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  • Direction: Compassion: Infiltrating the Profession of Nursing
    second incident two women with one child came before King Solomon for justice 1 Kings 3 16 27 Each woman had given birth but one child had died during the night Now both claimed to be the mother of the living child and asked the king to decide between them The king suggested the living child be cut in half and divided between them The real mother was moved with compassion and pled with the king to keep the child alive and give it to the other woman 1 Kings 3 26 Here compassion was again a strong emotion that motivated the mother to deliver the child from death at her own expense Although God desired his people to be compassionate the O T indicates that people generally were not compassionate 2 Their lack of compassion was manifested as anger often expressed in gruesome stories Without compassion power can be used against people to harm and to destroy Unfortunately compassion is a characteristic of God that finds few expressions among people in the O T THE METAPHOR OF GOD S COMPASSION GOD BESIDE US Compassion is often thought of as a feminine metaphor for God because of its association with the word raham or womb Womb is the singular compassion the plural The derivation of the word may therefore nuance our understanding of compassion In O T thought God is the one in control of the womb 3 He brings life to conception He provides the 57 womb that nourishes and sustains vulnerable and fragile life He releases that life when viable and places it onto the breasts of one who continues to nourish and protect that life Ps 22 9 10 In so doing God binds mother and child together It is expected then that mothers will not forget their children even when grown Isa 49 15 They will be motivated to forgive seek reconciliation offer protection and be present to their children despite their rebellion Thus mothers themselves may become living metaphors of God s compassion Mothers provide imperfect examples of how God deals with us and of how we male and female are to relate to our neighbors JESUS PASSING ON THE BATON OF COMPASSION The O T revelation of God s compassion is enhanced by the New Testament NT Here Jesus God with us broadens our understanding of compassion Jesus bridges the gap between God and humanity enabling and empowering his followers also to be compassionate through his Spirit We as his followers are entrusted with the message of reconciliation 2 Cor 5 19 20 Reconciliation describes the return to friendly relations the same status that the compassion of God wrought in the O T 4 Those who have received God s compassion who have themselves been reconciled to God forgiven and delivered respond with joy and obedience to God s initiative and ongoing work of reconciliation COMPASSION WITHIN PROFESSIONALISM God continues to call his people including nurses to be compassionate that is they are called to imitate God and Jesus in seeking restoration of broken relationships becoming present to those in difficulty delivering those in situations where God s compassion seems distant and forgiving others in order to restore them to community Christian nurses as members of the kingdom of light are convinced of this challenge However the nursing community is energetically persuading nurses to seek the status of a profession A search for exclusive knowledge provision of a necessary service to the public ethical practice and autonomy both individually and as an association 5 The question becomes How can Christian 58 nurses creatively and responsibly respond to these two challenges of compassion and professionalism I suggest that the call to compassion takes precedence and transforms the concept of professionalism for Christian nurses The commitment to compassion reshapes professionalism in each of its four dimensions In this way the kingdom of light infiltrates yet another world SERVICE MOTIVATED BY COMPASSION Both concepts of compassion and professionalism include the dimension of service to others However nursing does not as yet have a precise or specific articulation of its unique service to others One well known nurse theorist states that care is the essence of nursing 6 Another nurse theorist states that nursing is action designed to bring about events and results that benefit others in specified ways 7 I submit that compassion as understood in the O T provides a distinctive articulation of nursing service for God s people in this occupation In our day in North America sickness isolates people The sick themselves withdraw for a variety of reasons they lack the energy to interact socially they deliberately avoid the awkwardness of the well not knowing what to say or they feel embarrassed by their inability to conceal their symptoms 8 The community also places barriers before the physically challenged their difficulties with mobility limit their access to public places 9 The sick are often sent to institutions to be cared for away from their family and friends And while in the institutions they may feel dehumanized because of complex medical technology 10 For a variety of reasons then sick people