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  • Direction: Evangelical Sectarianism in the Russian Empire and the USSR: A Bibliographic Guide
    indexes are useful for researchers thirty two column pages listing individuals including about a hundred different so called ethnic Mennonite names and twenty nine pages of topic and place listings Tables clarifying abbreviations and symbols used in the citations instructions and places where resources are available periodicals and reference works cited are helpful for research Warden regrets that a few of the citations do not have adequate identification but these simply were not available Warden notes that resources available on Mennonites in this geographic and time era have become prolific His inclusion of noteworthy materials on Baptists with whom the Mennonite Brethren associated freely is a valuable supplement for those doing MB related research Of the approximately eleven thousand listings covering 1693 1990 nearly five hundred are on the Mennonite Brethren with more under Mennonites and Mennonite Central Committee Warden regards 56 percent as major entries the others are primarily a listing of periodical articles Entries are in seventeen languages the dominant of which are English 44 percent Russian 36 percent and German 17 5 percent Eight of the 104 archival libraries listed are those of North American Mennonite colleges Newton and Hillsboro Kansas Goshen and Elkhart Indiana Fresno California Winnipeg Manitoba Bluffton Ohio and Harrisonburg Virginia Additional recent findings on Mennonites in the Odessa archives are still in process and should provide even more help in the future Likewise Hamburg Horn holdings as well as those of the Weierhof in Germany should have been included Obviously a task of this kind is almost endless not citing these libraries is minor in comparison to the voluminous findings Warden lists Some of the matter included in this twenty five year project is samizdat material There are also reports by foreign visitors researchers to the 271 USSR and from emigrants during this

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  • Direction: From the Editor: Mandate for Mission: A Tribute to Hans Kasdorf
    1 8 those preaching good news to all creation Mark 16 15 and a people unified so that the world might believe John 17 23 The essays in this issue help us explore various dimensions of the church s missionary calling Last year in Germany a Festschrift Die Mission der Theologie was published in honor of Dr Hans Kasdorf Publisher Thomas Schirrmacher of Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft along with editors Stephan Holthaus and Klaus W Müller were eager to see its contents made available to a wider audience As a result they graciously gave permission for Direction to publish the nine English language articles found in that volume plus the bibliography compiled by Prof Holthaus Readers are referred to Direction s Spring 1994 issue 23 1 for additional articles of value in the field of mission including two by Prof Kasdorf himself As with that issue s tribute to Kasdorf we are pleased here to acknowledge his contribution to mission among Mennonite Brethren and other recipients of his ministry Henry Schmidt a longtime colleague chronicles Kasdorf s roles both as missiologist and as biblical theologian David Ewert argues for the importance of lifestyle for the integrity of the church s evangelism Klaus Fiedler urges that the history of German speaking evangelical missions be written while giving a thorough summary in the process In an essay focused on the current German context Arthur Glasser presents the case for a distinctive worship among messianic Jews Paul Hiebert and Sam Larsen evaluate the role of metaphor misers accountants stewards in helping or hindering a healthy understanding of mission Embracing distinctiveness but rejecting tribalism Donald Jacobs weighs the pros and cons of ethnicity Elmer Martens examines the book of Ezekiel and demonstrates its sometimes overlooked concern for knowledge of Yahweh to the nations

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  • Direction: Hans Kasdorf's Contribution to Mission Theology
    since the word to send occurs over one thousand times in the Scripture with more than eight hundred references in the Old Testament Mission is an ongoing sending process originating with the Triune God God sent the Son and the Holy Spirit Jesus sends the Church in the power of the Holy Spirit and the church sends its called out members equipped with the Spirit and the Word For Kasdorf 11 to understand mission as sentness also implies crossing frontiers be they geographic or religious social or cultural linguistic or academic theological or spiritual economic or ethnic to bear witness to the gospel of Jesus Christ Witness describes the actual content of the wholistic mission It is witness of being character doing healing and helping ministries and telling proclaiming good news Witness cannot be viewed as geographic since Acts 1 8 refers to a simultaneous witness in Jerusalem Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth rather than to a sequential witness Kasdorf s linguistic skills along with his education in German literature have served missiology well in terms of his detailed and definitive vocabulary For Professor Kasdorf mission is always singular never plural missions He never missed an opportunity to make that corrective comment on student papers or in classroom dialogue What is at stake by pluralizing mission For Kasdorf the difference is more than grammatical it is the philosophical and theological implications He writes The most common agenda demanding balance in missiology includes issues such as either