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  • decentralizedwater.org
    Principal Investigator Kathryn Lowe Project Budget 789 521 Entire project Project Identifier 04 DEC 1a DESCRIPTION A literature review was conducted to assess the current status of knowledge on the composition of raw wastewater and primary treated effluent i e septic tank effluent from single source onsite wastewater systems The overall goal of this research project is to characterize the extent of conventional constituents microbial constituents and organic wastewater contaminants in single source onsite raw wastewater and primary treated effluent to aid onsite wastewater system design and management Information obtained was evaluated using cumulative frequency distributions to compare individual constituent concentrations in various waste streams and by using data qualifiers to enable assessment of parameters that might affect single source waste stream composition To supplement information on the single source raw wastewater and primary treated effluent composition state agencies responsible for onsite wastewater regulation were contacted to assess the prevalence of different system types installed and in operation Selected demographics that capture differences in lifestyle habits that could affect raw wastewater composition were also assessed A large amount of data was captured by this literature review however information gaps were identified The information presented here will be used to guide

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_04-DEC-1a.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    sources is currently accomplished using a combination of direct measurements of point sources and estimations of non point source contributions based on land use distributions A complementary apportionment approach could involve the measurement of certain chemical and biological species as tracers Useful tracers would be present in different sources with unique relative concentrations source signatures and useful tracers must also meet requirements regarding reproducibility specificity to source type and stability with respect to transport and degradation The proposed project will evaluate the utility of select chemical and biological species for phosphorus source apportionment within the context of Table Rock Lake on the Missouri Arkansas border The proposed project will evaluate three classes of potential tracers 1 trace elements 2 synthetic organic chemicals and 3 biological species Heavy metals and metalloids are the trace elements to be studied A small set of prescription and non prescription drugs that are amenable to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography are the synthetic organic chemicals of interest Bacteriophages have been selected as the biological tracers of interest The investigation will combine direct sampling of waters from potential phosphorus sources with sampling of surface waters likely to have been predominantly impacted by a single type of source source rich surface waters Sampling activities will be performed in and around Table Rock Lake on the Missouri Arkansas border Population and development in the Table Rock Lake watershed have increased rapidly in the last two decades and the lake was recently put on the Missouri list of impaired waters because of high phosphorus concentrations The project will focus on four potential phosphorus sources 1 centralized wastewater treatment plants 2 decentralized wastewater treatment systems 3 runoff of animal wastes from feeding operations or fields to which wastes were applied and 4 runoff of inorganic phosphate fertilizers Specific sources

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-03-00.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    Eileen Poeter Ph D Project Budget 87 327 Project Identifier WU HT 02 45 DESCRIPTION This project will produce a report identifying and discussing appropriate hydrogeological investigations and analysis methods for siting and design of large cluster and high density wastewater soil absorption systems In addition to addressing field investigative methods appropriate modeling tools and the costs and benefits associated with the various methods of investigation will be examined Case

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-02-45.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    methodology for assessing the water quality impacts of decentralized wastewater systems including individual and cumulative effects on local water supply wells as well as downstream receiving waters The project will include field and laboratory work modeling and stakeholder involvement Field and laboratory work will enhance the understanding of the transport fate of microbes and chemicals in soil based wastewater treatment systems and enable site scale model development The site scale processes will then be incorporated into an existing watershed model WARMF used to simulate cumulative effects and water quality responses in a watershed or sub watershed The modified WARMF model will be used as a decision support system to engage stakeholders in the development of TMDLs for onsite wastewater system discharges in the Blue River tributary of the Lake Dillon watershed in Colorado The project will be carried out in two phases by a collaborative team involving the Colorado School of Mines CSM Electric Power Research Institute EPRI US Geological Survey USGS and the Summit County Environmental Health Department SCEH Phase I will include model preparation and calibration base simulations with WARMF development of onsite system input expressions and adaptation of WARMF laboratory experimentation and field sampling and analyses to

