MCV Database Project N Sierra Foothills Veg Map S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Conservation Program About the Program Actions Archives Statewide Initiatives Chapter Conservation Map Past Initiatives Comment Letters Legislation Tracker Why Conserve Rare Plants Conservation Resources Positions Policies California Native Plant Week 2011 Chapter Council Conservation symposium Reports and presentations from the September 2011 Chapter Council Conservation Symposium San Diego CA 2011 Symposium agenda PDF 15kb Mary Anne Showers California s Threatened and Endangered Plants Rules Regs and Policies PDF 1 2MB Connie Rutherford Plant Conservation in California A Federal Perspective PDF 8 4MB Sue Britting A Case Study CNPS and plant listings PDF 8MB Angie Evanden The

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/conservation/conference/2011/index.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Conservation - California Native Plant Society
    P s of Native Gardening CNPS Landscaper Certification Planning Your Garden Getting Started Habitat Gardening School Gardens Patio Gardens Sample Garden Plans Ditch Your Lawn Where to Buy Natives Events Calendar Identifying Native Plants Propagation Native Plant Resources For Your Home Garden Arboretums Botanic Gardens Invasive Weeds Pest Mgmt Invasive Weeds Managing Pests Native Plant Lists Horticultural Research Gardening Blog About the Program Rare Plant Inventory Lichens of Conservation Concern Rare Plant Ranking System Ranks 2A and 2B Rare Plant Data Status Review Process Rare Plant Forums Rare Plant Status Review Rare Plant Phenology Rare Plant Photos Locally Rare Plants Botanical Survey Guidelines Rare Plant Treasure Hunt Background and Results Volunteer Signup RPTH Event Calendar Critical Rare Plant Data Needs Data Collection Reporting Annual RPTH Award Winners Stories from the Field Funding and Support Rare Campaign About the Program Vegetation Program Services Manual of CA Vegetation The Online Manual 2009 2nd Edition of the Manual State Natural Communities List MCV State Classification List Vegetation Sampling Classification Mapping Mapping Guidelines Field Forms Protocols Classification Map Reports Sampler Newsletters Alliances Associations Vegetation Resources Vegetation Program Initiatives Carrizo Plain NM Veg Project Grassland Initiative MCV Database Project N Sierra Foothills Veg Map S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Conservation Program About the Program Actions Archives Statewide Initiatives Chapter Conservation Map Past Initiatives Comment Letters Legislation Tracker Why Conserve Rare Plants Conservation Resources Positions Policies California Native Plant Week 2010 Focus on Conservation Reports and presentations from the September 2010 Chapter Council Focus on Conservation event September 2010 Ft Bragg CA Protecting Rare Plants PDF 1MB Key Law Provisions Regarding Plants PDF 164kb The Rare Plant Treasure Hunt Overview of the First Year PDF 2 6MB The Rare Plant Status Review Process PDF 1MB Conserving Sensitive Botanical Resources

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/conservation/conference/2010/index.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Conservation - California Native Plant Society
    the TR is bounded by and includes portions of the Great Central Valley that is characterized largely by oak savanna and grasslands this land contains the greatest diversity of oaks 8 species and lots of hybrids the Tehachapi in the Southern Sierra Nevada characterized by pine and fir the Mojave Desert with expansive grasslands and southern chaparral from the Transverse Range There are at least 20 plants and animals that have state or federal protection and 61 other rare plants some of these include Striped Adobe lily Bakersfield cactus Tejon poppy and others It s critical habitat for the California Condor and the San Joaquin kit fox and the fully protected Blunt nosed leopard lizard Much of the ranch is still unexplored Five planned projects currently threaten the TR a proposed national cemetery a power plant an industrial complex and two separate huge housing developments The coalition would like to see the area become a national or state park They ve designed bumper stickers Condors not Condos and a beautiful color map and brochure that is a knock off of the National Park Service maps that accompany your entry to any national park They d like CNPS chapters to sign on to the coalition and participate in individual letter signing at the web site CBD will be litigating over the proposed projects FULL PRESENTATION PDF 6 9Mb Planting Natives Implications for genetic pollution Genetic Pollution and the Use of Native Plants in Restoration and Landscaping Speaker Deborah Rogers Director of Conservation Science Center for Natural Lands Management www cnlm org and Conservation Geneticist Genetic Resources Conservation Program University of California SUMMARY Deborah Rogers a conservation geneticist with the non profit Center for Natural Lands Management CNLM www cnlm org spoke about issues relating to genetic pollution resulting from planting natives She spoke about closing the gap between landscaping and genetic restoration and the risks associated with planting natives in the wild potential for invasion vectors for disease and genetic pollution It is difficult to detect or even develop guidelines to detect genetic contamination rarely is sufficient information available and most of it is based on neutral genetic markers not the adaptive portions of the genome the risk of contamination is context dependent there are different spatial scales of adaptation for different traits what we know of adaptation is for past environments so difficult to know the future and it s difficult to determine adaptive genetic variation for threatened or endangered species She related 3 case studies in which CNLM was called in to consult Here are two Case One Muir Woods some memorial trees of unknown genetic origin were planted in the groves are they a source of contamination Unlikely problem since they are few and the naturally occurring trees are many and will likely swamp any genetic contamination Case Two Golden Gate National Recreation Area Accidental introduction of a non local subspecies of Camissona cheiranthifolia beach primrose is becoming both invasive and is also hybridizing with local subspecies Conclusion

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/conservation/conference/2007/index.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Conservation - California Native Plant Society
    State Natural Communities List MCV State Classification List Vegetation Sampling Classification Mapping Mapping Guidelines Field Forms Protocols Classification Map Reports Sampler Newsletters Alliances Associations Vegetation Resources Vegetation Program Initiatives Carrizo Plain NM Veg Project Grassland Initiative MCV Database Project N Sierra Foothills Veg Map S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Conservation Program About the Program Actions Archives Statewide Initiatives Chapter Conservation Map Past Initiatives Comment Letters Legislation Tracker Why Conserve Rare Plants Conservation Resources Positions Policies California Native Plant Week CNPS Conservation Conference 2006 September 9 2006 8 30 am to 5 pm Arcata California AGENDA Google Earth Demonstration A self guided demonstration of this internet based software program was available for previewing by participants Free access to software and images is on the web http earth google com Time Topic Speaker 8 30 8 35 Welcome and overview of the day Sue Britting 8 35 8 50 CNPS Conservation Overview of state program for 2007 2008 Amanda Jorgenson 8 50 9 05 Overview of Regional Planning Information on the variety of land management planning efforts in which CNPS might participate Handout Land management plans of interest to CNPS doc 40k Sue Britting 9 05 10 05 General Plans and Plant Conservation A presentation on the county general planning process including the amendment process and zoning ordinances Handouts Gov Code Open Space sections pdf 38k General Plan Guidelines Overview 2003 pdf 1 9m General Plan updates from Book of Lists 2006 pdf 862k CNPS quick guide to GPs pdf 18k General and Regional Planning V2 doc 43k Keith Wagner 10 05 10 30 One case study on chapter experience with general planning San Luis Obispo David Chipping 10 30 10 45 BREAK 10 45 11 30 Conservation of locally rare plants Presentation CNPS locally

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