proclamation or social responsibility either kerygma or diakonia either the Great Commission or the Great Commandment either verticalism or horizontalism either foreign or home mission 13 His helpful response to the danger of emphasizing one truth or one aspect of mission at the expense of another is again one of vocabulary and language One is to insist on the use of the conjunction and instead of the disjoining couplet either or Another is to speak of the centrality of mission rather than the priority of mission Only when the gospel receives full centrality in preaching and teaching healing and helping serving and feeding can it exercise its power to transform individuals and social structures The Church in Mission for the World As an Anabaptist Mennonite Brethren historian theologian Kasdorf s ecclesiology makes it difficult for him to think of mission apart from the church He quotes Karl Hartenstein s maxim and applies it to how the Mennonite Brethren church understands mission Whoever says church says mission whoever says mission says church 14 The church is not mission but it has a mission Mission is the entire Church s task in its witness to the kingdom Kasdorf writes Without the Church there can be no mission and without mission no Church The Church has been called out of the world but it is continually sent back into it for missional purposes The Church is the center of God s cosmic 12 agenda for redemption but the world is the arena of conflict and the theater of all missionary action 15 Using Hans Werner Gensichen s couplet term mission dimension and mission intention Kasdorf articulates the double missionary purpose of the church Mission dimension is the very nature of church it is its otherness from the world or in biblical terms God s special possession a kingdom of priests and a holy nation Exod 19 5 6 1 Pet 2 9 10 Missiologist George W Peters describes this as the centripetal nature of God s people i e Israel as a light to the nations in the Old Testament But the church also has a missionary intention It is the centrifugal nature of God s people active in putting the missionary dimension into society people moving out and being involved in the world in personal interaction with Christians and nonbelievers Although Kasdorf is a strong advocate of a church centered missiology he does not believe mission should be rooted in the church ultimately or even in Jesus Christ For him a biblical mission theology must always be rooted in the Triune God Father Son and Holy Ghost who created the church for mission In addressing mission structures Kasdorf builds on Ralph Winter s sociological modality church membership and sodality Paul s missionary band paradigm and on Paul Hiebert s more theological language in describing the church in mission missionary church and the church and mission missionary society He provides a helpful analysis of strengths and weaknesses of three functional mission models 16 The church centered model has the church or denomination involved in wholistic mission with a mission board as the responsible operating vehicle It has a strong ecclesiology produces churches that have a missionary dimension and intention but its weakness is that it often loses its commitment to evangelism and church planting in its own context In a mission centered model which is expressed in parachurch independent or faith mission organizations the mission agency becomes primary and the local church becomes secondary In this individuals and local churches provide a prayer and financial base it allows for doctrinal flexibility and missionaries plant indigenous churches with which they often never identify Its weaknesses are a low view of the church yet it uses the resources of the church for its own kind of missionary purpose plus it often becomes mostly missionary centered ministry A third structure is the double centered model which includes both the previous models and permits both to function within the same organizational structure The weakness of the double centered model is how 13 it impacts human and financial resources in the sending church or denomination Kasdorf actually adds a fourth international model which he believes is one of the greatest challenges facing the church building a structure with increased mutuality partnership and equality in mission His missiological writings repeatedly call the church to think biblically and practically about mission vision strategies and structures that effectively mobilize God s people An Emerging Theology of Mission Kasdorf s study

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  • Direction: Evangelism by Lifestyle
    spreading should prove to be true If it could be shown that Paul Silas and Timothy were like the many other charlatans that travelled from city to city seeking to pawn off their ideas for a fee their mission was doomed The kind of ethical integrity which Paul claims for himself and his colleagues is expected of his converts also Conduct yourselves wisely toward outsiders he writes to the Colossians 4 5 There were plenty of distorted accounts of Christian behavior floating around and believers were to give the lie to these by their manner of life Even today it is true that the reputation of the gospel is bound up with the conduct of those who claim to have experienced its saving power Non Christians may not read the Bible or listen to the preaching of the word of God but they can see the lives of those who do and form their judgment accordingly 10 It was expected that believers would suffer for their but they 22 were to make sure writes Peter that they never suffered because of wrongdoing But let none of you suffer as a murderer or a thief or a wrongdoer or as a mischief maker 1 Pet 4 15 