often feel alone and isolated they are in our North American way expelled from community Just as God in the O T showed compassion to his people when they were far from him so the church as Christ s body is called to serve these sick in love to show compassion and initiate reconciliation to bring them back into the community John 13 34 35 By their contact with the sick Christian nurses are in a unique position to break the harrier of the isolation of the sick with compassion to demonstrate God s desire for restoration and reconciliation in visible and concrete service to the public 59 Their work can manifest a sacrament of compassion 11 Christian nurses are often required to care for the sick in quite intrusive ways caring for bowel bladder and skin In this intrusive care both the sick

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  • Direction: The Art of Listening to Hurting People
    with them When counselors really listen healing of emotional pain can take place I experience this almost daily in my work Henri Nouwen 1986 97 puts this into words that I often use in my teaching Healing is the humble but also very demanding task of creating and offering a friendly empty space where strangers can reflect on their pain and suffering without fear and find the confidence that makes them look for new ways right in the centre of their confusion In order to achieve such listening we need to do what I call three way listening While studying in the Chaplaincy Program I felt I needed a role model and I began to search for one The male supervisors were good listeners but that did not satisfy me I searched for a female role model but that too was futile as I could not find one in my denomination It was then that I finally set my eyes on Jesus and found that He was the Great Listener for whom I had been searching Thus began an exciting study for me one which continues to be an ongoing pursuit Two books that have been very helpful are The Counselling of Jesus by Duncan Buchanan and Listening to the God Who Speaks by Klaus Bockmuehl THREE WAY LISTENING In the art of three way listening I discovered first of all that Jesus needed to listen to God Jesus had an Abba Father relationship with God a relationship so intimate so secure that Jesus could move with confidence feeling totally competent to do His Father s will Added to the confidence security and intimacy of the relationship was an element of deep and total obedience Duncan Buchanan 1985 17 says At the heart of His ministry is a deep relationship one so strong that it can withstand the pressures and onslaughts of sin and Satan and sustain Him to the end Jesus spent much time alone with his Father and so must I I have learned before I go on any visit to claim his word in James 1 5 If any of you lacks wisdom let him ask of God who gives to all liberally and without reproach and it will be given to him Klaus Bockmuehl 1990 61 says As Christ s disciples we are given the 68 privilege of divine instruction This privilege includes the invitation to listen with the same attitude of listening we perceive in Jesus Secondly I need to learn to listen to self as the Bible teaches it How aware am I of my position in Christ Roger Hurding has some beautiful diagrams in his book Restoring the Image He states The presence of God s love in our lives will encourage both the acceptance of the people we are as made by God and redeemed through Christ and the rejection of all that is unworthy of God s calling 1980 9 This gives me a strong sense of identity as well as an awareness of my own limitations and my weaknesses If I am not in touch with my own pain and weaknesses and have not dealt with them they will come between me and the hurting person Instead of hearing the person I will hear my own pain and have a compulsive urge to talk about it If I have taken care of my relationship to God and my relationship to self I can then move effectively into the third aspect of listening listening to hurting people Few people take the time and effort needed in listening to hurting people Why is this so difficult to do Colin Johnstone a C P E supervisor at the Cancer Control Agency outlined the difficulties as follows Our society has a model of being verbal There is no shortage of seminars on communication but seldom is there one on active listening Our society is so noisy that we tune people out We cannot tolerate the noise and therefore have a problem with tuning in with listening skills If we listen till we hear it will cause us pain and we do not want to feel that pain This is by far the greatest difficulty Often hurting persons cannot hear themselves If we the listener really hear them we may hear what they have not heard in themselves and by reflecting back on what we ve heard they may begin to hear themselves There are two levels of listening that can be illustrated in the following diagram 69 I entered the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit one day and in reply to my question How are things going for you today the lady responded I am not so afraid any more I reflected Afraid With that she started to cry and said I am so afraid I will die and I have