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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Document Archive Document Archive Policy with Regard to Plant Collecting for Educational Purposes Adopted June 1993 PDF Version The California Native Plant Society CNPS supports the use of plant and wildflower collections as a valid means of providing students at many educational levels with knowledge of and appreciation for the wonder diversity and beauty of plant life However to avoid breaking the law or damaging the viability of populations of plants the instructor must make known several important points to the students who will be making the collections There are two levels of collection for educational and scientific purposes which are considered in this policy 1 Collection of plant specimens for herbaria and 2 Collections of plant and wildflower specimens for lower level science and biology classes Most of the considerations discussed apply to both levels It is illegal to collect plants along a highway right of way in National Parks National Monuments or National Forests State Parks or most local parks without a collecting permit Plants and wildflowers growing in such locations are part of a natural system designed for public enjoyment and in most cases should be left to natural processes Permits for collecting plants must be obtained from the appropriate supervising agency It is legal and permissible to collect wildflowers on private lands provided that permission of the landowner is obtained Particularly appropriate sites for collection are lands slated for development It is the responsibility of the instructor to ensure that the students are made aware of rare plants endemic to the area in which the collecting is to take place and to caution the students against collecting these plants It is not appropriate and there are substantial penalties to allow collection of rare or

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/collecting.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    be consistent with the Policy that CNPS focuses on plants The Board of Directors has adopted the following guidelines and statements of policy to assist chapters and individuals of the Society in participating in these procedures I CNPS may respond to Notices of Preparation NOP of draft documents to identify to the agency concerns which in our opinion need to be addressed in the preparation of the environmental impact document Of particular interest is notification of unusual plant or plant community values which may not be reported in the open literature or published data bases Important impacts of the project on plant resources should be identified II CNPS will evaluate Draft Environmental Impact documents Environmental Assessments EAs Wetland Fill Applications and Negative Declarations to determine that the document Accurately reflects the existing plant cover within the project area Notes the presence or absence of listed or candidate rare or endangered species or plants considered to be sensitive or important from a local perspective Is consistent with the current CNPS Mitigation Guidelines Regarding Impacts To Rare Threatened and Endangered Plants States procedures to minimize destruction of plant resources Where feasible proposes re establishment of appropriate plant cover to maintain aesthetic values and provide site stability Accurately considers the cumulative impacts of developments including recent EIR EISs and Negative Declarations Adequately considers wetlands and other special types of vegetation 1 If rare or unusual plant taxa or communities would be negatively impacted by the project avoidance of impacts is the best practice This can be via large defensible set asides or preserves that protect existing habitat and rare plants Where this is impossible acquisition and protection of comparable intact habitat off site is preferred over small on site preserves and over off site enhancement or creation of rare plant populations and their habitat Transplantation translocation creation or enhancement of rare plant or plant community populations should be conducted only through carefully controlled scientific experiment as part of an accepted recovery plan for an endangered plant or plant community not as de facto mitigation for on site impacts In cases where on site preserves will be small or avoidance of impacts is impossible it may be acceptable to sacrifice on site rare plants and use mitigation monies perhaps pooled from many projects to acquire larger blocks of existing rare plant or rare plant community habitat off site 2 CNPS may and often should offer general suggestions for use of native plants in the landscaping of construction projects but it is not the function of CNPS to suggest individual species for each environmental impact document Recommendations should be phrased to conform to the following principles a Trees shrubs and herbaceous plants should be used which are indigenous to the general project area as discussed in the CNPS Tree Planting policy and Guidelines for Chapters to Reduce Impacts to Plants document b If non indigenous natives are desired for purposes of form floral characteristics or function ground covers etc species selected should be those which