Christian slaves are told that there is no credit if they do wrong and are beaten for it 1 Pet 2 20 They are to make sure when they suffer that it is for the sake of their faith and not for wrongs they have done For it is better to suffer for doing right if that should be God s will than for doing wrong 1 Pet 3 17 Maintain good conduct among the Gentiles exhorts Peter so that in case they speak against you as wrongdoers they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation 1 Pet 2 12 Christians were frequently vilified as enemies of society in the early days of the church because they refused to participate in pagan practices The way to overcome this hatred and prejudice explains Peter is to let non Christians see good deeds The unusual verb to see epopteuo speaks of an observation over a period of time The hoped for result is that unbelievers will glorify God on the day of visitation The day of visitation may be understood eschatologically but it may also refer to the day when the unbeliever is converted when God visits him or her in his grace after observing the life of Christians By integrity in ethical matters and by doing good to others Christians exercise a powerful evangelistic influence on their non Christian neighbors The serene silent beauty of a holy life is the most powerful influence in the world next to the might of the Spirit of God wrote Blaise Pascal ENDURING WRONGS PATIENTLY When John Wesley was still searching for the assurance of salvation he was impressed by the Moravians on board the ship that took him to America He writes If they were pushed struck or thrown down they rose again and went away but no complaint was found in their mouth 11 This helped to convince the founder of Methodism that they had something he lacked but very much desired By suffering wrongs patiently early believers drew many a persecutor into the Christian fold Paul in imitation of Jesus claims When reviled we bless when persecuted we endure when slandered we try to conciliate 1 Cor 4 12 13 Here are clear echoes of the Sermon on the Mount In his letter to the Romans he warns against paying back evil for evil and then shows his readers how to turn the enemy of the Christian faith into a friend namely by overcoming evil with good Rom 12 16 21 23 Quoting Proverbs 25 21 22 he counsels If your enemy is hungry feed him if he is thirsty give him a drink for by so doing you will heap fiery coals upon his head Rom 12 20 Whereas the precise meaning of the fiery coals is still being debated the thrust of the passage is clear Treat your enemy kindly this will make him ashamed and lead him to repentance Peter agrees with Paul in emphasizing that patient endurance of wrongs has a profound effect on unbelievers Accusation against the Christians must be dispelled by their noble conduct He exhorts his suffering readers to keep a good conscience so that when they are abused those who revile their good behavior in Christ may be put to shame 1 Pet 3 16 Not retaliation but good behavior is the answer of the suffering church to the abuse heaped upon it Suffering for Christ s sake is not a shame as long as one suffers for doing right 1 Pet 3 16 for being a Christian 4 16 In fact the patient suffering of Christ s followers leads unbelievers to ask for the secret of the Christian life Peter counsels his readers in such a situation to be prepared to make a defense to anyone who calls you to account for the hope that is in you 1 Pet 3 15 It was the church that patiently endured wrongs in the early centuries that grew by leaps and bounds Ignatius in the early second century exhorts the Ephesians Keep on praying for others too for there is a chance of their being converted Return their bad temper with gentleness their boasts with humility their abuse with prayer 12 The preacher in Second Clement makes the observation that when the heathen hear that Christians are commanded to love their enemies and those who hate them they are amazed at such surpassing goodness But when they see that we fail to love not only those who hate us but even those who love us then they mock at us and scoff at the Name 13 The apostles were concerned that this should not happen and therefore admonish the believers to endure wrongs

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  • Direction: It Is Time to Write the History of German-Speaking Evangelical Missions
    the Classical missions The Holiness roots are also true and indeed very much so as Bernd Brandl has shown for the Free Evangelical section of the home base of the faith missions 43 And though today the conceptions of holiness between the Holiness movement and the Brethren are seen as opposed it has been shown that in the formative era of the Brethren movement in Germany the nascent Brethren groups were very much part of the Holiness movement 44 This means that the holiness roots for all the early Evangelical missions are proven with the exception of the European Baptist Mission 45 Recent research has not only shown the clear Holiness roots but also their growing denial Much popular history writing must be seen at least in part as an attempt to rewrite the history playing down the Holiness roots and finding roots in the earlier revival traditions This change in 33 viewing history was sometimes matched by a change in policy or personnel In the worldwide context this process was part of the re Calvinization of the faith missions which were born during the process of Arminianization in the wake of the Holiness movement In Germany this process found its most eye catching expression in the rejection of the Pentecostal movement by the Fellowship movement from which it originated When the Evangelical missions were born and similarly whenever new missions