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  • Excavations at Tartaruca Noua (Moldova)
    from the current ground level The bottom of the pit was defined by a layer of river stones The only cultural materials found during the excavation of the pit were a small number of extremely fragmented animal bones which were deliberately cracked to suck out the marrow In the eastern corner of the pit a hearth was defined by stone slabs Remains of a large blackware pot was found on the hearth Ash carbon and burned clay were in the immediate vicinity of the hearth The wall slabs were removed Upon removing the stones which formed the bottom of the pit an area of red burned clay was found immediately below the hearth Walls beyond the stone slabs were not identified Subsequently the pit was enlarged laterally and approximately 50 cm deeper With the exception of a secondary pit of gray mixed soil on the western end in square 7Y only the same cultural materials Early Hallstat pottery sherds and bone fragments were found in the area between 75 cm and 125 cm below the current ground level Excavations in the enlarged pit were continued to a depth of 125 cm below the current ground level at which time fired red clay deposits were revealed in two areas These proved to be at the same level as the top of the Cucuteni Tripolye red burned clay walls excavated in Trench 1 Burial 3 In square 6X approximately 70 cm below the current ground level a partial cranium was revealed A small amount of the same cultural material burnished Hallstat pottery and fragmented animal bones were found at this level in the immediate vicinity of the cranium No other material culture or human bones were encountered in this burial Pit 4 Approximately 50 m to the north of area 1 9 X Z along the vertical embankment of the Dnieper River approximately 3 meters below the current ground level a circular pit was identified and opened The only cultural remains found in the partially excavated pit were evidence of buring bits of carbon ash and burned red clay No burned or unburned bones or pottery sherds were found Pit 5 At approximately 75 cm below the current ground beneath a deposit of river stones a diamond shaped pit in squares 4 5Y was opened At a level of 85 cm an intact The distincitive black fired vessel encountered among many river stones is identical to one excavated from Thracian territory further to the east At a level of 95 cm large sherds of Early Hallstat Thracian type pottery were found below the beaker and in addition several large river stones were in found in the wall of the pit Excavations were continued to a depth of 100 cm at which time a second nearly inact Early Hallstat beaker was found among river stones To the west several bones from a large animal had been deposied Excavations were continued to a depth of approximately 115 cm below the current ground level Additional

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/moldhallstat/HalstattExc.html (2016-02-09)
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  • and the Bronze Age as well as Sarmatian Germanic Celtic and Late Scythian peoples Excavations carried out in 1969 and 1976 of the promontory fortified citadel above the Dniester River have been reassessed as a result of field exploration in 1995 and excavations in 1996 These researches revealed two chronological horizons The first belongs to the Middle Hallstat Period a cultic site located along the Dniester The second horizon dates to the first century A D and encompasses the fortified settlement in southeastern Europe during this time period On a promontory overlooking the river it is surrounded on two sides by deep canyons and further protected by four walls with moats La Santuri lies within the western boundaries where the tamgas of the Sarmatian kings Pharzoeus and Inisimeus have been identified Although the citadel was possibly founded by a Sarmatian princeling it shows no indications of actually having been a king s capital city More probably it was a trading outpost bringing wine and oil from a Roman manufacturing area up the Dniester River Late Sarmatian Period Cauldron Excavating on the promitor above the Dneister River Artifacts from surrounding regions are extremely rich and nicely displayed in the Archaeological Museum

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/more_moldova/mold.more.santuri.html (2016-02-09)
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  • of great importance in understanding the early history of the Indo Iranian speaking peoples The linguistic interpretation of this culture is under discussion as well as its origin and chronology The Andronovo Culture or Cultural Family is represented by a great variety of settlements and burial ground sites It is composed of several cultural lines of evolution Petrovka Sintashta 2000 1600 B C Alakul and Fyedorovo 1500 1300 B C Sargary Alexeevka 1200 1000 B C These differed by some features in pottery design tool sets and funeral rituals For example the Alacul people buried their tribesmen in flexed position at the bottom of the pit The Fyedorovo ritual was related to cremation where ash was placed in the pit supposedly together with a doll some object with held the ash and calcined bone before a stone or earthen construction was erected above the burial A basic disagreement between scholars lies in the interpretation of the interrelation between the Alakul and Fyedorovo complexes and in the definitio n of intermediate types The Andronovo settlements are usually situated on small river banks and quite often occupy low flood plains They may be of two types 1 small consisting of several timberbuilt houses and 2 large comprising from 20 to 100 houses Over time the settlements grew larger to accomodate the increasing population as evidenced by the expansion of the territory they occupied Characteristic are the roomy semi dugout dwellings 100 130 sq m with deep storage pits and corridor shaped exits Settlements in the Andronovo region usually have a rectangular plan 1 houses are placed in a line along a river 2 houses are situated along a street 3 houses are constructed in two rows either in a semi circular or rectangular plan A particular feature of many settlements is a