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/eirs.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    better conserve natural resources Become aware of and work with local individuals and departments that regulate or specify residential and commercial uses of plant materials water use standards and vegetation management programs Comment and advise on how local restrictions or ordinances affect use or protection of native vegetation Publish in your newsletter lists of commercial sources of native plants and seeds Take and make opportunity to educate your members and the public of the importance of preserving our native plants in their natural habitats Initiate and support programs to eradicate particularly aggressive and noxious exotic plants Promote the use of native plants Circulate our guidelines and policies to groups in your area to which they pertain chairpersons of plant sales wildflower shows and field trips teachers and nurserymen Consider opportunities to salvage plants that will be lost by development These measures could include seed collection cuttings or whole plant removal Be aware that such salvage activities are often of limited success or value Field Trips Remind all field trip participants of the Society s basic purpose of preservation of our native flora in its natural habitat Discourage the disturbance of native plant life and encourage other methods of learning e g photography drawings descriptive literature and use of hand lenses Know the regulations for the park lands watersheds and roadways you are using e g collecting plants without a specific permit is prohibited in parks forests and along highway right of ways The leader should take responsibility for taking of specimens Collecting should be considered only when identification cannot be made in the field Particular care should be taken in removing flowers and or seeds of a plant species that is infrequently encountered Only reasonably abundant plants should be considered for study specimens Collect only the minimal amount necessary to provide identification Group identification of one specimen should be encouraged A permit for collection is required in many locations See CNPS Collection Policy Do not collect underground structures such as bulbs corms tubers and rhizomes for eating or casual examination Alert members to the deleterious effects of the trampling of many feet Fragile environments should be visited with caution Better one person advance into a fragile area to identify a plant than the whole group Plant Sales Plants offered for sale should be primarily those grown from cuttings or seeds Offer information on how plants may be propagated Generally native plants should not be dug up and potted unless they have been salvaged from areas such as construction sites where the native vegetation is to be destroyed Explain the use of salvaged material These potted plants should be kept for sufficient time before being offered for sale to be sure they will survive the shock of transplant To remove seeds vegetative cuttings bulbs or any propagule from a natural population is to remove a portion of the vigor and reproductive strength of the population There may be justifiable reasons to collect seeds or parts of growing plants but the size

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/impacts.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    Online Manual 2009 2nd Edition of the Manual State Natural Communities List MCV State Classification List Vegetation Sampling Classification Mapping Mapping Guidelines Field Forms Protocols Classification Map Reports Sampler Newsletters Alliances Associations Vegetation Resources Vegetation Program Initiatives Carrizo Plain NM Veg Project Grassland Initiative MCV Database Project N Sierra Foothills Veg Map S Sierra Foothills Veg Surveys Rare Plant Comm Initiative Contact Program Staff Document Archive Document Archive Policy on Shrubland Management Adopted in September 1993 Modified from 1985 CNPS Guidelines to Chapters PDF Version The California Native Plant Society recognizes the inherent value of the more than 10 million acres of native shrublands in California These shrublands include the vegetation types variously called shrub chaparral or brushland These values include The protection of easily eroded slopes by breaking the fall of rain drops slowing run off and preventing wet unstable soil from slipping or slumping through the anchoring of deep perennial root systems The ability of shrublands to grow in soils of low fertility as well as in better soils This low fertility may be due to the natural mineral composition of the soil or may be the result of agricultural practices that have altered the original soil composition or structure The habitat provided for California s native wildlife including insects reptiles birds and mammals About 40 per cent of California s rare plants are found in shrublands more than in any other vegetation type The shrub plants themselves and their associated plant species provide enjoyment and beauty and offer a wide variety of recreational opportunities The shrub habitat constitutes an evolving outdoor laboratory for understanding our natural environment The California Native Plant Society supports management activities which sustain the biodiversity of the shrubland community and do not threaten elimination of its native components Any change in activities which

