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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 9 » CSBE
    that the ruler uses when dealing with different components of the society and how he grants bequests or refrains from doing so In addition while the rentier regimes of rich oil countries depend on oil revenues the regimes in countries with no or limited oil resources need to depend on foreign support Moreover public money does not fall under the supervision of the state budget or an audit bureau and ends up being a black box that the ruler spends from as he wishes The relationship between the ruler and the ruled in such a rentier condition is based on privileges rather than rights Razzaz adds that this is not a sustainable solution for a country such as Jordan which lacks oil resources since it cannot rely on international aid indefinitely This is also not a sustainable solution for oil rich countries since oil will run out some day Razzaz believes that if Jordan is to become a productive country a restructuring of the relationship between the ruler and the ruled and of the country s economy culture and politics will need to take place Razzaz pointed out two main factors that are connected to changing the relationship between the ruler and the ruled The first factor which is purely political is democratic transformation He mentioned that the late famed Egyptian author Taha Hussein saw that building democracy starts at the municipal level where citizens can directly observe how their votes are related to the level of services presented to them Razzaz believes that democratic transformation in the Arab world depends on developing institutions that build up the necessary systems laws and incentives The second factor which cannot be achieved unless the first one is realized is for the community to control natural resources and public money and for all its members to feel that they own the country s resources and that they have the right to oversee the way they are used Local governance and levels of decision making Razzaz does not support the idea of either absolute local or absolute centralized governance in running municipalities but instead believes that there are decisions that should be taken at the local level and others at the central level He adds that that the measures that should be put in place for determining the level at which a decision is taken depends on the advantages and disadvantages it might have on those affected by it Water and sewage networks as well as electricity services for example would be administered more efficiently and in a less costly manner if provided through a central body since cities and towns cannot afford to deliver these services on their own but a central authority can do so especially since it would serve a number of cities and towns In contrast some issues such as education health and economic development present variety and difference from one location to the other so a number of decisions relating to them should be made at the local level

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-9/ (2016-02-13)
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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 10 » CSBE
    sectarian relationships and that decisions are made without any controls regarding public money He added that municipalities also suffer from financial deficits because most of their budgets are spent on employee salaries which indicates major institutional defects Razzaz thinks that the solution for these problems lies in granting municipalities increased authority so that they can increase their resources and expand the scope of the services they offer At the same time increased attention should be given to the accountability of mayors and municipal staff members whether financially or administratively Employment in municipalities Razzaz explained that the patterns of employment in municipalities are directly connected to the patterns of employment on the national level and that both are part of the prevalent rentier system Mayors however should not bear all the blame for problems with employment as mayors are one only link within a larger system Razzaz added that a common understanding of employment in Jordan is based on looking for job opportunities in the public sector but the Jordanian economy cannot be sustained by having an excessive number of employees in the public sector as that leads to what may be referred to as disguised unemployment This will result in a deterioration of the state represented by its public institutions and will also keep many from specializing in the fields that the Jordanian economy needs since employment opportunities in the public sector are not usually connected to the specialization of the job applicant In order to achieve change in the performance of municipalities a differentiation needs to be made between current and capital expenditures incentives that encourage capital expenditures need to be put in place and new appointments should be banned except in very specific cases that are based on real needs and that are carried out through a system that regulates the entire process Levels of tax collection in municipalities Razzaz pointed out that tax collection levels are directly connected to expenditures and to collection mechanisms For example solid waste may be gathered more efficiently on the local level Each municipality therefore should collect its own waste and impose the necessary fees that would cover the costs of doing so In contrast it would be difficult for municipalities to develop landfills since this is beyond their financial capacities Therefore developing landfills as well as managing them and imposing the necessary taxes that cover their costs should be carried out at the level of governorates or even at the national level In this context he added that municipalities should be granted the authority to collect taxes of a local nature such as property taxes They are better able to do so than central institutions such as the Ministry of Finance because they are better able to obtain the necessary local information that would allow them to collect such taxes more easily and efficiently Eliminating corruption in city management Razzaz stated that the current public discourse about corruption does not address the principles and legislation that can reduce instances of corruption