are founded the great fear of existing missions and organizations was that the new arrivals would reduce their own share of the existing cake of mission support This proved not to be true since the Evangelical missions had their own revival background which provided additional spiritual impetus and through it generated new support for missions in terms of prayer personnel and money 46 It must not be denied that a revival also sometimes brings a change of allegiance of active Christians but research shows that the revivals were primarily evangelistic and as a second emphasis stressed a second crisis experience after conversion 47 At a time when the advance of the Classical missions had slowed down worldwide not least because of the success they had in many parts of the world the Evangelical missions renewed the vision of reaching the unreached The German speaking Evangelical missions made their greatest early contribution to this in inland China 48 They were also involved in the other great concerns of the early faith missions to reach the unreached in the Sudan Belt and to reach the pagan tribes before they became Muslims This was the Kumms strategy but they could really develop it only after moving to Britain 49 This faith mission push forward was accomplished largely with new personnel new money and new support from new revival groups A result less expected was that the Evangelical missions underwent a rapid and far reaching process of adaptation to the tenets and practices of the Classical German and Swiss missions This process did not get as far as Warneck had hoped for but many decisions were taken to make a given faith mission to be a mission like any other mission This process showed itself early in a policy of nationalizing the international faith missions 50 a practice later supported by political nationalist tendencies in Germany In terms of theology it showed itself in a system of Lutheranization and the support base in many cases was one or several of the fellowships within the predominantly Lutheran territorial churches This process of adaptation together with the increasing rejection of the Holiness origins showed perhaps strongest in the changing position 34 of women From being equal and fully qualified pioneer missionaries their position was relegated to secondary and support roles in many of the faith missions In some this inequality was explicitly stated in others the principle of equality was kept without the substance In others again the principle of inequality was stated yet on the mission field women could do what they could not have done at home Ecclesiology is a key to understanding the faith missions Research has shown that the German speaking faith missions as other faith missions could well be interdenominational at home but not on the mission field 51 For these faith mission churches the view was upheld by missionaries that their denominational allegiance really did not matter and so they saw it quite fit when circumstances demanded that a church be handed over to another mission though that mission may have a very different ecclesiology Research has shown that this was often strongly resented by the churches in question and therefore it must be concluded that if the missionaries had not developed a faith mission church ecclesiology the young churches by then had 52 There is some similar evidence not undisputed from the English speaking side and more research is needed PERIODIZATION For all writing of history periodization is a key issue since periodization determines to quite some extent the actual writing of history There is always the temptation to organize mission history according to secular events This is especially so in Germany where the two European wars lend themselves easily to this But if they should help in periodization it should first be shown that these wars were really events for the history of Evangelical missions and in what way they were such The other temptation is to organize Evangelical mission history following an ecumenical periodization This assumes either that the Evangelical missions were missions like all others or that Evangelical missionary work is a reaction against ecumenical mission work or developments in ecumenical missiology For such an approach the big world mission conferences are sometimes used But they played a very small role for the Evangelical missions In Edinburgh 1910 some representatives of Evangelical missions took part and played minor roles but typical Evangelical issues could not even be discussed 53 Jerusalem 1928 lacked all Evangelical participation at Madras 1938 there were about three participants from faith missions If one puts them all together over the decades it is hardly enough to make them major Evangelical events 35 After World War II the world mission conferences sometimes serve for periodization albeit in a negative way But why should Evangelical mission history be periodized according to non Evangelical events 54 My concept is to use Evangelical categories to define the turning points in Evangelical mission history and thus arrive at a preliminary periodization No Longer Classical Not Yet Faith The Intermediate Missions 1828 1860 If we agree that the faith missions going back to the Holiness movement represent the major Evangelical missions and the Classical missions going back to the Great Awakening a slot or slots must be found for the missions that do not fit either properly I propose to create two groups the first encompasses those missions that go back to the Restorationist revival with the Brethren in the lead 55 constituting the first group of Evangelical missions 56 The other group I would call the intermediate group proper comprising a few missions which