no religion We were then able to deal with the real issues When we respond to the feelings behind the words the hurting people know we have heard what they are trying to communicate but were unable to verbalize themselves This opens the door for them to deal with their deep pain THE PURPOSE OF ACTIVE LISTENING In active listening hurting individuals are able to make use of the listener The listener acts as a reflecting mirror This enables the person to identify his or her feelings persons gain insight into their problem and then can start problem solving I find the following model developed by Colin Johnstone very helpful Ventilation This is the emotional component All their pent up feelings need to be expressed and listened to Hurting people cannot hear the listener until the latter has heard all their pain The question Why needs to be expressed in various ways over and over again Persons in pain know you do not have the answer but they need to have you hear the pain and accept it Amy Harwell 1987 5 5 in her book When Your Friend Gets Cancer puts it this

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  • Direction: Receiving Care in Crisis Situations: A Personal Crisis
    Help came in the form of tractors to mow the lawn hands to weed my garden an offer to custom clean and check my car The flood of mail continued Phone calls were less frequent and much more tentative I found it frightening and yet a relief to be given time alone to begin to process the horror of the previous days REFLECTING ON THE CARE How is it possible to care effectively in crisis How intentional should a community be in considering how best to offer care Is care acceptable in whatever form it comes To some extent I would say that through the pain of those days even awkward expressions of sympathy were legitimate ways of caring The numbers of people who came and went during the first few days were a constant reminder that we were not bearing this pain without the love and prayers of friends Yet it is also true that some expressions of care were more readily perceived as caregiving than others Some gestures transmitted energy to a system whose resources in crisis were limited while others required energy from that system The question then becomes what gestures of care and concern will conserve or replenish energy and which gestures will deplete the limited supply I would identify two factors which affected my perception of the care given One of these were my emotions which were extremely volatile especially in the first weeks A well meaning comment had unbelievable power to incite fury while that same comment in a different context a few days or even hours later would feel soothing A second factor was the stage of my grief In the first week 75 energy was so intensely focused upon dealing with the pain of loss that it was hardly possible to deal with the task of survival My stomach churned at the thought of eating and there was an invisible hand at my throat preventing any food from going down sleep was denied the first night and mornings dawned with the realization that the nightmare had not gone away a physical pain like a vice around the heart was an ever present sensation Some of the things that gave me energy in the initial stages were 1 The presence of close friends and family They knew me well and demanded nothing of me I did not have to cry in response to their tears when my well had gone dry I did not have to say an appropriate word 2 Cards and taped messages I could read and listen to these messages when I was ready for them and once again nothing was demanded of me in return I did not have to thank someone or cry in front of someone or respond in any way It conserved energy 3 Time alone to deal with the loss I would identify my move back to my own home as the beginning of a second stage of grieving It was now necessary to begin

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  • Direction: Receiving Care in Crisis Situations: A Community-Wide Disaster
    and other caregivers Food and clothing distributions short term housing counseling services and vouchers for furniture and vehicles were administered by a coordinator financed by the Alliance One of her major tasks turned out to be locating a receiver of several semi truckloads of donated clothing In sum the Hesston community had opportunity to learn a great deal about receiving care in a time of crisis Some of the lessons learned follow PEOPLE RESPOND TO CHARITY DIFFERENTLY Sometimes the opportunity to receive care reveals more about us than we would care to acknowledge We discovered several general types of receivers First some are dependent sponges They view the crisis as an opportunity to exploit the system People that had not been damaged in any way came looking for free clothing Others expected disaster relief for rebuilding even though their relatively minor damage had been fully insured Still others kept coming to the food bank long after much of life had returned to normal Second some are prideful refusers They view the receiving of assistance as admission of personal inadequacy and failure Comments like Save the help for those who really need