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  • Page 6 » CSBE
    in History and Theory of Architecture He has lectured or taught at most major schools of architecture worldwide He is the author of a number of books all translated into several languages These include On Adam s House in Paradise Cambridge Mass The MIT Press 1982 second edition The Idea of a Town Cambridge Mass The MIT Press 1982 second edition The First Moderns Cambridge Mass The MIT Press 1980 and The Dancing Column Cambridge Mass The MIT Press 1996 2 The book has appeared recently under the title of The Seduction of Place The City in the Twenty First Century New York Pantheon 2000 3 Archigram was formed in the early 1960s by six British architects Warren Chalk Peter Cook Dennis Crompton David Greene Ron Herron and Michael Webb who stated we are in pursuit of an idea a new vernacular something to stand alongside space capsules computers and throw away packages of an atomic electronic age Their message was as Ada Louise Huxtable put it that architecture is not eternal and timeless but disposable mutable movable and temporary Archigram s utopian vision included ideas such as Instant Cities Plug In Cities and Walking Cities 4 The Metabolist Group which was formed in 1960 emphasized the creation of minimal capsules produced by advanced mass technology It was strongly influenced by Kenzo Tange and its members included Kisho Kurokawa and Fumihiko Maki See Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani ed The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of 20th Century Architecture London Thames and Hudson 1986 5 Price who has very few extant buildings to his name favors non architectural solutions to the accommodation of human activities and is critical of the limitations of permanent and monumental buildings See Charles Jencks and Karl Kropf eds Theories and Manifestoes of Contemporary Architecture New York John Wiley

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  • Page 10 » CSBE
    of Architects UIA s XXII Congress to be held in Istanbul during 2005 He is also a member of the UIA International Competitions Committee 2 According to John Cottingham Karl Popper suggested that the problem of induction was irrelevant to scientific knowledge How scientists arrived at their theories was a matter of psychology not logic What was important was the testing of a scientific theory once proposed And here Popper argued that strictly logical deductive reasoning is applicable scientific theories cannot logically be guaranteed to be true but they are capable of being proven false See John Cottingham Popper Sir Karl Raimond in Dictionary of Modern Culture edited by Justin Wintle London Routledge and Kegan Paul 1981 p 316 For additional information on Popper see Stephen Thornton Karl Popper in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy edited by Edward N Zalta Winter 2002 Edition forthcoming http plato stanford edu archives win2002 entries popper 3 For information on the architects mentioned in this essay see Adolf K Placzek ed Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architecture New York The Free Press 1982 and V M Lampugnani ed The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of 20th Century Architecture 2d ed London Thames and Hudson 1986 4 Joseph Rykwert On the Oral Transmission of Architectural Theory in Les Traites d Architecture de La Renaissance edited by J Guillaume Paris Picard 1988 pp 31 48 Rykwert states that masons like all other craftsmen were always bound into a guild that the transmission of ideas went on inside it and that was a secret society whose proceedings were therefore inevitably unrecorded In later years the invention of printing weakened the hold of the secret oath on craftsmen as well as the fascination of the secret 5 For an example of an architectural treatise from the Islamic world see Ca fer Effendi Risale I Mi mariyye An Early Seventeenth Century Ottoman Treatise on Architecture facsimile with translation and notes by Howard Crane Leiden E J Brill 1987 Also see Gulru Necipoglu The Topkapi Scroll Geometry and Ornament in Islamic Architecture Santa Monica CA The Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities 1995 6 For additional information on a number of the twentieth century architectural movements featured in this essay see Charles Jencks Modern Movements in Architecture 2d ed Hammondsworth Penguin Books 1985 and Lampugnani Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia 7 Concerning the issue of design and construction manuals in the Islamic world see Necipoglu The Topkapi Scroll 8 The book also is available online on the ArchNet site at http archnet org library documents one document tcl document id 3540 9 See S Bozdogan S Ozkan and E Yenal Sedad Eldem Singaphore Concept Media 1987 An online version of the monograph is available at http archnet org library documents one document tcl document id 3020 10 These books are available online on the ArchNet site They can be accessed at http archnet org library documents documents tcl publication type Book For additional information on the Aga Khan Award for

