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  • Be prepared to have students ask you what the right answer is in this situation
    it functions like a trick question If you hold that there is a right answer and you provide it Report your supervisor to his supervisor presenting it as such interferes with allowing your students to learn how to think about it If you reply that there is no right answer to such questions then you encourage your students to adopt a cynical relativist stance One response that sidesteps this trick

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/advise/be_prepared_right_answer.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Let students disagree (heck, beg them to disagree), but insist that they be reasonable
    doesn t mean that there are no ethical principles concepts and rules Nor does it imply that all such principles concepts and rules are relative to the individual or culture It means that in some situations you will not be able to reach a consensus How do you achieve closure in these situations You can summarize the discussion and clarify the points of disagreement You could have the class vote on the issue making it clear that the majority view is not by this fact alone the right view What is important is that the students recognize the importance of the virtue of reasonableness in a moral discussion Here is a list of features that help clarify reasonableness taken from Michael Pritchard s book Reasonable Children You are being reasonable when you are willing to Seek relevant information Listen and respond thoughtfully to others Be open to new ideas Acknowledge mistakes and misunderstandings Compromise without compromising personal integrity Pritchard also lists features that are clues that you are not being reasonable Feel a need always to agree with others Lack deeply held beliefs and convictions that may differ fundamentally with those of others Be willing to change virtually any belief

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/advise/let_students_disagree.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Don't get stuck in just one way of discussing cases
    for raising ethical and technical issues For example there are many different ways to teach cases Discuss the case in an unstructured informal way Hold a structured discussion of the case using ethical approaches and a case analysis framework Write a social impact statement based on the case Write and present a formal document related to the case Students could write the CAP corrective action plan required by the FDA in the Therac 25 case or a memo in the Hughes or Machado case Role play For example recreate the meetings held between AECL and the Therac 25 operators The class could be divided into groups of 4 or 5 and assigned the following stakeholder roles AECL management legal department board of directors the AECL team that wrote the program for the Therac 25 FDA officials operators from the hospitals who have purchased the machine the AECL team responsible for writing the Corrective Action Plan Have students write a script that dramatizes the problem presented by the case Have students write a script that dramatizes how they would carry out the solution they have devised for the case Use cases to evaluate past actions Use cases to practice making decisions

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/advise/dont_get_stuck_discussing.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Don't get stuck using just one type of case
    practice in making ethical decisions in the full context of the messy real world Of course one cannot simply dump students into a thick case to sink or swim sink will be the outcome These can be introduced piecemeal as thinner cases and have the complexity built up slowly Or student might be provided with a framework to guide them as they consider the entire case Again neither thick not thin is better and usefulness depends on the particular goal Good vs Bad News cases This distinction and the next two come from Harris et al See Harris Charles E Pritchard Michael S Rabins Michael J 1999 Engineering Ethics Concepts and Cases 2nd Edition Wadsworth Thompson Learning Belmont CA pp 60 72 The tendency in ethics cases is to have only bad news cases cases in which some bad outcome occurs because of poor choices This can grab students imaginations people are highly motivated to avoid bad outcomes but can also give students the impression that SEE is primarily about avoiding harm Bad news cases should be balanced with cases of morally exemplary scientists and engineers as well as with good choices toward good outcomes made by ordinary scientists and engineers Again the point is to choose the approach based on the purpose Big vs Small News cases Many cases available are about big news about things that show up in the newspaper But almost by definition these are rare events and it can be hard for students to imagine themselves caught in a widespread fraud or catastrophic software safety case Small news cases are about the everyday decisions that scientists and engineers make in the way they handle reporting data collection process management personnel and other day to day issues Again there is a tradeoff Students can more easily

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/advise/dont_get_stuck_one_case.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Conclusion: Have Fun
    encourage you to start small and work up to more intensive use of cases Using just one exercise from the site in a class will give you a feeling for how it works and whether it fits with your teaching style You will learn the most from these early experiences if you are willing to risk hearing bad news and ask for feedback from your students Students are usually pleased

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/advise/conclusion.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Goals Met Through Case Discussion
    These include such concepts as privacy intellectual property safety reliability duty etc Cases help students learn these in more depth than a lecture can provide by Developing and enlarging a stock of prototypical instances Challenging and defending definitions Learning to adjudicate competing claims from different concepts e g the tradeoffs of privacy and safety Practicing moral imagination A crucial ability that is strengthened by using cases to help students Take

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/case_goals/case_discussion.html (2016-04-30)
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  • ImpactCS and case based teaching
    skills that pertain to professional moral behavior Elements of ethical Analysis ES2 1 Ethical claims can and should be discussed rationally ES2 2 Ethical choices cannot be avoided ES2 3 Some easy ethical approaches are questionable Discussing the cases provided on this website provides an excellent opportunity to practice the principals of ethical analysis For example students reach their decisions concerning the cases through a framework that involves the application of ethics tests at several stages The framework itself is a rational decision procedure that requires students to rationally justify their claims at each step Furthermore the cases themselves provide narrative situations that elicit decisions from students Having students present and justify their decisions creates opportunities to discuss rationally ethical claims These cases also provide situations where ethical choices are unavoidable this is especially apparent when students dramatize aspects of the cases and act them out Finally students may be constantly tempted during discussion of the cases to take an easy ethical answer like I am simply the agent of my employer my only responsibility is to obey orders These cases show the real harm that these simple approaches can produce Basic Skills of Ethical Analysis ES3 1 Arguing from example analogy and counter example ES3 2 Identifying stakeholders in concrete situations ES3 2 Identifying ethical issues in concrete situations ES3 4 Applying ethical codes to concrete situations ES3 5 Identifying and evaluating possible courses of action Finally the cases on this website have been developed to elicit examples analogies and counter examples Since they are real world cases they provide students with the opportunity to practice identifying ethical issues in concrete situations Furthermore they also provide ready means for learning about how to apply ethical codes Finally they have been written to elicit decisions at different stages we provide

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/case_goals/impactcs.html (2016-04-30)
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  • Issues in Computer Ethics
    Deception The Social Impact Analysis described on this website shows that each case responds to at least one of these issues Hence these cases can be arranged in a computer ethics course so that each issue can be presented as it arises in a real world situation For example the Therac 25 case raises use of power risks reliability and safety issues The Machado case raises issues in privacy safety

    Original URL path: http://computingcases.org/general_tools/teaching_with_cases/case_goals/issues_computer_ethics.html (2016-04-30)
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