it or Our insurance was good enough to cover our needs or No we don t accept charity identify prideful refusers Third gracious receivers seem to understand that it really is appropriate to receive aid in times of trauma and crisis They learn to work within the system but avoid using it to gain advantage THE CHURCH FUNCTIONS AS THE WOUNDED HEALER Because the community as a whole received care from such a vast host of resources the church found itself as a middle player both receiving and giving healing and being healed The church cared was cared for in the following ways 78 The church became the church of the gaps Where community and government agencies and their programs stopped the church became the agent for standing in the gap The community coordinator was supplied by the ministerial alliance to assist victims in finding the appropriate relief agency Because it was in the center of the receiving and distribution of care the church assumed a high profile as a mediator of provision and healing The church became the refuge for the story of grace Without exception local congregations devoted the first worship gathering after the storm to a time of story telling crying laughing and embracing Bad news became good news as together we discovered that God s love had not changed and that things could be replaced and most lives had been spared The church offered an opportunity to find a way to talk about God Preachers became initiators in redefining hope and interpreting God s role in disaster For the most part pastors encouraged parishioners to accept the mystery of life and to avoid making judgments about God s directing the tornado The church enabled its members to receive care as part of a rebuilding process more than as an event Relief was experienced as a

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  • Direction: The Problem of Evil
    suffering is an ethical problem as well as a theological one Suffering Presence seeks to help the reader grapple with what medicine is about Hauerwas wrestles with the purposes of medicine and pastoral care both in general and in specific test cases This is an important book for pastors and others who deal frequently with medical issues 81 Hick John Evil and the Love of God rev ed Harper Row 1977 386 pp Perhaps the classic textbook in the field of theodicy today Hick develops two options in understanding the classical problem of evil i e If God is loving and omnipotent how can evil exist One solution is formulated by Augustine 354 430 A D A second and for Hick the more preferred solution is formulated first by Irenaeus c 130 c 202 A D The 1977 edition includes a strong bibliographic chapter that will put the reader in touch with many recent writings on theodicy Kushner Harold S When Bad Things Happen to Good People Schocken Books 1981 149 pp A popular work on the problem of evil by a Jewish rabbi who has been influenced by process theology This book identifies theodicy as the one question which really matters Kushner s book is compelling in its very readable style and personal sharing Parishioners in crisis will read this book For that reason alone so should readers of Direction McWilliams Warren The Passion of God Divine Suffering in Contemporary Protestant Theology Mercer U Press 1985 191 pp Not strictly a book on the problem of evil Rather McWilliams asks the question Does God suffer and reviews the writings of six contemporary theologians on that question McWilliams seeks a modern reconsideration of the ancient and rejected doctrine of patripassianism To do this McWilliams draws from Anglo American African American

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  • Direction: A Bibliometric Study of Direction
    their relatively lower level of education were not as qualified As seminary education became more popular in the Mennonite Brethren Church more ministers graduated with the skills needed to address theological and biblical issues in an academic manner 2 Wiens may have seen instructors as those most capable of addressing theological and biblical issues in the church and not ministers while Guenther and Martens especially during the latter s second editorship recognized the ability of and the need for ministers to have a more prominent role in addressing the issues of the day Author s gender Of the 411 articles published in Direction the author s gender of 405 could be determined Of these 405 365 90 1 were written by men and 40 9 9 were written by women Author s gender and year Of the articles written by women 12 5 were written in 1972 76 30 were in 1977 81 27 5 in 1982 86 and 30 in 1987 89 Of the total number of articles written by men and women 6 3 were by women in 1972 76 9 7 were by women in 1977 81 12 5 were by women in 1982 86 and 10 5 were by women in 1987 91 The 88 percentages show that a higher percentage of articles are being written by women as the years progress although this trend has decreased in recent years Geographical location of author The geographical location of the author could be determined for 388 of the articles in Direction Of these 388 the top five geographical locations were California 43 8 Manitoba 22 2 Kansas 