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-10/ (2016-02-13)
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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 11 » CSBE
    Awaiting Solutions report English 12 City Management in Jordan Challenges Awaiting Solutions The 2011 2013 season of Diwan al Mimar By Mohammad al Asad and Sandra Hiari Translated from Arabic by Mohammad al Asad Ahmad Abu Khalaf Farah Tell and Tooma Zaghlool 15 7 2013 Results of the City Management in Jordan Survey Survey sample and the distribution process This survey which was distributed in April and May of 2013 was filled out by 300 people from different areas in Jordan It was distributed via email and social media channels and printed copies of the survey were also distributed 77 of the survey participants live in Amman and the remaining 23 live in Zarqa Irbid Karak Mafraq Ajlun Jarash Madaba and Aqaba 56 of the participants are males and 44 females In terms of age the largest number of participants 40 is 15 25 years old 35 are 26 35 years old and 25 are 36 years and older The following graph presents the educational levels of the survey participants 31 of the survey participants are architects engineers 9 are students 6 are journalists 4 are information technology specialists and programmers and 3 are accountants Lawyers teachers and the unemployed each make up 2 of the participants The survey sample also includes physicians consultants planners and retired workers The level of satisfaction with the performance of municipalities The results of the survey show that the level of satisfaction with the performance of municipalities in Jordan is extremely low 71 of the participants stated that they are dissatisfied with the performance of municipalities in Jordan and one out of every four participants stated that he she is completely dissatisfied with the performance of municipalities This dissatisfaction is connected to the lack of communications between municipalities and residents 95 of the participants

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-11/ (2016-02-13)
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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 12 » CSBE
    Solutions report English 13 City Management in Jordan Challenges Awaiting Solutions The 2011 2013 season of Diwan al Mimar By Mohammad al Asad and Sandra Hiari Translated from Arabic by Mohammad al Asad Ahmad Abu Khalaf Farah Tell and Tooma Zaghlool 15 7 2013 Municipal elections As for whether they prefer the election or appointment of mayors and municipal council members 65 of participants stated that they should be fully elected and 35 preferred that some are elected and some are appointed The vast majority rejected the full appointment of mayors and council members Also most stated that they will not participate in the upcoming municipal elections 43 indicated that they will not participate in the elections and one third indicated that they have not yet decided whether to participate in the elections or not Only one quarter of the participants indicated that they will participate in the upcoming municipal elections The responsibilities of municipalities 78 5 of the participants believe that the responsibilities of municipalities should be expanded so as to have a role in issues such as education healthcare and enhancing investment When asked to rank spending priorities among municipal sectors the participants ranked planning as first followed by transportation waste management recreational parks and public spaces social work institutional enhancements tourism and management of investments Top five decisions that a mayor should make The participants were asked about the top five decisions they would make if they were the mayor of a municipality in Jordan The answers were as follows The subject addressed by the decision The number of participants who considered this decision among their top five decisions Developing infrastructure roads sidewalks and sewage systems 153 Improving the cleanliness of the city and developing a better solid waste management system that includes recycling 116 Improving public

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-12/ (2016-02-13)
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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 13 » CSBE
    that asked participants to make general notes was included in the survey The following are among the most prominent of them A disregard of regulations often takes place in municipal work An example of this is issuing building permits for malls without giving any consideration to the fact that their location will cause serious traffic congestion A solution should be found for the problem of electing unqualified mayors for whom municipal work is about paying back favors This may be solved by appointing mayors rather than electing them or by establishing specific nomination criteria Developing a budgetary system through a participatory process and according to specific clear and methodical basis will lead to the complete satisfaction of residents towards their municipalities Reinforcing the concept of democratic local governance through local councils is important Municipal work goes beyond engineering tasks and every city has the right to have a democratically elected municipal council that represents the interests of its residents It will not be possible to improve municipalities under the current municipal law There is a major defect in the concept of services in Jordan Moreover authority and or laws are often misused A city is an expression of its residents As much as it needs an institution to take care of it its condition is a reflection of the people who live in it The most important factor that will positively affect local city management is eliminating favoritism Mayoral candidates should be qualified to work in city management rather than being investors who will benefit from managing their city Genuine political will that pushes towards real development and reform on the political economic and administrative levels for all public institutions is the solid base for achieving social stability and societal well being City management is part of this process and

