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    by putting 60 of its most memorable research papers online Image credits BBC One of the articles describes early experiments in blood transfusion The Royal Society founded in London in 1660 is making public manuscripts by figures like Sir Isaac Newton Benjamin Franklin s account of his risky kite flying experiment is also available on the Trailblazing website Society president Lord Rees said the papers documented some of the most thrilling moments in science history The Royal Society grew out of the so called Invisible College of thinkers who began meeting in the mid 1640s to discuss science and philosophy Its official foundation date is 28 November 1660 and thereafter it met weekly to debate and witness experiments Mozart study The papers published on the Trailblazing website were first printed in the society s journal Philosophical Transactions Image credits Times Live Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart aged 14 by Saverio dalla Rosa They were chosen from 60 000 printed since the journal s foundation in 1665 a date which makes it the oldest continuously published scientific periodical in the world Among the highlights are a gruesome account of a 17th Century blood transfusion and the article in which Sir Isaac showed that white light is a mixture of other colours Also included is Franklin s account of his ill advised attempt in 1752 to show that lightning was a form of electricity by flying a kite in a storm and a 1970 paper on black holes co written by Professor Stephen Hawking There is also an entertaining paper about a study of the nine year old Mozart in London in 1770 to determine whether he really was a child prodigy Suggestions he was in fact a midget adult were dismissed by writer Daines Barrington on the grounds that young Wolfgang was more

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/spotlight/rare-scientific-manuscripts-now-online/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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  • DO Channel
    to that of our own neurons The goal is not to make a better computer than conventional ones said project collaborator Klaus Peter Zauner of the University of Southampton but rather to be able to compute in new environments The type of wet information technology we are working towards will not find its near term application in running business software Dr Zauner told BBC News But it will open up application domains where current IT does not offer any solutions controlling molecular robots fine grained control of chemical assembly and intelligent drugs that process the chemical signals of the human body and act according to the local biochemical state of the cell Lipids and liquids The group s approach hinges on two critical ideas First individual cells are surrounded by a wall made up of so called lipids that spontaneously encapsulate the liquid innards of the cell Recent work has shown that when two such lipid layers encounter each other as the cells come into contact a protein can form a passage between them allowing chemical signalling molecules to pass Second the cells interiors will play host to what is known as a Belousov Zhabotinsky or B Z chemical reaction Simply put reactions of this type can be initiated by changing the concentration of the element bromine by a certain threshold amount The reactions are unusual for a number of reasons But for the computing application what is important is that after the arrival of a chemical signal to start it the cell enters a refractory period during which further chemical signals do not influence the reaction That keeps a signal from propagating unchecked through any connected cells Such self contained systems that react under their own chemical power to a stimulus above a threshold have an analogue in nature

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/spotlight/a-brainy-computer/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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  • DO Channel
    such regulatory standards in developing countries has been a challenging problem for all chemical based products not just nano products These countries ignore the issues at their own peril In India for example there is a long list of companies ranging across mining and chemical industries that have failed to address the concerns of local communities and of human rights groups From the 1984 toxic chemical disaster in Bhopal to a bauxite mining and aluminium refinery in the Niyamgiri Hills Orissa activists have been waging long running legal battles against toxic wastes Environmental activism has grown with environmental impact assessments being a critical component of any newer industrial activity However it is not only large multinational companies that are shifting environmental burdens with possible adverse toxic effects on humans in to the developing world but also smaller companies within developing nations What to test and who should pay So who should pay for screening safety assessments and regulation These are big costs that would hit developing country companies hard Most nanotechnology innovations originate from research groups in small start up businesses Whether these businesses survive may depend on the burden imposed from regulatory bodies Small companies can be severely restricted by the costs associated with increased oversight Yet many companies are catering to the needs for cheaper raw materials and products outsourced by high cost countries In developing countries in particular health and safety regulations will have to carefully deliberate who should bear the cost burden of regulatory testing It is an important task because the regulations will in turn play a substantial role in prioritising which risks are assessed The regulatory burden is further compounded by an ongoing debate on the correct way to screen nanomaterials for toxicity whether to focus mainly on effects on cells investigated in vitro in laboratory setting or effects on whole animals in vivo studies which are more challenging and can be more expensive We already know that traditional toxicological assays and models can produce conflicting and often irreproducible results for nanomaterials So there is no single accepted screening platform Green chemistry Another way to circumvent some of these challenges may be to focus on the emerging area of green chemistry to reduce or eliminate hazardous substances in the design manufacture and application of chemical products which also holds promise for reducing toxic health effects of nano based entities The use of eco friendly and biodegradable materials in the production of metal nanoparticles is important for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications Generating nanoparticles often requires toxic and aggressive chemical reducing agents like sodium borohydride and hydrazine a capping agent to stabilize the particles and volatile organic solvents such as toluene or chloroform Although these methods may successfully produce pure well defined metal nanoparticles the material environmental and health cost of production is high We urgently need to develop more cost effective and benign alternatives Leapfrogging to greener nanotech My own team has already developed several benign methods which use natural renewable resources such plant extracts