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/shrubland.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    can broaden public awareness of what is truly beautiful in natural environments The planting of native trees in urban settings may enhance gene flow between native stands separated by urban development and habitat fragmentation The planting of native trees in urban settings can result in increased numbers of native birds in the area many birds and other fauna are adapted to using native trees and prefer to feed and rest in these plants The presence of native trees in an urban environment provides an educational benefit They serve as a living illustration for discussions about the biology identification and uses of native species Many native trees in particular many oaks are adapted to low summer water demands indeed mature trees of these species need no summer water and are particularly appropriate for areas with low water availability When should native trees be planted in natural settings California Native Plant Society supports tree planting when the following criteria are met 1 The tree species exists or existed in the area chosen for planting Tree planting is not appropriate where trees have not been a historic component of the plant community Planting should enhance an altered or destroyed part of a plant community Tree planting is encouraged by CNPS when the planting contributes to the attributes of the local ecosystem Species selection should be of species found or once found naturally in the area considered for planting Since a CNPS goal is to enhance natural native plant communities a planting should be representative of that plant community The definition of natural and native should be rigorous and highly localized This however is a very common misunderstanding in tree planting where any California native tree has been considered appropriate Tree planters should consider and evaluate variations in slope aspect soil type degree of soil saturation amount of shading and several other factors when selecting particular species to be planted 2 The seeds or planting stock were gathered from local sources or can be shown to be genetically identical to local sources Genetic contamination may result from the importation of seed or cutting stock from a different area For example different foreign stocks are currently contaminating local stands of Monterey Pine in the Monterey area It should be recognized that local populations may have subtle genetic adaptation to the area that may not be present in other populations In some cases plantings have used species that are closely related to the endemic species These might result in unforeseen effects to dependent ecosystems and possible undesirable genetic contamination but may in some cases be harmless and would restore such things as a vertical layered structure or animal habitat that could not otherwise be attained 3 The planted species should represent a full range of species that are found naturally in the area The plantings should represent an appropriate range of species in order to recreate as natural an ecosystem as possible and to avoid the replacement of a heterogeneous multispecies community with a monotonous single

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/trees.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    trees grown from locally collected seeds preferably from trees uninfected with pitch canker should be encouraged Special care should be taken to avoid contamination of seedlings with pitch canker Monterey Pines propagated from non native genetic stock should be replaced when they occur near native forests In some cases where Monterey Pine Forest stands are not regenerating management techniques that encourage natural seedling establishment and forest rejuvenation should be considered This includes prescribed fire where appropriate As new information is developed additional management techniques may be identified While breeding programs for resistant strains will be a part of the response to the pitch canker threat the primary emphasis of action should be on maintaining the maximum appropriate natural genetic and ecological diversity in the native forest habitat CNPS recommends that all remaining natural stands of Monterey Pine Forest be incorporated into an effective regional forest conservation plan with specific criteria for identifying areas essential to maintain the full complement of genetic and floristic diversity The plan should propose a strategy alternatives and a timeline for achieving permanent protection of the Monterey Pine Forest Background Native Monterey Pine Forest provides the scenic backdrop highlighting the distinctive character and ambience of the Monterey Peninsula Cambria and Swanton Ano Nuevo areas These three Monterey Pine Forest areas are relicts of the Pleistocene coastal coniferous forest that supported Monterey Pine from modern Marin County in the north to Riverside County in the south In 1994 CNPS considered the native Monterey Pine to be Rare and Endangered List 1B because this forest type is naturally confined to these three small areas on the central California coast and two small Mexican islands Throughout its natural range Monterey Pine Forest is subject to increased threats from clearing fragmentation feral animals and disease Monterey Pine is also on the California Department of Fish and Game Special Plant List and is a federal candidate for endangered species listing and protection A recent study finds that the native Monterey Pine Forest on the Monterey Peninsula is grouped into distinct community sub types based on soil and geomorphic surfaces Further pine forest sub types found on the six granitic marine terraces in the Del Monte Forest area differ from the pine forest sub types found on sandstone and shale terraces of Jacks Peak Subtypes are also expected to exist in Cambria and Swanton Ano Nuevo The natural stands of Monterey Pine Forest form plant and animal ensembles found nowhere else on Earth For example Del Monte Forest supports 10 rare and endangered plant species Monterey Pines propagated from nursery stock of unknown origin have been widely planted in and near the native Monterey Pine populations If these introduced trees hybridize with native Monterey Pines the offspring may lack genetic traits necessary to adapt to changing conditions Pitch canker a fungal disease introduced to California in 1986 has been spreading rapidly throughout the central coast Pitch canker has infected planted stands of Monterey Pine as well as native trees on the margins