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  • Page 9 » CSBE
    by William J Mitchell to Diwan al Mimar on February 25 2000 Prepared by Mohammad al Asad and Majd Musa 2000 Continued Notes 1 William J Mitchell is Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences and Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT He also serves as Architectural Adviser to the President of MIT His publications include E Topia Urban Life Jim But Not As We Know It MIT Press 1999 High Technology and Low Income Communities with Donald A Schon and Bish Sanyal MIT Press 1999 City of Bits Space Place and the Infobahn MIT Press 1995 The Reconfigured Eye Visual Truth in the Post Photographic Era MIT Press 1992 Digital Design Media A Handbook for Architects and Design Professionals with Malcolm McCullough Van Nostrand Reinhold 1991 The Electronic Design Studio Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era edited with Malcolm McCullogh and Patrick Purcell MIT Press 1990 The Logic of Architecture Design Computation and Cognition MIT Press 1990 The Poetics of Gardens with Charles W Moore and William Turnbull Jr MIT Press 1988 Computer Aided Architectural Design Van Nostrand Reinhold 1977 Before coming to MIT he was the G Ware and Edythe M Travelstead Professor of Architecture and Director of the Master in Design Studies Program at the Harvard Graduate School of Design He previously served as Head of the Architecture Urban Design Program at UCLA s Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning and he has also taught at Yale Carnegie Mellon and Cambridge Universities In the spring semester of 1999 he was visiting the University of Virginia as Thomas Jefferson Professor He studied at the University of Melbourne Yale University and Cambridge He is a Fellow of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/the-future-of-the-design-studio/page-57/ (2016-02-13)
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  • The Use of Stone in Amman By May Shaer » CSBE
    often apparent on the surface of the stone 3 Untreated This represents stones that expose their natural surface after being detached as a whole geologic layer from the stone quarry In this case only the two sides that were in contact with the other layers are utilized and cut out of the slab to be used for cladding The stone in between the outer surfaces is not used 4 Split surface This is when a cut block of stone is split in the middle The surface used for facing is the one that was split It shows a roughly textured not very protruding surface For that a large sized pitching tool Tumbor is used with a single stroke 5 Tubzeh This is a roughly dressed surface of the stone It is done by having a relatively thick stone with a protrusion of about 5cm from the surface Small pieces are then split or chipped out from the surface with a pitching tool Tumbor 6 Mufajjar This is a dressing of medium roughness It is done with a point chisel Shawkah hammered on the stone surface with single strokes creating a speckled surface 7 Mufajjar Matari This is a dressing of parallel lines created with a point chisel and is done by following a line on the stone with the chisel held at a 45 Mac176 angle and without lifting it from the surface 8 Musamsam This is a dressing of a series of short fine parallel lines done with a tooth chisel 9 Mattabeh This is a finely speckled surface dressed with a bush hammer Mattabeh Nowadays a mechanical version of the bush hammer is also used 10 Saw cut This represents slabs of stone cut with an electric diamond saw and left undressed Engraved circular lines resulting from the use of the electric saw can be found on such stone surfaces 11 Polished This is traditionally done with a scraper Shahuta whereby the scraper is passed across the stone surface back and forth until a smooth surface is achieved Nowadays a very smoothly polished surface can be achieved with special polishing machines A rougher polished surface can be achieved through sand blasting 12 Flamed This is a roughly textured surface that can be achieved by passing a flame over the stone or marble surface causing the grains to burst 13 Barrel shaped This represents stone pieces cut as half cylinders which are placed next to each other in horizontal or vertical courses They in turn can be dressed as Mufajjar or Musamsam surfaces 14 Zamleh This is a frame that is sometimes found on stone blocks framing the dressed surface It can be found along one or more of the edges of the stone A flat chisel Izmil is traditionally used to create such a frame Chronological Evolution of Wall Surface Treatments and Wall Patterns From the wall samples surveyed it appears that buildings constructed up to the 1920s and 1930s primarily had their stones dressed in the Tubzeh