9 3 British Columbia 6 7 and Ontario 4 9 All other geographical locations comprised roughly 13 of the total Authors living in North America comprised 95 8 of the total 36 9 lived in Canada and 58 9 lived in the U S Geographical location of author and year Authors from Manitoba wrote 38 7 of the total number of articles in 1972 76 27 5 in 1977 81 10 6 in 1982 86 and 13 9 in 1987 91 These percentages indicate that the percentage of articles written by authors from Manitoba has decreased in comparison to articles by authors from other geographical locations The percentage of articles written by authors from Kansas has steadily decreased over the years from 12 in 1972 76 to 3 7 in 1987 91 On the other hand the percentage of articles written by authors from California has steadily increased from 37 3 in 1972 76 to 52 8 in 1987 91 These percentages are probably closely tied to the percentages for the institution of the author and year which will be dealt with later in the article since most of the authors that write articles for Direction are instructors Denomination The denomination of the authors was determined for 391 of the 411 articles Errors are possible since assumptions were made for some of the authors Of the 391 articles 381 97 4 were written by Mennonite Brethren 3 0 8 were written by other Mennonites and 7 1 8 were written by others Institution Of the 411 articles 244 59 5 were written by people employed at an educational institution The vast majority of those were instructors Of these 244 64 26 2 were written by employees of Mennonite Brethren Bible College 62 25 4 by employees of Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary MBBS 43 17 6 by employees of Fresno Pacific College FPC 20 8 2 by employees of Tabor College TC and 22 9 by employees of secular universities Instructors from MBBC MBBS TC and FPC have written 46 of the 411 articles published in Direction Furthermore 89 instructors from these four institutions have written 77 5 of the 244 articles written by instructors or employees of educational institutions Instructors from non Mennonite Brethren schools have written 17 2 of the total written by instructors and 10 2 of the overall total Instructors from Columbia Bible College CBC Bethany Bible Institute Winkler Bible Institute and Laval wrote only 3 2 of the 411 articles These numbers reflect the view of the editors of Direction that it is primarily the faculty of Mennonite Brethren schools that shall be the contributors of articles Institution and year In looking at the number of articles written by instructors the percentage of articles written by authors from MBBC decreased with 38 7 in 1972 76 30 5 in 1977 81 15 in 1982 86 and 15 in 1987 91 The percentage of articles written by authors from FPC also decreased from 21 in 1972 76 to 15 in 1987 91 The percentage of articles written by authors from MBBS steadily increased with 14 5 in 1972 76 22 in 1977 81 32 5 in 1982 86 and 36 7 in 1987 91 The percentage of articles written by authors from secular universities peaked at 17 5 in 1982 86 representing the second highest percentage of articles written by instructors during this time period and then dropped to 10 in 1987 91 These percentages may indicate several things 1 throughout the years the editors may have increasingly felt that the most qualified instructors to write articles for Direction are the ones who teach at MBBS the only graduate school operated by the Mennonite Brethren 2 there could be an increasing lack of interest among instructors at MBBC and FPC in writing articles for Direction 3 some of the instructors who once taught at MBBC and FPC and wrote articles for Direction while at these schools are now instructors at MBBS showing a movement of qualified instructors from the undergraduate colleges to the seminary 4 the fact that the second and third editors were employed at MBBS may have influenced their selection of authors they would have known more about the abilities of seminary instructors at MBBS than about the abilities of college instructors at FPC and MBBC Number of authors The number of authors of an

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  • Direction: Current Research
    in the churches must take ownership of the vision and goals to ensure their implementation Leadership must be aware of the inner dangers of complacency and mediocrity and the external dangers of affluence 96 and materialism which erode vision and the opportunity to reach people and society with the gospel Faculty Publications 1991 Books Varvis Steve The Consolation of Boethius Mellen Research University 1991 FPC Hiebert D Edmond The Epistles of John An Expositional Commentary Greenville SC Bob Jones University Press 1991 MBBS Working with God Through Intercessory Prayer Greenville SC Bob Jones University Press 1991 A revised edition of Working with God Scriptural Studies in Intercession Canton Press 1987 MBBS Kasdorf Hans Flammen Unausloschlich Mission der Mennoniten unter Zaren und Sowjets 1789 1 989 Bielefeld LOGOS Verlag GmbH 1991 MBBS Ollenburger B C Elmer A Martens and G Hasel The Flowering of Old Testament Theology A Reader in Twentieth Century Theology 1930 