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/monterey_pine.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    more herbaria listed in Index Herbariorum Ed 8 Holmgren et al 1990 or subsequent editions Recommendation 2 The thoroughness of documentation for a particular project should be commensurate to the importance of the study but in any case should include collection of voucher specimens for target species studies and noteworthy botanical observations e g range extensions state and county records rediscoveries Recommendation 3 Clients e g private or public permit applicants for whom environmental studies are conducted should be held financially responsible for the collection identification and curation of botanical vouchers otherwise there is little chance that documentation will improve Recommendation 4 Collection of botanical vouchers and the deposition of them in formal herbaria should be a requirement of the CEQA and NEPA processes CNPS recommends that the responsible agencies and legislative bodies undertake a review of state and federal legislation and make appropriate amendments that will result in the collection and preparation of botanical vouchers becoming a formal part of the environmental review process Recommendation 5 Preparation of botanical voucher specimens should be encouraged as an important part of the scientific process Institutions and departments that support herbaria should develop policies regarding the deposition of vouchers by students staff and faculty Support for herbaria should come not only from the host institution or department but also from the users who deposit specimens Agencies or corporations that fund research should be made aware of the importance of voucher specimens and should request that the preparation and curation of vouchers be included as a regular part of proposals and budgets Recommendation 6 Academic institutions should include in their curricula opportunities to expose students to the importance of scientific documentation and the need to prepare and preserve botanical and other biological voucher specimens There is an urgent need to educate students in the importance and functions of systematics collections whether these students anticipate a future in academic or applied science or want to be well rounded citizens with understanding of experimental processes or California s natural resources Recommendation 7 Herbarium specimen collectors and label preparers should take every opportunity to include a wide range of hierarchical geographic and habitat data on specimen labels consistent with existing standards that will increase the usefulness of specimens and will make access to the information possible through computerization of label data Recommendation 8 One category of hierarchical data associated with herbarium specimens should be that which 1 identifies the project for which the specimen serves as a voucher 2 lists the client agency and or institution associated with the project and 3 names the report in which the specimen is cited Recommendation 9 Investigate the feasibility of integrating voucher specimen label data with computerization efforts such as the Specimen Management System for California Herbaria SMASCH to provide mechanisms for biogeographical and floristic studies Recommendation 10 CNPS recommends that the Association of California Herbaria ACH should take an active role in organizing support for and preservation of California s herbaria Recommendation 11 The Association of California Herbaria

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/documentation.php (2016-04-26)
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  • Archive - California Native Plant Society
    in place and germinate successfully For example a flush of green grass is often observed at the base of steep slopes with few seeded species present on the slopes themselves e g Janicki 11989 E Seeding has no effect on the process called dry ravel by which soil moves downslope during and subsequent to burning of supporting vegetation Dry ravel can be a major component of the total sediment yield from burned watersheds Spittler 1994 F Debris flows large flows of mud rocks and other debris frequently occur during mid season storms after soils have become saturated Seeded plants would not be established by this time 2 Natural vegetative recovery can be compromised by artificial seeding A Several studies have shown statistically significant reduction in abundance of native seedlings when seeded grasses established successfully Barro and Conard 1987 Janicki 1989 Keeley 1995 Spittler 1994 Taskey 1989 B Flashy fuels created by grasses can increase the likelihood of a premature reburn which can result in the elimination of key shrub species from chaparral plant communities effectively bringing about a typeconversion to a herbaceous community of non native grasses and forbs Keeley 1995 C When native shrub seedlings are displaced by seeded grasses the effects last long beyond the first year or two after the fire Some evidence indicates that when steep brushland slopes are type converted to grassland the incidence of erosion and slope failure can increase markedly due to the shallower interface between roots and underlying soil Barro and Conard 1987 D In chaparral native fire following annuals could be diminished in or eliminated from the soil seed bank if they are repeatedly subjected to competition from artificially seeded grasses Seeds of these specialized plants lie dormant in the soil between fires and only complete their life cycle in the first year or two after fires This burst of growth by fire annuals helps to retain nutrients on burned sites Keeley 1994 1995 E Artificial seeding can open up previously resistant plant communities to invasions by weedy plants and other pest species thus decreasing native biological diversity and possibly impairing function of ecosystem processes some of which protect downstream values For example a recent US Forest Service study Conard and Beyers 1993 showed that significantly more non native Brassica was found in plots seeded with ryegrass than in those allowed to revegetate naturally Comments on the Use of Natives for Post fire Seeding The use of native species rather than the traditional European grasses and forbs has been put forth in recent years as a solution to the post fire seeding dilemma CNPS urges consideration of the following points with regard to this issue A If species or varieties are used that are native to California but that are not locally native to the specific area to be seeded there is the potential for contamination of the local gene pool This can lead to a loss of vigor in populations endemic to the site and possibly to a long term

    Original URL path: http://cnps.org/cnps/archive/seeding.php (2016-04-26)
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