shared much with the Classical missions but were sufficiently different and foreshadowed in some ways the coming faith missions Gossner 1836 St Chrischona 1840 Ermeloo 1856 There has been no Evangelical research on Gossner but it seems to me that the mission with its charismatic independence pointing into Brethren or faith mission direction turned itself after a change in leadership into a Classical mission Research on Neukirchen shows the intermediate character of the Ermeloo and how Neukirchen almost absorbed it but also that Ermeloo was not a faith mission Chrischona was shown to have made a clear move from the intermediate form to a faith mission under the Rappards 57 The Founding Period 1882 1910 The first Evangelical mission is Neukirchen Different dates were used to commemorate its founding I follow Bernd Brandl proposing 1882 58 The missions of the Restorationist revival played no role in Germany until about the turn of the century so in the German speaking area the faith missions are the earliest Evangelical missions Characteristic of these missions is their strong reliance on influences from abroad their very close relation to the Holiness movement their support from the newly developing ecclesiastical fringes and their unconventional policies If it is somewhat easy to put a clear date to the beginning to date the end of the period is more difficult I would put the end at the point 36 when these characteristics began to wane Since this was a process never completed and a process that took place in different missions at different speeds any date must be a bit arbitrary The year 1907 dates the beginning of the next revival 1909 10 its rejection by much of the German Evangelical movement In 1914 the outbreak of the First World War spurred on the process of nationalization So I propose to use 1910 as a rough date to end the period and then to adjust it for each individual mission The Period of Adaptation and Fringe Existence 1910 1950 Revivals develop and then recede 59 often leaving important institutions and Fellowship movements in their wake By 1910 the Holiness revival had receded a new revival had come 60 and the founding period of the great faith missions was over 61 Everyone was becoming more reasonable enough I think to end the period of the founding mothers and fathers One of the main concerns of this period was to become respectable missions the other was sheer survival first through the war then through inflation then through the depression material and spiritual national socialism and another war and all this on spiritual resources that tended more often to decrease than to increase The New Era of the Evangelical Missions 1950 1970 Warneck might have rejoiced that the Evangelical missions had largely adapted themselves and found their place by 1950 but then the Evangelical mission movement took off to a new start Again influences from abroad were crucial often transmitted to Germany via Switzerland 62 The process of nationalization was replaced by a process of internationalization China Inland Mission Overseas Missionary Fellowship came back as a mission in its own right and big interdenominational missions like WEC or Sudan United Mission established Swiss and German branches Ernst Schrupp learned much from the interdenominational faith missions and from the parachurch movements and combining it with the most viable of the earlier Brethren tradition developed Wiedenest into one of the major German Evangelical missions 63 In addition there was a proliferation of Bible schools and parachurch movements which became one of the mainstays of the Evangelical effort A new development which can be seen as a part of the growing internationalization process was the creation first in Switzerland and then in Germany of seconding missions These had no field of their own but involved second missionaries to mostly English speaking international interdenominational faith missions The proliferation 37 of Evangelical missions was matched by a proliferation of foreign mission fields sometimes staffed by one or two missionaries 64 At home the support base broadened The free church contribution became much stronger and those groups and individuals in the territorial churches which were related to the various parachurch movements tended to support Evangelical missions In terms of mission cooperation this period is characterized by a growing awareness by the Evangelical missions of both their separate identity and their unity The first conference of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Evangelikaler Missionen AEM took place in 1969 so I think that 1970 might be a good cutoff point for this period Evangelical Missions in Leading Strings 1970 1990 This period saw a further expansion of the Evangelical missions at the same time when the ecumenical missions were stagnating or sometimes receding so that the Evangelical missions became the biggest part of the German speaking mission endeavor 65 This made a strengthening of the missions cooperative efforts necessary which showed for example in the establishment of the Graduate School of Missions Freie Hochschule für Mission To write recent history is most difficult because of lack of distance So I am not sure that this period has indeed ended but I think that a major change took place somewhere in the early 1990s of which the development of the Charismatic movement s independent branch may be an indicator 66 Evangelical Missions and the Charismatic Option since 1990 Since 1990 or so there also seems to be some decline in the Evangelical support base 67 though it seems to be proportionally less than the decline of the support base of the Classical missions At the same time the Charismatic missions developed and