archive-org.com » ORG » C » CSBE.ORG

Total: 693

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Page 10 » CSBE
    Figure 7 A site location plan of Old Riyadh and the major projects that took place in Riyadh during the first half of the twentieth century Figure 8 Al Masjid al Jami the Congregational Mosque and Qasr al Hukm as rebuilt in the early 1950s Figure 9 A view of the 1950s ministries buildings along the airport road King Abd al Aziz Street in Riyadh designed by Sayyid Kurayyim Figure 10 A layout plan of al Malaz Housing Project known as al Riyadh al Jadidah located to the northeast of the old city center of Riyadh Figure 11 A view of the 1959 Fahd bin Muhammad s apartment building one of the early apartment buildings constructed in Riyadh Figure 12 A view of the late 1960s Zahrat al Riyadh apartment building Figure 13 A view of the late 1960s early 1970s Riyadh Water Tower Figure 14 A view of the late 1960s early 1970s Equestrian Club in Riyadh Figure 15 The 1972 master plan for Riyadh designed by Doxiadis Associates Figure 16 A view of The General Organization for Social Insurance Buildings designed by Omrania Associates right the 1973 building left the 1982 building Figure 17 A view of the 1978 Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency Head Office designed by Minoru Yamasaki Figure 18 A view of the 1980 Saudi Fund for Development Building designed by Urbahn and Coile International Figure 19 Views of the 1982 complex of King Faisal Foundation known as al Khayriyya Complex designed by Kenzo Tange top the mosque bottom the two identical high rise buildings Figure 20 A view of the early 1980s building of the Institute of Public Administration designed by The Architects Collaborative TAC Figure 21 Views of the 1983 King Khalid International Airport designed by HOK top aerial view bottom interior view Figure

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/riyadh-architecture-in-one-hundred-years/page-67/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Creating Landscapes in Water-Scarce Environments 2 » CSBE
    them with protection as they mature Here Livingston stressed the importance of looking at the different nurse plants and micro sites available in Tucson s arid environment and at how they provide shady spots almost oases for other plants Livingston added that one should learn from the natural environment and try to apply the information one gets from it in the design of created landscapes Interestingly enough Amman and Tucson have very similar levels of precipitation which amounts to approximately 300mm per year The pattern of rainfall in each of the two locations however is different Figure 2 shows a bar chart that illustrates the 20 year mean precipitation for both Amman and Tucson by month The chart shows that Tucson has a bimodal rainfall pattern Therefore half of the rainfall occurs during the summer season in July August and September while the remainder occurs during the winter season in December January and February In contrast the bar chart shows that Amman has a unimodal rainfall pattern that mainly occurs during the winter season from December through March Of course one should keep in mind that there is considerable variation in the amounts of rainfall in the different areas of Amman because of the city s mountainous topography The situation is different for the city of Tucson which is located in a very flat area and therefore does not have the fluctuations in the amounts of rainfall typical for Amman As a result of the bimodal rainfall pattern in Tucson there are plants that are adapted to using winter rainfall predominantly trees and shrubs and those primarily expand their root systems during the winter when there is enough water Other plants such as native grasses and other herbaceous plants take advantage of the summer rainfall to grow In addition numerous

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments-2/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Creating Landscapes in Water-Scarce Environments 3 » CSBE
    natural wildlife Watercourses are extremely important for the wildlife in Tucson in that many animal species live in these watercourses and the areas that surround them Also these watercourses serve as highways for the area s transient wildlife because they allow various animal species to move among the basin upland and mountain areas thereby passing through the city Ephemeral watercourses in Tucson generally are classified into two types Xeroriparian and Mesoriparian Xeroriparian watercourses are small washes or streams They are distinguished from the adjacent plant communities of the Colorado River Valley or Arizona Upland areas in that they have a higher density of plants and more foliage though they often have similar species Mesquite is a very common plant in that region Mesoriparian watercourses are large washes that receive greater water flows than Xeroriparian watercourses Their vegetation is more significant in structure than that of Xeroriparian watercourses and includes a wide variety of species thus allowing for significant biodiversity Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii is a common plant in Mesoriparian watercourses and provides an important haven in which large birds can nest and also provides habitat for other wildlife Human influences on Tucson s landscape Tucson is a very multicultural city and its demographic structure is composed of a number of groups of people One group consists of the immigrants who moved to Tucson from other states in the United States seeking warmer climates A second group includes immigrants from neighboring Mexico and who have had a significant impact on Tucson s demography and culture A third group consists of immigrants coming to Tucson from other nations The fourth group representing the first settlers of this area consists of the native Americans who also have had a great impact on the landscapes through their own culture and patterns of activities Livingston