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/Koryakova/korya.andronovo.html (2016-02-09)
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  • accompanied by significant social and cultural changes Producers and consumers alike appeared First there was an explosion followed by the transformation or stagnation The earliest metal in this area was produced by the Tripolye culture Eneolithic to the 4th millennium B C The Tripolye focus was relatively modest within the advanced central area of the Balkan and Carpathian province The end of the first stage was marked by visible decomposition of the brilliant Eneolithic cultures in Balkan and Carpathian area The beginning of the Bronze Age 3500 3300 B C was marked by many significant events which took place in Eurasia The new system of metallurgical production replaced the old one Its territorial expansion was greater and its influence spread over a larger territory about 4 5 million sq km from the southern Ural region to the Persian gulf from Syria to the northern Adriatic coast 2 The second stage the 3rd to the first half of the 2nd mill BC the local metallurgy developed in many cultures Objects of similar form and technology were produced in all the centers A new metallurgical center emerged in the Caucasus where mainly arsenical bronze and pure cooper items were produced Tools and ornaments made from arsenic bronze and pure copper have been found at many sites Metal objects penetrated to the north and were introduced into the Pit Grave and Catacomb cultures This resulted in the formation of the Circum Pontic metallurgical province which played a very important role in the northern and eastward transmission of metallurgy and the subsequent increased economy The Circum Pontic province comprised the metallurgical and metalworking focuses of the Caucasus Balkan and Carpathians the northern coast of Black Sea the southwestern Ural region and probably Asia Minor Molds used for Bronze Casting 3 The third stage Late

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/koryakova2/Korya.Bronze.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Sintashta-Arcaim Culture
    into the Abashevo sphere The most diagnostic feature of the Sintashta settlement site is its closed fortification that consisted of ramparts and ditches enforced by a fence or wall built from unfired clay bricks and wooden frames The site plan was based on either a round or rectangular form The fortified area included from 6 000 to 30 000 sq meters Towers and other constructions protected the entrances and the accesses to water Zdanovich 1995 The houses were 25 130 sq meters rectangular and had pit storage open fire hearths wells Some also included metallurgical furnaces Sintashta Burial Why had the individuality of Sintashta sites and their associated artifacts not been recognized earlier And why are the sites still the subject of dispute The crux of this matter is that frequently the more ancient deposits had been destroyed by subsequent layers of occupation It was possible to understand the Sintashta settlement only after a another site had been investigated more recently The Sintashta sites have been referred to as The Land of Towns Gening Zdanovich 1993 Zdanovich 1995 The cultue had occupied the territory along the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains The fortified settlement studied in most detail is Arkaim Occupying 20 000 sq meters it was discovered in 1987 by the team headed by G Zdanovich during salvage excavations before the construction of a dam The excavation revealed that the settlement had been burned and therefore many details were preserved The population however had vacated the city before the fire and took all their possession with them Arkaim Settlement Site Arkaim had two protective circular walls and two circles of standard dwellings separated by a street around a central square The external wall 160 m in diameter and 4 m wide was built from specially selected soil that