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-00-27.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    and on subsequent transport in ground water This work will also be complemented by evaluating the suitability of common wastewater compounds as tracers of coliphage transport Coliphage are viruses that infect and replicate in coliform bacteria and are found in high concentrations in wastewater Wastewater compounds of interest will be a suite of 67 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater including caffeine cholesterol menthol camphor cotinine a nicotine metabolite detergent metabolites antimicrobial agents disinfectants antioxidants and compounds originating from deodorants and fragrances The research will consist of two components 1 attenuation of coliphage in traditional and innovative onsite wastewater systems will be measured to provide information about the efficiency of coliphage removal during treatment of wastewater 2 ground water contaminated with plumes of wastewater will be sampled at various points for coliphage and wastewater compounds to determine transport parameters for these analytes and to determine the suitability of wastewater compounds as surrogates for coliphage transport This work will take the science of virus transport to a new level Up until now most research to advance the understanding of virus transport in ground water has 1 taken the form of laboratory column experiments using coliphage 2 taken place in carefully constrained field settings with injected laboratory grown coliphage and 3 focused on transport of viruses from la nd application of municipal wastewater and sludge Little work has been done to estimate field based natural gradient transport parameters for viruses originating from distributed sources such as on site wastewater systems Yet hydrologists and water resource managers increasingly recognize that predictive ground water transport models can be useful research and management tools These transport models require transport parameters including transport parameters for viruses from field studies in which transport mechanisms are representative of common sources such as on site wastewater systems

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-03-05.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    Although there has been considerable focus on reduction of P in effluent from public wastewater treatment plants in the U S the environmental impacts of onsite wastewater treatment systems have received much less attention A growing body of research suggests that conventional onsite systems relying on septic tanks and soil absorption systems for P removal do not always prevent impairment of surface waters Understanding and managing sources of phosphorus pollution in the landscape necessitates evaluating and minimizing the P contribution from onsite systems to surface waters The project team will report on phosphorus removal technologies that have been proposed and or tested for use in decentralized wastewater treatment The report will include information about the application performance cost effectiveness and other factors associated with each technology In keeping with the soft path approach to wastewater treatment we will examine a range of phosphorus removal technologies including source reduction source separation septic tank treatment secondary treatment technologies and soil aborption system design The alternatives selected will be evaluated with a set of criteria including removal capability cost system robustness secondary benefits maintenance requirements and costs A list of prioritized research needs will be developed based on review of work conducted since

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-03-22.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    to apply these techniques to ground water quality issues associated with the use of decentralized wastewater treatment systems The simulation optimization approach is appealing because it can account for both the complex behavior of a ground water flow system and identify the best management strategy to achieve prescribed constraints This project will evaluate various optimization techniques with respect to their applicability to development of risk based management programs in communities utilizing decentralized wastewater treatment Many communities are faced with land use and wastewater treatment planning decisions related to the protection of ground water quality the consequences of which can be costly and should thus be supported by the best possible information Simulation models can be expensive to develop largely because they require more data than some other techniques such as mass balance calculations However where simulation models are justified due to the complexity of the ground water system and need for predictive capability the use of optimization can actually reduce the cost of using the simulation model to identify best management strategies It should be noted that the simulation models are available for many communities and even if they were initially developed for other purposes can often be cost effectively

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-03-37.asp (2016-05-01)
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  • decentralizedwater.org
    foam and textile filters tank based bioreactors membrane systems and disinfection units that offer the potential to dramatically decrease the reliance on natural soils as a critical component to the effective performance of an OWS While much is known about effects of high quality effluents on soil pore clogging and infiltration capacity there are serious gaps in the current knowledge base regarding the advanced pretreatment effects on the genesis of an in situ biozone and soil system purification efficiency particularly for pathogens which determine the overall OWS performance with respect to protecting public health and environmental quality To further increase the understanding and advance the standard of practice for application of advanced pretreatment for OWS controlled but representative experimentation must be completed In the proposed project proven methodologies involving existing research facilities and apparatus will be used to enable detailed characterization of the effluent quality produced by three different levels of pretreatment septic tank septic tank with textile filter unit and a membrane bioreactor and the effects of these effluent qualities on the genesis of an in situ biozone and the hydraulic and purification performance of a soil treatment system The research will also address the matter of performance monitoring

    Original URL path: http://www.decentralizedwater.org/research_project_WU-HT-03-36.asp (2016-05-01)
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