some grew fast Their common organization is now the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pfingstlich Charismatischer Missionen 1993 I do not propose to write the history of this period as a history of Evangelical Charismatic conflict since I see both as part of the wider Evangelical missionary movement 68 For the writing of the history of this period special attention may be given to influences from worldwide Evangelical movements like the AD 2000 and Beyond movement and the unreached people group approach WHY DON T YOU WRITE IT The patient reader who has followed me so far may ask the simple question If it is time to write the history of the German speaking Evangelical 38 missions and you know all these things why don t you write it I think I would like to do it but I live in Malawi not only far away from Evangelical Germany Switzerland and Austria but also in a much different world 69 But if I cannot maybe you can After all I am not the only Evangelical mission historian I wrote this article in English not just because I prefer a wider readership but because maybe a native or nonnative English speaker might be enticed to write that history NOTES Karl Müller and Werner Ustorf eds Einleitung in die Missionsge schichte Situation und Dynamik des Christentums Stuttgart Köln Kohlhammer 1995 10 20ff This is true for world mission histories in German as well The latest history of Christian world missions is a reprint of a book published much earlier Stephen Neill and Niels Peter Moritzen Geschichte der christlichen Mission reprint Erlangen See also Ruth Tucker Bis an die Enden der Erde Missionsgeschichte in Biographien ed Karl Rennstich Metzingen Ernst Franz Verlag 1996 Nice guesses so far have been that they are preparing for a right wing world revolution with the help of the CIA of course or that they are bent on exporting the blessings of Western civilization One important aspect of their separate identity was their premillennial eschatology while the Classical missions like the revivals they came from had a postmillennial and later amillennial eschatology Perhaps the strongest differences were in their ecclesiology The first Evangelical mission was that of the Brethren missionaries in Baghdad led by Anthony Norris Groves the first to apply the faith principle of financial support In this and many other ways the Brethren missions whose work always remained limited because they were small strongly influenced the faith mission movement Being interdenominational the faith movement had a much larger support base and effect See H Groves Memoir of the Late Anthony Norris Groves Containing Extracts from His Letters and Journals Compiled by His Widow London 1856 In historical terms the large majority of the missions currently members of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Evangelikaler Missionen in both Germany and Switzerland are faith missions This may sound contradictory But it accounts for the fact that Evangelicals in spite of their definite identity derived from the Holiness movement the Brethren movement and the Prophetic 39 movement share a lot with non Evangelicals to a varying degree Therefore it is not a problem to find many Evangelicals in the Ecumenical movement and much cooperation is going on between Evangelicals and Christians of other tendencies Doing their own thing is quite Evangelical whereas separation is the main characteristic of the Fundamentalists Corporate cooperation ecumenism is a major issue for the Classical missions but not for the Evangelical missions for whom individual cooperation is of similar importance The integration of church and missions as demanded by New Delhi 1961 is a major issue for the ecumenical missions But Evangelicals were mostly not there and if integration of church es and missions is an issue for the interdenominational faith missions it is so in a very different way Signs of this veneration are that a room in the Freie Hochschule für Mission in Korntal is named after him others are named after other Classical missiologists and Hans Kasdorf s UNISA dissertation Gustav Warneck s missiologisches Erbe Eine biographisch historische Untersuchung Giessen Basel TVG Brunnen 1990 Gustav Warneck Abriss einer Geschichte der protestantischen Missionen Berlin 1905 143 In his Book on the German World Mission each society gets its own chapter The Evangelical missions receive a summary treatment under the heading missions of the Fellowship movement which is not fully appropriate and they are lectured on the undue dissipation of their forces over three continents Julius Richter ed Das Buch der deutschen Weltmission Gotha 1935 Hans Werner Gensichen Missionsgeschichte der neueren Zeit Göttingen 1961 Ibid 42 and 55 The immense effort of the pioneering faith missions in Central and Northern Nigeria SIM SUM is dealt with just as a nuisance after that ever more new missions came into the country Horst R Flachsmeier Geschichte der evangelischen Weltmission Giessen Basel Brunnen 1963 479 Wilhelm Oehler Geschichte der deutschen evangelischen Mission 2 vols Baden Baden 1949 1951 Maybe it was published too early I think a reprint with no attempt to update it would be good See esp pp 49 61 This position seems to be alluded to in George W Peters Evangelische Missions wissenschaft Evangelikale Missiologie 1985 3 8 40 Nowhere is it written that the Kingdom of Heaven is like a hothouse Gustav Warneck Evangelische Missionslehre 3 1 Gotha 1902 243 Warneck Abriss 110 In his more generous moments he was convinced that quite soon they would learn their lessons and become reasonable

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  • Direction: Messianic Jews and the German Church Today