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-13/ (2016-02-13)
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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 15 » CSBE
    pedestrian movement vehicular circulation availability and maintenance of recreational parks and open public spaces and the general condition of infrastructure They consider such deficiencies to be a result of an overall deterioration in the performance of municipal employees This deterioration is due to several factors that include an excessive number of employees in municipalities many of whom are not needed It is also connected to the fact that appointments very often are made according to favoritism rather than competence and also to the spread of corruption Although corruption may be defined as the misuse of public office to achieve personal gain there is no clear and widespread agreement in Jordan regarding the definition of the misuse of public position and the definition of achieving personal gain What some may consider a form of corruption others might consider a legitimate activity as with many prevalent employment and appointment practices for example Many of the participants in the survey believe that the deterioration in the performance of municipalities is a result of the lack of transparency and accountability both of which are essential in managing municipal institutions and to the fact that many municipal officials are not elected as is the case with the Greater Amman Municipality It is also a result of the fact that municipalities do not enjoy any meaningful levels of independence and that their authority and responsibilities are greatly restricted and subjected to the control of central government authorities Most of the participants in the survey seem unconvinced that any positive change can be achieved under the current conditions affecting the performance of municipalities and under the current laws and regulations that govern them This is evident in the fact that only one quarter of the participants stated that they will vote in the upcoming municipal elections In

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-14/ (2016-02-13)
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  • City Management in Jordan: Challenges Awaiting Solutions report (English) 16 » CSBE
    The 2011 2013 season of Diwan al Mimar By Mohammad al Asad and Sandra Hiari Translated from Arabic by Mohammad al Asad Ahmad Abu Khalaf Farah Tell and Tooma Zaghlool 15 7 2013 Appendix 1 Questions of the City Management in Jordan Survey 1 In which city do you live In which area of the city do you live 2 Are you a male or a female 3 To which age group do you belong 4 What is your educational level 5 What is your professional field What is your occupation 6 How satisfied are you with the services that your municipality provides to the residents of your city 7 Have you ever been asked by your municipality for your input regarding issues related to your neighborhood 8 If the answer is yes how many times were you asked for your input and about what specific subject were you asked 9 Do you believe mayors and municipal council members should be appointed or elected 10 Are you planning to participate in the upcoming municipal elections 11 Do you believe that the responsibilities of municipalities should be expanded to include issues related to education health and promoting investment 12 If you

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/activities/diwan-al-mimar/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english/city-management-in-jordan-challenges-awaiting-solutions-report-english-15/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 4 » CSBE
    end of this zone and was captured downstream The estimated retention time for the graywater was 4 days The treated graywater was stored in a third tank for later reuse A compartmentalized irrigation area was developed containing fava beans spinach and carrots in controlled areas A component of the area was irrigated with the untreated graywater A second area was irrigated with the treated graywater while a third was irrigated with mains water The scheme was irrigated over a period of 5 months and tests were completed on the water soil and the plants irrigated Water soil and plant matter were extensively tested throughout the project for a number of parameters and the results are presented and discussed extensively The main conclusions are that the reed bed was successful in reducing the amount of BOD COD turbidity nitrates and bacterial content The results indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in the soil although this is considered to be due to impurities in the storage and distribution system and not arising from the graywater itself However if the graywater were to be reused for the irrigation of ornamental plants the presence of heavy metals in the graywater would give no cause for concern 2 6 Urban Household Laundry Water Wastewater from the laundry is one source of graywater which is anecdotally regarded as potentially suitable for reuse in Jordan In order to provide more information about the constituents of laundry water in Jordan tests were carried out on an urban household in Amman The wastewater from one complete laundry cycle from an automatic washing machine on wash day was sampled and tested Unfortunately the tests were not able to be carried out directly after the wash had been completed and the wash water was stored for 18 hours before the first analysis was carried out The second results were taken from the stored laundry water sample after 4 weeks of storage in a sealed barrel standing outside the house The results are as follows Parameter After 18 hours After 4 weeks JS 893 irrigation of fruit trees EC dS m 1 38 1 49 TDS 2000 pH 7 4 7 5 6 0 9 0 Chloride Cl mg l 213 231 350 Sodium Na mg l 268 89 230 SAR 2 8 2 3 9 0 Faecal Coliforms MPN 100 ml 16 X 10 6 16 X 10 5 BOD mg l 103 48 150 Boron mg l 5 85 5 73 1 0 Table 3 Results of water quality tests conducted on the laundry water of an urban house An expected reduction in organic content as indicated by the BOD is seen with the BOD decreasing by about 50 during the 4 weeks time period between tests This arises from the breakdown of the organic material by the indigenous bacteria in the graywater The coliform levels are high indicating favourable conditions for their growth although the bacterial levels directly following the laundry cycle would have been much lower following

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/material-on-graywater-use/graywater-reuse-in-jordan/page-93/ (2016-02-13)
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