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  • Direction: Creation and Human Origins: A Select Classified Bibliography
    to Choose Oxford Grand Rapids MI Monarch 2009 Collins Francis S The Language of God A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief New York Free Press 2006 109 Enns Peter The Evolution of Adam What the Bible Does and Doesn t Say about Human Origins Grand Rapids MI Brazos 2012 Falk Darrel R Coming to Peace with Science Bridging the Worlds between Faith and Biology Downers Grove IL InterVarsity 2004 Giberson Karl The Wonder of the Universe Hints of God in Our Fine Tuned World Downers Grove IL IVP 2012 Giberson Karl and Francis S Collins The Language of Science and Faith Straight Answers to Genuine Questions Downers Grove IL IVP 2011 Lamoureux Denis O Evolutionary Creation A Christian Approach to Evolution Eugene OR Wipf Stock 2008 I Love Jesus I Accept Evolution Eugene OR Wipf Stock 2009 Van Till Howard J ed Portraits of Creation Biblical and Scientific Perspectives on the World s Formation Grand Rapids MI Eerdmans 1990 Walton John H The Lost World of Genesis One Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate Downers Grove IL IVP Academic 2009 Critiques Johnson Phillip E Denis O Lamoureux and Michael J Behe Darwinism Defeated The Johnson Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins Vancouver Regent College Pub 1999 Related websites BioLogos Foundation http www biologos org 110 DIRECTED EVOLUTION This is the view that God actively intervenes in creation by supernaturally directing natural processes that would fail on their own to move toward the ends that God wills Proponents of this view frequently make use of Intelligent Design arguments They generally hold the same views of Genesis 1 as Planned Evolutionists but take Genesis 2 as accurately identifying Adam and Eve as the original two ancestors of the human race Behe Michael J Darwin s Black Box The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution New York Free Press 2006 Behe Michael J William Dembski and Stephen C Meyer eds Science and Evidence for Design in the Universe Papers Presented at a Conference Sponsored by the Wethersfield Institute New York City September 25 1999 San Francisco Ignatius 2000 Haarsma Deborah B and Loren D Haarsma Origins Christian Perspectives on Creation Evolution and Intelligent Design Grand Rapids MI Faith Alive Christian Resources 2011 Haarsma Deborah B and Scott Hoezee Delight in Creation Scientists Share Their Work with the Church Grand Rapids MI Center for Excellence in Preaching 2012 Johnson Phillip E Denis O Lamoureux and Michael J Behe Darwinism Defeated The Johnson Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins Vancouver Regent College Pub 1999 Miller Keith B ed Perspectives on an Evolving Creation Grand Rapids MI Eerdmans 2003 Moreland J P ed The Creation Hypothesis Scientific Evidence for an Intelligent Designer Downers Grove IL IVP 1994 Moreland J P The Recalcitrant Imago Dei Human Persons and the Failure of Naturalism London SCM in association with the Center of Theology and Philosophy University of Nottingham 2009 Poythress Vern S Redeeming Science A God Centered Approach Wheaton IL Crossway Books 2006 Schaefer Henry F Science and Christianity Conflict or Coherence Watkinsville GA Apollos Trust 2003 111 Critiques Johnson Phillip E Denis O Lamoureux and Michael J Behe Darwinism Defeated The Johnson Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins Vancouver Regent College Pub 1999 OLD EARTH CREATION Sometimes referred to as day age creationism or the gap model OEC prefers to say that it views the world as having come into existence through progressive creation OECs hold that God created life by making fully developed plans for each major animal type rather than by macro evolution the evolution of one species into another entirely new species OECs accept scientific geological estimates of the age of the earth but interpret gaps in the fossil record as evidence of God interrupting natural processes to create new species Genesis 1 is historically accurate they say but days refers to multi million year ages Adam and Eve are regarded as individual human beings and the original ancestors of all humans Davis P William Dean H Kenyon and Charles B Thaxton Of Pandas and People The Central Question of Biological Origins Dallas TX Haughton 1993 Lennox John C Seven Days That Divide the World The Beginning according to Genesis and Science Grand Rapids MI Zondervan 2011 Meyer Stephen C Darwin s Doubt The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design New York HarperOne 2013 Signature in the Cell DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design New York HarperOne 2009 Newman Robert C Perry G Philips and Herman J Eckelmann Genesis One and the Origin of the Earth 2nd ed Hatfield PA Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute 2007 Rana Fazale and Hugh Ross Origins of Life Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face off Colorado Springs CO NavPress 2004 Rana Fazale and Hugh Ross Who Was Adam A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man Colorado Springs CO NavPress 2005 112 Ross Hugh Creation as Science A Testable Model Approach to End the Creation evolution Wars Colorado Springs CO NavPress 2006 More than a Theory Revealing a Testable Model for Creation Grand Rapids MI Baker 2009 Critiques MacArthur John The Battle for the Beginning The Bible on Creation and the Fall of Adam Nashville TN W Pub Group 2001 Written from a YEC point of view Petto Andrew J and Laurie R Godfrey Scientists Confront Intelligent Design and Creationism New York W W Norton Co 2007 Sarfati Jonathan D Refuting Compromise A Biblical and Scientific Refutation of Progressive Creationism Billions of Years as Popularized by Astronomer Hugh Ross Green Forest AR Master Books 2004 Written from a YEC point of view Related websites Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute http www ibri org Reasons to Believe http www reasons org YOUNG EARTH CREATION The YEC position is simply that as the Bible is God s inerrant word all propositions it contains are true and unless the text suggests otherwise must be read literally Thus the account of creation in Genesis 1 is accepted as a literal description of the order in which the universe was brought into being and the