    Gurion s widely known secular counsel we might contend that if a person feels Jewish and desires to express his or her Jewishness who has the right to object Since within Jewry today there is a wide range of opinion and practice regarding the matter of Jewishness it is not surprising to find that messianic congregations reflect this diversity And their Jewishness is patently clear OBJECTION TWO Planting messianic congregations means rebuilding the dividing wall of hostility between Jews and Gentiles that Christ removed by the cross Of course the body of Christ is a unity whether its members are Jews or Gentiles Gal 3 28 This oneness must be publicly expressed and demonstrated When Jewish believers come together for worship and edification their congregations are appropriately Jewish This is very much in order since they know that only this type of religious practice will appeal to a sizable segment of their people True not all Jewish believers will identify with this growing movement Some have already assimilated through marriage and education and prefer to worship in culturally mixed congregations Even so almost no messianic congregation with which I am acquainted seeks to function in total isolation from Gentile churches On the contrary identity with them is freely affirmed Increasingly messianic congregations are responsive to the possibility of joining with these other churches in convening citywide public gatherings at which this oneness is affirmed By this collective witness the New Testament stress on the obligation to express the unity of the people of God is upheld In addition innovative celebrations are convened in those places where messianic congregations exist something like joint Christmas Easter and Pentecost gatherings paralleling the major Jewish feasts of Rosh Hashanah Yom Kippur and Passover What must be kept in mind is that it is always possible through prejudice to rebuild the Old Testament wall of partition between Jews and Gentiles and tolerate expressions of bias between these culturally different followers of Jesus Christ And this is utilized by the enemy to keep away those who would otherwise be attracted to a gospel that liberates and unites people 50 Indeed the devil makes it the obstacle of obstacles Recall the blunt observation of Richard L Rubenstein a Jewish leader with reference to the Holocaust Never before in history was one religion eliminated so brutally or so efficiently by adherents of another religion with almost no protest Heaviness of heart overcomes me whenever I call to mind the way in which Jewish leaders are unable to soften this charge articulated by Rubenstein 3 This painful reminder almost no protest must never be forgotten Certainly among many other things this demands that in our day as never before Jewish believers must be made to feel at home in the midst of any and every Christian gathering Christ is not divided 1 Cor 1 13 OBJECTION THREE When messianic Jews use the religious elements of their heritage and tradition they ignore the distinction between rabbinic Judaism and the new covenant faith Three lines of thought need to be kept in mind First one cannot meaningfully communicate the gospel to the Jewish people without making a constant effort to relate the Old Testament in all its details to the One who claimed to be its hermeneutical key Luke 24 44 47 This includes specific messianic predictions identified in the New Testament as fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth It also embraces all the typological references in the Old Testament that are given messianic significance in the New Testament And it superimposes on the reading of Israel s history of failure in the Old Testament the contrastive obedience of the One in the New Testament whose history fully identified him as the Servant of Yahweh and the Israel of God If we fail to stress that these rich streams of revelation in the Old Testament come to detailed completion in the New Testament we are placing Jesus in a religious vacuum There is unity and continuity between both sections of the Word of God Second there is a fine line between using culturally appropriate elements and religious syncretism For instance the skull cap kippah yarmulke does not have biblical precedent and was not even a requirement in Talmudic times It is a sign of reverence for God s sovereignty Shabbat candles lighted after sundown Friday evening by the woman of the household for each member of the family again have no biblical precedent The light of a candle is held to symbolize the eternal divine spirit in man On the Day of Atonement Yom Kippur memorial candles are lit in memory of departed family members And then there is the Jewish prayer book The rabbis called for the obligation to pray on the basis of Deuteronomy 11 13 with its injunction Serve 51 God with all your heart To them this service of the heart refers to one s prayer life Missiologists contend that these elements and many others that might be cited should be analyzed in terms of their meaning and not their form Those associated with spirit power in rabbinic Judaism should not be used at all but those which are wholesome may be retained and fused with New Testament truth while retaining their Old Testament significance Elements which are devoid of either good or evil connotation may be retained or discarded As for prayer it is significant that following the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost the messianic congregations which emerged gave themselves to the prayers Acts 2 42 This has reference to the liturgical prayers of the synagogue One who reads The Service of the Heart A Guide to the Jewish Prayer Book 4 will encounter biblically rooted praises petitions confessions and thanksgivings which can be either retained or recast to conform to New Testament revelation OBJECTION FOUR When Paul became as a Jew in order to win Jews 1 Cor 9 20 it was his evangelistic ploy and has no ecclesiastical significance This