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments-3/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Creating Landscapes in Water-Scarce Environments 2 » CSBE
    desert as their landscape Consequently they strive to recreate the lush water consuming environments of the other areas of the United States from which they moved which primarily are the East Coast and the Midwest The second issue is the use of education to raise awareness concerning water conservation Figure 8 shows a public landscape in Phoenix Arizona which conserves water and is a type of landscape solution that the public needs to know more about People with little exposure to the concepts of arid landscaping usually like to introduce turf areas into their landscapes However after they learn about arid landscapes about the aesthetic potentials they provide and the significant diversity they allow many of them become very excited about arid landscaping solutions such as the one shown from Phoenix The third area is that of public regulation and enforcement where monitoring needs to be put in place to make sure that regulations regarding water conserving landscape practices are followed Livingston added that considering the complexities involved in getting a piece of legislation drafted and passed and setting up the administrative mechanisms required for its implementation this third goal usually is the hardest to achieve Public eduation and the conceot of xeriscape Public education about arid landscaping includes teaching water conservation principles where the concept of xeriscape is stressed The term xeriscape is a result of combining the Greek word xeros which means dry and the suffix scape and was coined by the Denver Water Department in 1981 as an educational concept Xeriscape stresses water conservation in combination with creative landscape designs In some cases people will have negative connotations when presented with a concept such as xeriscape since they think it is all about using cacti and rocks for landscape designs even though the concept allows for considerably

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments-5/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Creating Landscapes in Water-Scarce Environments 2 » CSBE
    system is recommended It also is necessary to find out how much water the plants in a certain landscape require and to apply only that amount of water Therefore when designing an irrigation system one should try to locate groups of trees shrubs ground covers and turf areas on different control valves Each of these groups of plants has different irrigation requirements and one should be able to control the irrigation process for each of them separately Also the frequency of irrigation should be changed according to the changes in water requirements in the different seasons The use of mulch is another important principle in xeriscape Mulches cover the soil and help reduce water evaporation and consequently reduce water use They also protect the soil and consequently improve root growth and limit the germination of weeds In general there are two kinds of mulches The first is organic mulch such as bark chips wood grindings and the natural drop of leaves and flowers that when left on the ground are very good for the soil The second kind is inorganic mulch which is more commonly used in Tucson s landscapes The most common kind of inorganic mulch used in Tucson is decomposed granite which basically consists of small pieces of crushed granite Usually these pieces are obtained from leftover granite used for other construction They come in different colors and one may pick a mulch color that either contrasts or complements the adjacent architecture Livingston mentioned that numerous inorganic mulches are available in Jordan such as touf which is a porous volcanic stone that can be found in different sizes and shades Livingston believes that appropriate garden maintenance is an essential component of creating successful xeriscapes Created landscapes need maintenance such as pruning weed removal and maintenance of the irrigation system In general to create a successful landscape one needs to provide a good design to effectively implement that design and to maintain it appropriately If these three components are satisfied xeriscapes not only save water but also time and money 5 Regulation of water conservation Livingston discussed a number of the ordinances related to water conservation that are being implemented in Tucson One of those is the Native Plant Preservation Ordinance Here when someone wants to develop a large area the existing native plants on that land need to be taken into consideration The Native Plant Preservation Ordinance specifies four general methods for dealing with those plants Developers can set aside 30 of the area of the site and keep it untouched In case it is decided to develop the entire site then the developer is required to replace certain plants at a ratio of three to one For example if there are five mesquites on the site and the whole site is to be developed the developer would need to replace the existing mesquites with fifteen nursery grown ones A third method consists of a combination of the first two and a fourth method is to salvage the

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments-6/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • N » CSBE
    common surface material in Tucson s landscapes It is a Mexican influenced surface and is very effective particularly in more formal landscape designs Also it blends very nicely with the colors of the Sonoran Desert and with the colors of Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis and euphorbia Euphorbia rigida plants naturally found in Jordan Another surface that is commonly used in the landscapes of Tucson is flagstone This can be set in the natural ground as a walkway In such cases it provides water harvesting potentials for adjacent plants and also complements the natural look of the landscape Another way of using flagstone is to set it in mortar There are many skilled Mexican masons who work with flagstone and slate in Tucson They are third and fourth generation masons and can create beautiful complex designs figure 10 Exposed aggregate also is very widespread in Tucson and usually is used to give a rather contemporary look In some examples those surfaces are complemented with the use of native grasses such as a bunchgrass called deergrass Muhlenbergia rigens This bunchgrass is found at high elevations near Tucson and therefore cannot survive without irrigation However one of its advantages is its low invasiveness it does not spread aggressively over a given site compared with other kinds of grasses Another advantage of deergrass is its beautiful form and the shadow patterns it gives during the winter when the sun is at a low angle Concrete pavements also are being used in different combinations and provide very effective patterns In addition a combination of these various materials can be used Figure 11 represents an example of combining different materials in the landscape in this case stone for the walls and flagstone and interlocking concrete pavement for the ground Another common combination of materials is the