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  • Direction: The Evolution of Adam: What the Bible Does and Doesn't Say About Human Origins
    a productive understanding of Genesis and Paul that can support the integration of evolutionary theory into Christian theology The book is divided into two sections the first on the portrayal of Adam in the early chapters of Genesis and the second on Adam as understood and used by Paul in his letters The theme that unites these sections is Enns s incarnational understanding of Scripture the interpretive framework he uses to balance the divine inspiration and authority of Scripture against the reality of its authorship by culturally linguistically and historically constrained humans He sees these divine and human aspects of Scripture as analogous though not precisely equivalent to the Chalcedonian definition of the divine and human natures present in Jesus Christ 7 In a sense The Evolution of Adam represents its application to one particular case For Enns acknowledging the human dimension of Scripture in this way is critical in order to take seriously what he describes as a foundational principle of theology that informs not only our understanding of the Bible 120 but of all of God s dealing with humanity recorded there particularly in Jesus himself God condescends to where people are speaks their language and employs their way of thinking Without God s condescension seen most clearly in the incarnation any true knowledge of God would cease to exist 58 In other words while Enns views Scripture as the inspired and authoritative word of God he is adamant that we should not therefore expect it to be interpretable as a simple and direct historical account of events While this is not a new idea 8 or even likely to be a particularly controversial one in many circles it has gotten him into trouble in the past The controversy arising from his earlier book Inspiration and Incarnation Grand Rapids MI Baker Academic Press 2005 ultimately led to his dismissal from the faculty at Westminster Theological Seminary in 2008 Such experiences perhaps help to explain the exceptional care Enns takes to lay out his objectives and intentions in the introduction of the book which is important reading but repetitive at points The section on Genesis provides among other things a very helpful and accessible introduction to the development of scholarly thought about Genesis Here Enns is keen to counteract readers suspicions that modern biblical criticism aims only to undermine the authority of Scripture tracing connections from early questions raised by patristic theologians faithful attentive reading of Scripture to the blooming of historical criticism in the nineteenth century Enns then moves on to outline the current scholarly consensus on the authorship of Genesis the historical setting in which the book was compiled and the purpose it was intended to serve In a nutshell Genesis as we know it was compiled soon after the return of the Israelites from their exile in Babylon in the sixth century bce by editors drawing on multiple sources and originally served as a theological document that would define Israel s national identity and distinguish it

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  • Direction: Mothering Mennonite
    kinds of nostalgia or glossing over of problems in the community by which Mennonites are often tempted including some Mennonite scholars Here is the moving final paragraph of her essay Not until I was an adult and a mother myself could I begin to know how difficult it was to mother without inadvertently with the best of intentions to do otherwise repeating old patterns My mother s stories of her own mother s indifference too busy with too many children and her older sisters resentment of having to care for yet another sibling have often come to mind I know now both what inadequacy and depression feel like and what their sources are now when it is far too late to tell her genuinely for once that it s alright and could we dance italics in the original Other than Magdalene Redekop and Edna Froese s energetic protests against the patriarchal cultural norms that kept their mothers from full creative expression of their subjectivity and sociality the collection addresses the political aspects of maternal experience within the community only obliquely Christine E Crouse Dick s essay on the pangs of infertility and the exacerbation of those pangs by a community insensitive to deviations from standard family norms reaches for alternatives to patriarchal thinking about women s social role and self understanding At the same time the author upholds conventional masculinist definitions of Anabaptist values citing Harold Bender and Harry Huebner but none of the gender conscious women and also men authors and activists who have worked so hard to create alternative social networks and understandings that could address her plight more helpfully The conclusion of the essay is therefore a more helpless cry than it need be at least in the contemporary North American context where this revisionary literature and the social legal and alternative medical benefits it has engendered is widely available We as a 125 community don t know what to do but we need to do something We need acknowledgement of such situations and others Have she and her husband tried Chinese acupuncture Traditional indigenous herbs Massage therapy Counselling There are many treatment options available in their situation now some with very high success rates in addressing infertility itself others with high success rates in addressing the emotional and psychological aspects of the situation It is no longer necessary to suffer this experience so bereft of consolation as seems to be the case here How will the church as a community change its views on these matters if the people most directly affected by them don t take the initiative to enact such change themselves Given the lack of political analysis of Mennonite gender politics in the collection generally I was interested to discover an essay at the end titled From Persecution to Hope Mennonite Mothering in a Context of Violence by transnational MCC worker and political mediator Jennifer Chappell Deckert The essay does not address issues of domestic abuse or oppression of mothers in Mennonite patriarchy