1990 Winona Lake Eisenbrauns 1991 xii 547 MBBS Yamasaki April Remember Lot s Wife and Other Unnamed Women of the Bible Elgin IL FaithQuest Brethren Press 1991 CBC Chapters in Books Freeman David and Kenneth Goodman A chapter in What s Simple in Simplified Language For the Regional Language Center in Singapore FPC Loewen Howard Theology in Transition Toward a Confessional Paradigm for Theology in So Wide a Sea Essays in Biblical and Systematic Theology Text Reader Series 4 Ben C Ollenburger Ed Elkhart IN Institute of Mennonite Studies 1991 MBBS 97 Martens Elmer A Biblical Theology and Normativity In So Wide a Sea Essays on Biblical and Systematic Theology B C Ollenburger Ed Text Series 4 Elkhart Ind Institute of Mennonite Studies 1991 19 35 MBBS McGillicuddy N B D G Pruitt G L Welton J M Zubek and R W Peirce Factors affecting the outcome of mediation Third party and disputant behavior in Community mediation A handbook for practitioners and researchers K G Duffy J W Grosch and P V Olczak Eds New York Guilford 1991 137 149 TC Peace in the Mennonite Tradition Toward a Theological Understanding of a Regulative Concept in Baptism Peace and the State in Reformed and Mennonite Traditions Ross T Bender and Alan P Sell Eds Wilfred Laurier University Press 1991 MBBS Toews Paul Differing Historical Imaginations and the Changing Identity of the Mennonite Brethren Anabaptism Revisited Walter Klaassen Ed 1991 FPC Welton G L Parties in conflict Their characteristics and perceptions in Community mediation A handbook for practitioners and researchers K G Duffy J W Grosch and P V Olczak Eds New York Guilford 1991 105 118 TC Yoder John Several chapters in Patterns of Reform in Primary Education Regarding the Case of Botswana McMillan 1991 FPC Primary Education in Botswana in International Handbook of Early Childhood Education Garland 1991 FPC Articles Bailey E V and M O Harris Visual Behavior of the Migratory Grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes F Journal of Insect Behavior November 1991 TC Friesen Delores MisConduct Missed Compassion Conciliation Quarterly Newsletter 10 2 Spring 1991 8 9

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  • Direction: Ezekiel 18 and the Rhetoric of Moral Discourse
    vv 30 33a The chapter relates to Matties thesis especially in these verses which have two assumptions 1 the community can engage in moral discernment and transformation 2 Yahweh is the moral agent whose pathos engages the audience s situation yet allows them their own choice of life vv 31b 32 cf v 23 Chapter 4 continues the exegesis by dealing with short self contained genres which are found within the larger disputation genre short formulas reception formula v 1 oracle formulas vv 3 9 23 30 32 etc the proverb vv 2 3 legal 101 lists vv 5 9 10 13 14 17 and the call to conversion vv 30 32 Ezekiel s legal lists are drawn into the unique focus of the disputation to call forth the reality of a peoplehood committed to the covenant Lord They lead up to the call to repentance a call fundamental to moral discourse In chapter 5 Matties discusses individual responsibility in community He rejects the older idea that Ezekiel moved to individualism from a rigid corporate personality concept in which only the social unit was recognized Matties holds that both corporate and individual responsibility were aspects of Israel s religion from its beginnings and that Ezekiel did not move from this earlier tradition In chapter 6 The Human Moral Agent and the Function of Law Matties investigates the individual laws of Ezekiel 18 the use of terms for observing law and the function of law in the book of Ezekiel The author points up two items about the individual lists which are of special interest to this reviewer 1 To lift up the eyes to idols may be a political polemic against reliance upon Egypt cf Ezek 23 27 and 2 a unique characteristic of Israelite law is its democratization that responsibility for justice and righteousness are required of each individual rather than merely the political officials The Western contrast of law vs gospel if accepted makes it impossible to understand the function of law in the book of Ezekiel Law is an agent of transformation a pedagogical device directing concern not to the political or religious hierarchy but to all the people in order to create a new reality a community of character In Theology and Ethics in Israel an Integrative Analysis chap 7 Matties discusses Ezekiel s view of Yahweh in relation to the moral life Although God as moral agent can act apart from human agency God cannot be honored without human agency God s holy presence depends upon interpersonal action with the human community Divine integrity demands that God s acts are in accord with the covenant norms theodicy community integrity demands enablement and freedom to obey covenant demands ethics 18 31 This interdependent integrity is predicted not upon Yahweh s arbitrary authority but upon divine pathos an interested passionate God 18 32 cf v 23 a pathos made evident only in the unity of the divine and prophetic word Yahweh s integrity 102 is dependent upon

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