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  • Figure 1 » CSBE
    Top an aerial view of the city of Riyadh in the early twentieth century bottom an overlay of the walls of Old Riyadh superimposed on a more recent aerial view

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/figure-130/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Figure 2 » CSBE
    Figure 2 A layout plan of the urban fabric of Old Riyadh showing the city walls gates and some major places in the city north is upward in the plan

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/figure-131/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Figure 7 » CSBE
    Figure 7 A site location plan of Old Riyadh and the major projects that took place in Riyadh during the first half of the twentieth century

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/figure-136/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Figure 8 » CSBE
    Figure 8 Al Masjid al Jami the Congregational Mosque and Qasr al Hukm as rebuilt in the early 1950s

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/figure-137/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 2 » CSBE
    kingdom in general These projects particularly al Malaz introduced a new way of thinking in terms of planning and construction in the city First of all the gridiron planning that was adopted in both al Malaz and the reconstruction of al Nasriyah was a clear departure from the traditional urban pattern of Riyadh which as is the case with other traditional Islamic cities was characterized by a labyrinthine urban pattern Al Hathloul notes that it was the use of the gridiron pattern of planning in al Malaz project that served as a model in the more recent planning projects for Riyadh After all al Nasriyah was a palatial residence enclosed by walls and therefore was unlikely to be taken as a planning model for residential neighborhoods in the city Another important building type that emerged from al Malaz project as a new model for residences in the city was the detached villa 9 According to al Hathloul in the 1950s and 1960s government employees were considered of high social standing and the general public often emulated their way of living including the way their residences looked Also since al Malaz project was initiated by the government people considered it an authoritative statement regarding the way their dwellings should look Therefore as soon as government employees moved to their new villa type dwellings in al Malaz this building type quickly spread in Riyadh Also land prices in Riyadh rose dramatically in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of land speculation Al Hathloul believes that this was facilitated by the grid planning pattern in Riyadh which had become well established by the introduction of the 1972 Riyadh master plan see below Along with the spread of grid planning and the villa building type building ordinances and zoning regulations in Riyadh started to be set up Those ordinances and regulations adopted some issues that already had been incorporated into al Malaz project such as the hierarchic pattern of streets the square lots on which villas were built and the setbacks on all sides of the lot With this institutionalization of building ordinances both grid planning and villa type dwelling assured their continuity in Riyadh and in other cities in the kingdom By the late 1950s the apartment building started to spread in Riyadh With the growth of the city there was a need to bring in expatriates to work in the different sectors of the government Unlike Riyadhis who preferred living in detached dwellings expatriates primarily lived in apartment buildings primarily for economic and social reasons and al Malaz project had by then established a precedent for the construction of apartment buildings that could be followed Among the first apartment buildings to be constructed in Riyadh were the 1959 six story building of Fahd bin Muhammad figure 11 which overlooked al Adl Square and its contemporaneous ten story al Riyadh Building which was situated along al Wazir Street currently called King Faisal Street In the design of these two buildings the concept

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/page-59/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 3 » CSBE
    to al Hathloul this building presents two important features The first is that it took on the traditional concept of the introverted Riyadhi residence Accordingly the designer developed a central glass roofed atrium around which the spaces of the building were placed The second feature is the designer s application of architectural vocabularies common in the traditional architecture of Riyadh and Dir iyah These include slit type windows of which the uppermost ones were crowned with diagonally placed small square openings The designers also incorporated some decorative openings into the parapet of the building Al Hathloul adds that the designers of this building initiated an approach to façade articulation that later came to be adopted by a number of architects working in Riyadh 15 Al Hathloul considers one of the more outstanding buildings from that period to be the 1982 King Faisal Foundation known as al Khayriyya complex figure 19 designed by the leading Japanese architect Kenzo Tange b 1913 Al Khayriyya complex includes an office building an apartment building shopping center auditorium and mosque The complex includes two identical high rise buildings which are triangular in plan and situated with their vertices facing each other at a distance that is bridged by two bridges located above each other at the upper part of the buildings The facades of the two bases of the triangles one of which faces north and the other south are clad with glazed curtain walls The remaining facades are mostly solid The space between the vertices of the two triangular buildings frames the mosque of the complex Both the dome and the minaret of the mosque depart from conventional types Consequently the traditional dome was replaced by a more or less hollowed cylindrical element cut from the top to serve as a skylight for the interior of the mosque and the traditional minaret was replaced by a simple tall column like element that is square in plan 16 Other important buildings constructed in Riyadh during the 1980s include the Institute of Public Administration figure 20 which was designed by the American firm The Architects Collaborative TAC 17 the 1983 King Khalid International Airport figure 21 designed by the American firm Hellmuth Obata Kassabaum HOK 18 and the 1984 campus for the King Saud University figure 22 The master plan and the conceptual urban design for the university were prepared in the 1970s but the more advanced phases of the design of the project were carried out later on by HOK in association with the 4 Consortium for Design Engineering and Construction Administration The plan of the university comprises two main spines along which the different colleges are arranged The two spines meet at the forum of the university which is the central space around which buildings such as the administration library and auditorium are placed The educational buildings are three story high and entry to them was provided at the intermediate level with all services being situated at the lower level 19 Al Hathloul added