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  • Direction: It Happened in Moscow: A Memoir of Discovery
    Moscow on assignment with Mennonite Central Committee in 1993 It was there that the journey of discovery began after a surprising telephone call from Erika Reimer Gurieva the daughter of Mary s first husband Jacob and his second wife and thus the half sibling to Herb s brother Harold yes it gets genealogically complicated The book goes on to describe the joint efforts alongside their growing friendship of Maureen and Erika to find out more about Mary and Jacob during their ten year marriage about the relationship between Jacob and C F Klassen and especially about the fate of Jacob Reimer Through persistence and creative sleuthing new information and perspectives about all the book s characters are discovered Since this memoir reads a bit like a mystery story it would be unfair to the reader to reveal too much here We do learn that Jacob Reimer was arrested by Stalin s secret police in 1937 and like many other Mennonite men who similarly disappeared during the great purges was never heard from again However it is the 128 painstaking efforts of Erika to learn the fate of her father that allows Maureen to give a rare and detailed account of an individual outcome common to so many others Even while this memoir is focused on a few individuals and the web of relationships that connect them it also illuminates through specific examples and broader analysis the postwar lives of so many Mennonites who remained in the Soviet Union And so we learn about people that Maureen encounters during her various sojourns in present day Russia and Ukraine Such as Natasha Rempel a Russian Orthodox icon painter whose father was a Mennonite pastor who died in a forced labor camp Or Garri Klassen a retired burn specialist in Crimea who survived

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  • Direction: Isaiah
    and thistles the forest hewn down the burned stump but then the new vineyard the holy seed the shoot from the stump of Jesse the highway as reconciliation between enemies hardening of hearts stopping of ears shutting of eyes and then their opening to new receptivity and others Friesen is well grounded in historical critical Isaiah scholarship but he avoids its terminology of First Second and Third Isaiah and the controversies surrounding it Instead he sees the book of Isaiah as a composite canonical unity consisting of six major parts chaps 1 12 13 27 28 39 40 48 49 57 sic 58 66 Where there are major seams in the flow of the text such as the change to a new context for example from Jerusalem to Babylon and back to Jerusalem or from the prophet Isaiah to other prophetic voices Friesen introduces these in the course of exegetical analysis of the relevant texts To put it differently rather than beginning with a reconstructed history of the Ancient Near East with its empires politics and wars or a reconstructed tradition history as the framework into which to fit the text units 130 he exegetes these units in their canonical flow treating political social and religious matters as they occur within the narrative world of the book of Isaiah I think this is what Hauerwas demands of a theological reading to read the way the words run rather than from the outside Thus the theological narrative of the story rather than an outside agenda applied to the textual material dominates the reading The author presents his approach clearly and succinctly on pp 23 25 and in his essay Composition of the Book of Isaiah pp 441 43 While strongly approving of this text centered approach I believe that drawing on historical studies of the Ancient Near East for an overview of the Neo Assyrian Babylonian and Persian empires could have helped to clarify the larger picture and to profile more clearly the contrast between the sovereignty of the Holy One of Israel juxtaposed throughout Isaiah to the sovereignty claims of empire rulers without undermining the author s inner biblical stance Friesen s excellent essay The Wrath of God pp 455 57 performs this profiling function to some extent Moving steadily through the text and elucidating it by way of patient and careful exegesis is the genius of this commentary Friesen resists the temptation of picking the raisins from the cake by unduly privileging well known and beloved passages such as the gathering of the nations on Mount Zion where they learn to turn swords into ploughshares 2 2 4 the temple vision chapter 6 the Messiah texts 9 1 7 11 1 9 the Comfort comfort my people text chapter 40 the Suffering Servant text 52 13 53 12 and others while relegating the rest to cursory comment Instead he moves patiently through the book exegeting unit after unit strophe after strophe This is not a commentary for hurried skimming