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/koryakova2/Korya.Sin.Ark.html (2016-02-09)
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  • EURASIAN NOMADIC BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Age Oxford British Archaeological Research Reports International Series 890 Oxford Archaeopress pp 223 229 2000 Book Review Late prehistoric exploitation of the Eurasian steppe By Marsha Levine Yuri Rassamakin Aleksandr Kislenko and Nataliya Tatarintseva with an introduction by Colin Renfrew Electronic Publication http csen org Levine et al review Levine Review html 1999 Beiram Excavation Report Electronic Publication http www csen org Beiram Excavation Report beiram exc rpt1 htm l 1999 Priestesses Enarees and Other Statuses Among Indo Iranian Peoples Proceedings of the Tenth Annual UCLA Indo European Conference Los Angeles May 21 23 1998 Karlene Jones Bley Martin E Huld Angela Della Volpe and Miriam Robbins Dexter eds Journal of Indo European Studies Monograph Series No 32 Washington D C Institute for the Study of Man 231 259 1998 1997 Excavations at Tartaruca Noua Northern Moldova Berkeley Archaeology Archaeological Research Facility University of California Berkeley Vol 6 No 1 Fall 1998 1998 Archaeological Fieldwork and Related Activities Ð 1997 Archaeological Research Facility Annual Report 1997 Archaeological Research Facility University of Califo rnia Berkeley 1998 Statuses of Eastern Early Iron Age Nomads in Papers from the EAA Third Annual Meeting at Ravenna 1997 Mark Pearce and Maurizio Tosi eds BAR Interantional Series 717 Oxford Archaeopress 1998 Martha Avery Women of Mongolia A Book Review in Journal of Central Asian Studies Vol 1 No 2 Spring Summer 1997 98 Amazons Priestesses and Other Women of Status Females in Eurasian Nomadic Societies Silk Road Art and Archeology no 5 Journal of the Institute of Silk Road Studies The Ancient Orient Museum Kamakura Japan 1998 The Kangiashimenzi Petroglyphs in Xinjiang Western China Indo European Studies Bulletin Vl 7 No 2 1998 Tribal Interaction between the Early Iron Age Nomads of the Southern Ural Steppes Semirechiye and Xinjiang The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia Victor H Mair Ed Journal of Indo European Studies and Univ Of Pennsylvania Monograph No 26 2 vols 1998 Ancient Nomads Female Warriors and Priestesses Web Page for EurAsia Stanford University http www eurasia98 stanford edu P 1997 Sauro Sarmatian Nomadic Women New Gender Identities Journal of Indo European Studies Vol 25 no 3 4 Fall Winter 1997 Chieftain or Warrior Priestess Archaeology Magazine Sept Oct 1997 Warrior Women of the Eurasian Steppes Archaeology Magazine Jan Feb 1996 Proportions in Achaemenid Art Russian Archaeology No 1 Institute of Archaeology Academy of Sciences Moscow 1996 Eurasian Sun Gods Ideographs of the Ancients Arte Preistoric e Tribale Immagini Simboli e Societ Proceedings of the Valcamonica Symposium XIV edizone Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici Capo di Ponte Italy 1996 Abstract of poster Kurgans on the Left Bank of the Ilek Excavations at Pokrovka 1992 1995 AJA Vol 100 no 2 April 1996 co author pp 375 376 1996 Sauro Sarmatian Nomadic Women New Gender Identities AJA Vol 100 no 2 April 1996 co author pp 389 1996 1995 Pokrovka Russia Excavations Archaeology News no 20 1995 96 Excavations of Kurgans in the Southern Orenburg District Russia Questions

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/Articles_Reivews/Bibliography.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Linked Sites
    east of the Ural Mountains dating from ca 2000 BCE and attributed to Indo Iranians All good archaeological information except we can vouch for the references to UFO Tarim Basin China mummy on display in Japan Global DNA Project National Geographic and IBM to track human migrations using DNA For a small fee partaicipants can scrape mucous membrane cells from inside the cheek and become part of the project Ancestry and DNA Testing Individualized Testing Reports A good source for information about the contemporary Kazaks of Western Mongolia A reader pointed out that the Kazak woman illustrated at the beginning of this article bears a striking resemblance to the reconstruction of the Sarmatian woman excavated from Cemtary 2 Kurgan 7 Burial 2 at Pokrovka Russia in 1995 This woman is known as 2 7 2 in the National Geographic International and the PBS documentaries Secrets of the Dead Warrior Women Chieftain or Warrior Priestess Archaeology Vol 50 No 5 Sept Oct 1997 An Annotated Bibliography on ancient cultures many referring to nomadic cultures women and amazons University of Sydney Central Asian Program Including new archaeological discoveries in 2004 Asian Studies Transoxiana Web Journal The Webfestschrift Marshak an electronic version of

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/Linked%20Sites/LinkedSites.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Drawing of the Kangjiashimenzi Petroglyphs in Xinjiang, Western China
    Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads CSEN Table of Contents Index Drawing of the Kangijiashimenzi Petroglyphs in Xinjiang Provence Western China after Wang Bing Hua

    Original URL path: http://www.csen.org/hutubi_petroglyphs/h.schema.html (2016-02-09)
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