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/page-60/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 6 » CSBE
    over the past four decades He wondered whether new regulations were set to protect the visual privacy of residents of neighboring single family dwellings as well as apartment buildings Al Hathloul commented that as the urban development of Riyadh continued at a very fast rate the construction of apartment buildings became more and more ubiquitous As mentioned above visual privacy rights began to be violated in the late 1960s This obviously is the case with the construction of the Zahrat al Riyadh apartment building discussed above which violated the privacy of neighboring single family houses Al Hathloul mentioned that King Faisal r 1964 1975 himself was involved in trying to solve the dispute over the building s violation of visual privacy for nearby residents He added that the king consequently ordered that the owner of the apartment building should buy any nearby dwellings the owner of which wished to sell because of privacy violation at a price that was ten percent higher than the dwelling s market price at that time Al Hathloul noted that although the building regulations and codes set by the Riyadh Municipality during the 1960s and 1970s put forward setback requirements two meters from neighboring lots and a one fifth of the width of the street along which a lot is located those regulations did not ensure privacy protection for residents According to those building regulations window openings in the second floor of a building that overlooked a neighboring dwelling were allowed as long as the setback requirements were adhered to However al Hathloul added that whenever a resident whose privacy had been violated complained to the court the court ruled that windows violating the neighbors privacy should be blocked up Thus issues relating to visual privacy were still taken into consideration during the 1960s and 1970s but there was a sort of contradiction in the attitude of different institutions such as the municipalities and the courts regarding it According to al Hathloul there also was some kind of developmental lag between the traditional building institutions on the one hand and the new large scale projects and new building techniques and materials on the other Therefore local craftsmen were unable to effectively participate in the construction of the large projects that were constructed in Riyadh in the early 1950s and therefore did not have any input in them Consequently a disconnection between traditional and new approaches to the making of architecture became very evident Al Hathloul was asked if he would elaborate on the physical treatments that residents of single family dwellings used to guard their visual privacy from violation Here al Hathloul mentioned that many residents of Riyadh currently use some kind of corrugated plastic sheets placed vertically on top of the boundary walls of their dwellings Also some residents install two to three meter high steel fences with curtains spread over them Another audience member asked about the names of the designers and planners of the two important projects of al Murabba Palace and

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/page-63/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 8 » CSBE
    al Umrani fi al Mamlaka al Arabiyya al Sa udiyya The Architectural Heritage in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Riyadh Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs 2002 pp 46 47 4 For more information on the history of the first second and third Saudi states see Nadav Safran Saudi Arabia The Ceaseless Quest for Security New York Cornell University Press 1988 Also for a brief description of the historic development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia see Roy Lebkicher George Rentz and Max Steineke Aramco Handbook The Arabian American Oil Company 1960 pp 54 77 5 For more information on the architecture of al Masmak Fortress see al Turath al Umrani fi al Mamlaka al Arabiyya al Sa udiyya pp 67 69 6 For more information on the architecture and planning of Riyadh see Saleh al Hathloul The Arab Islamic City Tradition Community and Change in the Physical Environment Riyadh Dar al Sahan 1996 pp 158 188 200 229 Also see al Turath al Umrani fi al Mamlaka al Arabiyya al Sa udiyya pp 21 26 7 Tamarisk trees tamarix aphylla were a common source for wood used in traditional buildings in the region of Najd where Riyadh is located For details on the Tamarisk tree see http www csbe org water conserving landscapes plant lists trees tamarix aphylla htm 8 Sayyid Kurayyim b 1911 is one of the leading planners and architects of the Arab world He completed a Ph D in architecture and planning from the University of Zurich and was among the first academicians to teach in the Department of Architecture at the University of Cairo Egypt In 1939 he published al Imara the first magazine on arts and architecture in Egypt and the Arab World He was responsible for planning projects in many cities in the Arab world including Cairo Riyadh and Jeddah See Mercedes Volait L Architecture moderne en Egypte et al Revue Al Imara 1939 1959 Cairo CEDEJ 1988 9 The detached villa as a type of residence was first introduced in 1951 by ARAMCO the Arabian American Oil Company in its Home Ownership Plan in Dammam and al Khobar as well as elsewhere in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia For more information on the villa type dwelling in al Malaz housing project in particular and in Saudi Arabia in general and the way it affected land subdivision in Riyadh see The Arab Islamic City pp 167 171 10 The issue of privacy control treatments that started to be applied to single family houses in Riyadh is discussed in more details in the Questions and Answers section of this essay For more information on the development of the apartment buildings in Riyadh see The Arab Islamic City pp 201 208 11 As discussed in a following part of this essay Ar Riyadh Development Authority played a major role in the urban development of Riyadh For more information on Ar Riyadh Development Authority see their web site at http www arriyadh com English ada

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/page-65/ (2016-02-13)
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