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/stone-as-wall-paper-the-evolution-of-stone-as-a-sheathing-material-in-twentieth-century-amman/the-use-of-stone-in-amman-by-may-shaer/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Stone Samples » CSBE
    Century Amman Articles and Lectures on Landscape Design Articles and Lectures on Urbanism Commemoration of the late Jordanian architect Jafar Tukan 1938 2014 Database of Master s Theses on Architecture link Exploring the Edge Material on Graywater Use Material on Green Resource Efficient Building Moustadam The CSBE Zaha Foundation Cycling Project Urban Crossroads Using Public Transportation in Amman Publications Resources Articles and Lectures on Architectural Issues Stone as Wall Paper The Evolution of Stone as a Sheathing Material in Twentieth Century Amman Stone Samples Stone as Wall Paper The Evolution of Stone as a Sheathing Material in Twentieth Century Amman Content Introduction The Use of Stone in Amman by May Shaer Stone Samples Stone Samples Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10 Sample 11 Sample 12 Sample 13 Sample 14 Sample 15 Sample 16 Sample 17 Sample 18 Sample 19 Sample 20 Sample 21 Sample 22 Sample 23 Sample 24 Sample 25 Sample 26 Sample 27 Sample 28 Sample 29 Sample 30 Sample 31 Sample 32 Sample 33 Sample 34 Sample 35 Sample 36 Sample 37 Sample 38 Sample 39 Sample 40 Sample 41 Sample 42 Sample

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-architectural-issues/stone-as-wall-paper-the-evolution-of-stone-as-a-sheathing-material-in-twentieth-century-amman/stone-samples-3/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 3 » CSBE
    of additions to buildings that encroached on the street Most of these additions took place in cul de sacs where the neighbors usually were all related or closely connected in some other way and therefore usually did not object when one of them decided to make an addition to his house that encroached on the adjacent lane In some cases if a house already had encroached on the street and then was demolished and rebuilt it would be rebuilt in a similar manner that still encroached on the street In this context Al Hathloul remarked that in his survey of a thoroughfare emanating from the Women s Gate in the Prophet s Mosque in Medina towards al Baqi cemetery he noticed the existence of a café that had extended into the street even though this street was a main road figure 5 Al Hathloul went on to explain that Islamic jurists saw no harm in people utilizing the afniya whether in front of or behind their houses as long as the road is not narrowed and circulation is not hindered figure 6 The concept of the fina as elaborated by jurists can be explained as follows In a main thoroughfare the fina is the part near the house door and does not extend more than half of the width of the street In lanes and cul de sacs the fina covers the whole area abutting the house and usually extends to include the whole lane s width The fina therefore can be seen as a space belonging to whoever has a door opening onto the street Al Hathloul also noted that Maliki scholars did not allow the opening of an entry door for one house opposite an entry door for another house figure 7 the reasons for this being both to preserve privacy and to allow the house owner the personal use of the space in front of his door He added that in his survey of over two hundred houses in al Aghawat neighborhood in Medina figure 8 he found only two examples of doors placed opposite each other Upon closer examination al Hathloul found that one of the doors in each of the two examples was a recent addition belonging to the last fifty years Al Hathloul mentioned that the idea of the fina is a recurrent one in Muslim cities Also lanes and cul de sacs seem to have had uses identical to the fina However owners along lanes and cul de sacs enjoyed more freedom than those located along a fina that opens onto a thoroughfare As long as owners along lanes and cul de sacs were in agreement concerning their use and no complaints were made jurists usually avoided interfering against incursions along them On the other hand Ibn al Rami had written of a group of people who had built a gate for their lane where the gate s door opened against the wall of another person s house This person took the matter