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments-7/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Creating Landscape in Water-Scarce Enviroments 8 » CSBE
    architect Steve Martino s work in which steel beams and columns were used A stucco finish was applied to the columns and the roof consisted of perforated metal panels that often are used for security doors figure 16 This rather transparent cover gives very effective shadow patterns especially in the wintertime As is the case with colored walls colored ramadas provide a powerful contrast with the fine textured plants of Tucson such as the honeysuckle Anisacanthus thurberi the blue palo verde Cercidium floridum and the Indian fig Opuntia ficus indica Water features often are used in landscapes of different scales in Tucson People like landscapes that appeal to many of their senses and water features help provide that effect In one example of water features that Livingston presented a pump from an old ranch was used but the pump provided a strong contrast with the contemporary setting in which it was placed and which consists of a very simple concrete basin with rocks at its base Such a use of water provides a sense of an oasis to the landscape Livingston added that sculpture provides an effective way to celebrate the regional context of one s area as well as to communicate an educational message concerning the use of arid landscaping Representing native plants in sculpture helps people to connect to and become enthusiastic about the type of plants they see in the Sonoran Desert Sculptures that represent the wildlife of the Sonoran Desert also are being used in the landscapes of Tucson Figure 17 shows a sculpture of a jackrabbit a very popular animal in the Tucson area Such a sculpture gets people excited about the wildlife of the area and supports efforts aimed at protecting it Livingston added that the wildlife of the Sonoran Desert is very rich It is common for visitors to view the Sonoran Desert as a hostile place where dangerous creatures live but this is not the case It is the habitat of numerous reptiles and amphibians and most of them are quite harmless For example horned lizards are very common small reptiles that live in Tucson They are very passive animals and do not bite However when one holds a horned lizard too tightly it sprays blood from the glands it has above its eyes Gila monsters are venomous lizards that live in the Sonoran Desert However they move slowly and therefore one has to not be paying attention to be bitten by a Gila monster There are not many dangerous insects in the Sonoran Desert but there are scorpions even though one rarely sees them Many species of birds live in the Sonoran Desert environment such as hummingbirds hawks and Gambel s quail 6 Livingston emphasized that it is best to stress the practice of appreciating but not disturbing the native creatures and their habitat Natural elements of landscapes Livingston discussed the elements that occur naturally in the landscapes of Tucson She presented a few design examples that take advantage of such

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscape-in-water-scarce-environments-8/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Creating Landscape in water-scarce Enviroment 9 » CSBE
    at Darat al Funun Amman on May 30 2001 Prepared by Mohammad Al Asad and Majd Musa in association with Margaret Livingston 2001 Continued Towards a More Sustainable Landscape Livingston believes that more sustainable landscaping solutions should be sought in Tucson and this can be achieved when input equals output where not too much is being consumed in terms of natural resources One can follow four guidelines to reach this goal The first is to try to select and use plants from the existing native ecosystem Many people get confused and think that because a certain plant is an Arizona native they can use it in Tucson However one should be aware that the area near Tucson has various elevations and therefore one cannot use a plant that grows naturally at an elevation of 2000 meters such as native oaks Quercus spp in Tucson where the elevation is 900 meters This is the reason why it is necessary to educate the inhabitants of Tucson about the kind of plants that grow in and around the city Also whenever introducing exotic plants one should always think about the effects that the introduction of such plants would have on the natural ecosystem The aim always should be to enhance the existing ecosystem rather than to modify it The second point Livingston made in the context of sustainable landscapes is the need to increase the use of water harvesting The third point is to increase energy conservation This point includes the conservation of energy used for mowers weed eaters and leaf blowers Here it should be kept in mind that low maintenance plants use less energy The last point that Livingston made concerning the issue of sustainable landscape is that of recycling local materials She presented examples such as the use of broken

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-landscape-design/material-on-water-conserving-landscapes/creating-landscapes-in-water-scarce-environments/creating-landscape-in-water-scarce-environments-9/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive



  •