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/comments/green-nanotech-can-reduce-risks-to-poor-nations/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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  • DO Channel
    s a hoax mail on bomb attacks or hate mails and vulgar mails their origin is usually from cyber cafes But law enforcement agencies always had difficulty while tracing the culprits Image credits Google Cyber crimes Though it is mandatory under Information Technology IT Act for cyber cafe owners to maintain records of their customers there was ambiguity about the procedures required and cafe owners were scared of losing business But now in Bangalore the police are actively supporting a new software created by a private company that will help cyber cafe owners maintain a digital record with all the details of the customer including their photo identity The software Click Cyber Cafe Manager from Ideacts Innovations is available free of cost for cyber cafe owners Sensing that the software will help in creating a database of internet users and help in easy tracking them in case of threat mails the Bangalore police are urging cyber cafe owners to use the software Taking the lead Bangalore East division police along with Ideacts Innovation organised a meet inviting all cyber cafe owners from the East division on Thursday Over 200 cyber cafe owners had participated in the interactive meet Joint commissioner crime Alok Kumar who presided over the meet said that cyberspace security is now an important facet of law enforcement With nearly 47 of internet access points still being cyber cafes it is imperative to have comprehensive information management It will help keep their user records for longer duration and manage their cafe accounts According to the IT Act 2000 and the state IT Act it is mandatory for a cyber cafe owner to take down name address contact details and a photo identity If a owner does not maintain these records and if the law enforcement authorities finds about

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/news/tracking-cyber-criminals/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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  • DO Channel
    of mobile phones has been launched by Egypt s official telecoms regulatory body Image credits BBC Do not start rumours by forwarding incorrect messages says the guide The 16 point guide includes advice about when to switch phones off and warns against annoying others with ringtones and loud conversations Mobile phone technology is considered one of the greatest technologies to emerge in the last few years to serve humanity it says But it should not be used to annoy or tease others the guide continues The code was prepared by the country s National Telecom Regulatory Authority and the Consumer Rights Protection Committee This Ethics Code aims to regulate the users behaviours on using mobile phones especially with the increasing and intense problems and irresponsible behaviour of some users of mobile technology reads the introduction Putting pictures or videos of somebody on the internet without their consent is punishable by law warns the guide Mobile phones should never be used to violate others privacy It also says that mobile phone users will face legal action for sending text messages that include inappropriate words or indecent photos Users are told to be patient with wrong numbers and not to answer calls

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/news/ethics-code-for-mobile-users/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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    parents suspicious spouses and bosses It may even be able to evade the warrant less wiretapping program started in the United States following the Sept 11 attacks When a user shuts down a browser running on Tor all information exchanged during the Web session is deleted The US government is one of Tor s biggest financial backers It contributed 250 000 of the 343 000 in income the nonprofit reported in 2007 the most recent year for which financial data is available We are trying to encourage a certain freedom of the Internet said Ken Berman director of information technology at the US Broadcasting Board of Governors which oversees Voice of America China Iran Tor use has risen in China as authorities block access to sites that the government has banned for political reasons They include Google s e mail service Lewman said People who were never concerned about censorship suddenly had it thrown in their face when they couldn t get to Gmail anymore Lewman said Average people said How do I get around this In May ahead of the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square crackdown the Chinese government also blocked access to Twitter and Microsoft Corp s Hotmail Connections to Tor from Iran surged five fold in June as protest organizers used social network services Facebook and Twitter to coordinate demonstrations in the wake of the country s disputed presidential election These are great features These are exactly the kinds of things Iranians need said Sam Sedaei an independent economic researcher who studies human rights in Iran New tools The non profit group Human Rights in China plans to test a newer version of Tor to secure its communications It is also developing tools to fight surveillance As activists we want anonymity and security The challenge is

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/spotlight/rights-activists-seek-online-privacy-tools-for-protection/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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  • DO Channel
    rare minerals the composition of the air Your tricorder probes and samples its environment and tells you what s around you Aiding anti terrorist detection programme The NASA device does the same thing albeit for a much smaller set of substances Still it s the first of many steps to developing a handheld device that can measure the world in a scientific way Right now Homeland sniffer Security has plans to use the chem in an anti terrorist detection programme more below but one day we could see advanced versions helping us measure air quality determine UV exposure or tell us if there s any dairy nuts or gluten in our meals The tricorder would put scientific examination in the palm of our hands Currently the device is only able to detect a limited range of gases using a 64 nanosensor array 16 on each side of the chip The range of gases it can identify will likely expand and be refined as nanosensors are developed for new substances Image credits BioPrepWatch Jing Li NASA scientist A small sampling jet collects air from the environment and directs it onto the array The multiple channel silicon chip also knows how to use the mobile phone to connect via WiFi or Telecomm to other phones or a central hub to alert them in case of detection That s a nifty piece of engineering and something we didn t really see in Star Trek The connectivity of detection devices is going to affect the way we use chem sniffers long before they become as complex as tricorders Faster information easily adapted The chip once miniaturised and adapted could be fit to work in a wide range of mobile devices besides the iPhone While the current device fits outside the iPhone housing future devices

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/spotlight/mobile-chemical-detector-from-nasa/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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  • DO Channel
    and figures points out that mobile technologies and broadband are making major inroads in developing countries It argues that even though cellular technology is becoming widely popular there are regional discrepancies in mobile broadband penetration The World in 2009 ICT facts and figures Publisher International Telecommunications Union 2009 The report points out rapid growth of information and communication technologies ICT in many parts of the world The latest statistics indicate the growth in several areas including use of mobile phones broadband televisions and computers It states that mobile technology is the key driver to ICT growth with global mobile subscriptions expected to reach 4 6 billion by the end of the year The broadband subscriptions are expected to top 600 million this year having overtaken fixed broadband subscribers in 2008 According to the statistics more than a quarter of the world s population is online and using the Internet as of 2009 However the report also shows that mobile broadband penetration rates are still low in many African and other developing countries It highlights Asia and the Pacific and Europe have the greatest numbers of mobile broadband subscriptions There is a dramatic broadband divide with very few fixed broadband subscribers

    Original URL path: http://www.digitalopportunity.org/feature/discrepancies-still-exist-despite-major-mobile-penetration/?searchterm=None (2016-02-17)
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