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  • Direction: John
    divided into smaller sections including an introductory preview linking it to a modern problem a thematic outline explanatory notes exegesis as well as a Text in Biblical Context and a Text in the Life of the Church section The Biblical Context section compares particular Johannine themes with other New Testament motifs for example Jesus the bridegroom 115 Jesus and the Samaritans 134 and peace and mission 467 In the Life of the Church section Swartley often looks at how selected motifs developed in the church over time but always finds a way to apply the exegesis to contemporary church ministry and ethics Swartley is indeed a master at bringing church concerns and biblical text into fruitful conversation The prologue chapter will serve as an example of what readers can expect from this commentary Making strong connections to early Jewish and biblical themes but not as is common to Greek philosophy Swartley organizes this chapter according to its chiastic structure which points to the important intertwining of Christology and discipleship He shows that the meaning of the prologue emerges more clearly when read in light of Genesis 1 and Christ as agent of creation passages elsewhere in the New Testament The chapter concludes with Swartley s application of biblical scholarship in practical ways to the life of the Christian community the prologue is to be lived and experienced as that which beckons us to hear the Gospel in wonder and worship 68 Each of the three major parts follows the same pattern In Part 1 the First Passover Swartley explores the events and themes that tumble over each other 23 Jesus reveals his identity some believe and testify and the community expands others reject him The first part of the Gospel resounds with hope 144 In Part 2 the Second Passover

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  • Direction: Management and the Gospel: Luke's Radical Message for the First and Twenty-First Centuries
    not fit Luke to management theory but develops the radical character of Luke s four phase process mode to help readers implement changes 3 However Dyck is not a biblicist He draws on a broad tradition of history and economic philosophy to illumine what is going on in the Gospels Drawing upon Aristotle s chrematistics he distinguishes between a natural and unnatural approach to finance The natural approach focuses on a sustenance economics while the unnatural focuses on acquisitive economics He then shows how Luke s emphasis on oikonomia seeks to develop a pattern of management based on benefaction which supports a sustenance economics rather than one founded upon patron client relations which supports acquisitive economics This simple but insightful hermeneutic bears excellent exegetical fruit Let me provide an example The parable of the shrewd manager in Luke 16 1 15 has caused significant confusion for biblical interpreters How can Jesus encourage what appears to be a manager who takes the finances entrusted to him by a rich man and first squanders and then scatters them The rich man requires him to give an account of his management for his squandering and the manager s response is to reduce the indebtedness of the rich man s debtors The odd result is that the rich man commends the manager Why Here is where Dyck s distinction between an acquisitive and sustenance economics and their correspondence to patron client versus benefaction relations is illuminating He writes A first century interpretation suggests that Jesus was literally encouraging his listeners to follow the example of the shrewd manager and to redistribute worldly wealth in a sustenance economic beneficent way that is in a way that seems unjust adikos based on patron client acquisitive assumptions 43 The crucial term is scattering The manager scattered the rich man s unjust acquisition of wealth based on a patron client relation and turned it into a more just distribution based on benefaction The result is not only a better distribution of wealth but better communal relationships among the rich man his debtors and his manager This is why the manager is faithful Dyck finds in Luke a four phase process that forms the structure of his work First is problem recognition followed by action response which then produces a changed way of seeing that culminates in institutional change 9 This four phase process constitutes four of Dyck s six major divisions After the introduction he examines how Luke recognizes the problem of management in three chapters He sets out the hermeneutical lens noted above and then shows its fruit not only in the parable of the shrewd manager but also in the parable of the ten pounds Luke 19 12 27 Rather than reading the parable as a desire for the nobleman to 135 increase his wealth through acquisition Dyck again shows how his hermeneutics provides a reading of the parable much more consistent with the whole of Luke s Gospel The second step in his argument examines

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  • Direction: The Poetics of Grace: Christian Ethics as Theodicy
    from his reading of Ephesians should inform our approach to the ethical issue In the first chapter We Are His Workmanship A Theocentric Ethic Holloway addresses the Enlightenment project for ethics as embodied in the work of the late eighteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant who held that the moral life is primarily the activity of the autonomous individual who discovers and acts on what reason dictates as morally obligatory 43 The book of Ephesians on the other hand will not sustain any approach to the moral life separate from the character actions and will of God made known through Jesus Christ 49 Christian ethics is theocentric because an understanding the moral life depends on an understanding of the character of God as revealed to Jesus Holloway concludes this chapter by showing how Ephesians can help Christians develop an understanding of work in which the purpose of work is the well being of the community rather than the profit of the individual 71 137 Chapter two Created in Christ Jesus A Redemptive Ethic contrasts Friedrich Nietzsche s indictment of Christianity as a religion unworthy of self respecting people with the Pauline vision that believers are participants in the poetics of grace God making all things new in love and mercy 140 Holloway then uses the preceding discussions of knowledge power and the idea of making all things new to address some of the issues raised by recent advances in biology regarding eugenics The concluding chapter of this volume is entitled New Life in the One Body of Christ An Ecclesial Ethic Holloway takes on Reinhold Niebuhr s influential view that Christian engagement with the larger culture should involve Christian realism Christian realism holds that the best Christians can hope for in response to evil is an approximation of the biblical

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