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-urbanism/legislation-and-the-built-environment-in-the-arab-muslim-city/page-24/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 4 » CSBE
    cases regarding the invasion of privacy were brought to court Sources show that judges would order openings that invaded the privacy of neighbors to be sealed In a related case from Medina in 1573 a man complained to the court about his neighbor who had opened windows in his upper chamber on the grounds that these windows caused him damage by denying him privacy in his house After examining the case and confirming the damage the judge ordered that the windows be closed The house owner however appealed to the judge stating that intrusion on his neighbor s privacy was not his intention when placing the windows but rather that he needed them to bring in the sun and ventilate his chamber The judge consequently appointed a group of experts to search for a solution They recommended that the man raise his windows to about 220 cm above floor level so that the inhabitants of that house could not look into the neighbor s house even if standing on top of a chair Such an incident shows that judges often attempted to address the needs of all parties Al Hathloul added that the issue of opening windows depended to a large extent on physical context for if a building overlooked an empty plot of land for example no one would have complained regarding their placement Al Hathloul then referred to the three types of houses that evolved in Medina He explained that before the 16th century the dominant type in Medina was the two story courtyard house figure 11 Since the 16th century however visitors to the city increased greatly as did the economic value of land close to the Prophet s Mosque especially in the area to the northwest of the mosque Consequently the 16th and 17th centuries witnessed the emergence of two new housing types The first is the qa a hall house figure 12 and the other is the mashrabiyya wooden grill or grate to cover windows or balconies house figure 13 The qa a house is a house with a small covered courtyard in the center known as a qa a Part of the house overlooks the hall and the other part has views towards the outside The qa a house is usually three stories high The mashrabiyya house on the other hand is a typical row house with openings on the street each of which is covered with a mashrabiyya and high openings on opposite sides that allow for ventilation but preserve privacy It is usually four to five stories high with each floor housing a single apartment The owner usually resided on the ground floor and rented out the upper floors to tenants These types of houses explained al Hathloul were economically viable and responded to an increasing demand for housing near the Prophet s Mosque The Mashrabiyyas provided privacy for these houses and ensured that even houses located in front of each other would not gain views into each other According to al

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-urbanism/legislation-and-the-built-environment-in-the-arab-muslim-city/page-25/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Page 5 » CSBE
    if the owner were not financially capable of rebuilding his property the judge would normally intervene and bring in a third person who would act in the capacity of a modern developer This developer would be granted the right to use this property for an agreed amount of time after which the property would revert to its original owner He further explained that this was largely the case in waqfs pl of waqf a charitable endowment often intended for the upkeep of a religious building educational institution or other establishment that aimed at serving the public good Al Hathloul pointed out that it was the judge who had the responsibility of overseeing a waqf even if an administrator for that waqf existed So in numerous cases where the waqf had been allowed to run down the judge would intervene and allow developers to rebuild the property and make use of its income for a certain period of time before it was returned to its original uses according to the waqf Regarding the question of architectural heritage and what remains of it in Saudi Arabia al Hathloul noted that the process of rapid development in Saudi Arabia undoubtedly has led to the loss of a large part of architectural heritage especially in Medina where the old city was demolished and now falls within the current extension of the Prophet s Mosque However he pointed out that this matter in particular is not an easy one to discuss especially since there are two million pilgrims who come to pray in the mosque during the Hajj pilgrimage season Under such circumstances al Hathloul added it would be difficult to argue against the demolition of older structures in the area to make way for the mosque s expansion However he agreed that in the

    Original URL path: http://www.csbe.org/publications-and-resources/articles-and-lectures-on-urbanism/legislation-and-the-built-environment-in-the-arab-muslim-city/page-26/ (2016-02-13)
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