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  • Direction: Partnership in the Gospel: Misers, Accountants, and Stewards
    what can and should be done The more resources people or institutions have the more they can do Without resources they can do little In the church an accountant mentality looks to planning and management to shape the future There is little room for ambiguities disagreements or sudden responses to unforeseen opportunities individual visions or the serendipities of the Holy Spirit Churches are organized like clubs or corporations Berger et al 1973 Ellul 1964 In missions an accounting mentality looks to long range planning goal setting and program reports It leads missionaries to see their relationship to God in mechanistic terms in what they do for God in setting 58 quantifiable goals and in giving account for every moment of time and every resource they have Reflection study rest recreation family and friends have low priority It also leads to the belief that God has only one plan for their lives and if they stray from this they are in God s second third or fourth best plan for their lives This view leads missions to set up strict reporting procedures when turning the work over to the church and to require the church to account for every dollar spent Givers retain power over resources by controlling the way the recipient uses them Economic resources are seen as the key to effective ministry Young churches have often emulated western agencies in this Patrick Sookhdeo writes E ither the national Christians do not attempt to engage in mission because they do not have the resources to set up and maintain institutions or they set up a mission modeled on the traditional mission society and after some local fund raising they quickly transition to seeking support from wealthier countries all over the globe The result is that traditional structures are replicated and developing missions are stifled Thankfully there are also groups of national Christians that have gone ahead and engaged in mission without all the modern accouterments Sookhdeo 1994 63 STEWARDS The third metaphor Jesus uses in this parable is that of Steward In New Testament times Stewards were highly valued persons entrusted with the goods of the master They had the right to use and invest these resources as they best saw fit and to take risks for the sake of great gain They exercised initiative creativity and wisdom in making weighted and calculated decisions in the face of risk and uncertainties They had to tailor their stewardship to the particular settings and opportunities given them Stewards by definition are not autonomous They serve their master and look to the master s benefit not to their own personal gains and self indulgence They are to be diligent and hard working not lazy and timid What is required of them is trust faithfulness and total allegiance Stewardship involves the whole of the steward s life it is not a day job Moreover it includes obligations that go far beyond economic resources Stewardship flows out of a heart motivated by a desire to serve rather than to rule and control 4 Stewards must give account of their actions This is not a detailed account for every hour and dollar they receive but the willingness to give reasons to the master for the actions taken Moreover the steward is 59 rewarded in proportion to his or her faithfulness by being entrusted with greater tasks 5 The unfaithful are deprived of their office In missions a stewardship mentality calls for careful planning and work but it is open to quick responses to unforeseen opportunities and to the unexpected leading of the Holy Spirit Stewardship also requires accountability Workers take ownership of the vision and task and give reports of their activities in terms of broad ministry goals They are evaluated ultimately not on their tangible successes their having a clear conscience or their ability to please people but on their faithfulness to God and the vision of the mission 1 Cor 4 2 They think and act creatively for their Lord take risks and learn from their failures They recognize that God can call them to different tasks according to the needs of the church and use them in different places 6 In serving Christ the only loser ultimately is one who refuses to risk everything out of a prudent devotion to the greatest honor of the master God sees both motive and action and he honors and uses the earnest childlike attempts of his servants in spite of themselves to further his redemptive purpose in the world Jesus said For whoever wants to save his life will lose it but whoever loses his life for me and for the gospel will save it Mark 8 35 PARTNERSHIPS In partnerships a steward mentality means that each member views the others as full equals with the rights and responsibilities of joining together in a common venture Each member has a right not to be involved in particular projects but a responsibility to give up control of what he or she contributes to the joint venture In true partnership each member seeks to build and empower the other The mission focuses not only on getting a job done but also on strengthening and teaching the young churches and in building the bonds of fellowship between different churches as part of its goals This includes teaching them to be creative to develop their own resources as well as drawing on outside resources and to do their own theologizing Reports are given on how effectively the funds and personnel have been used in obedience to God and the vision of the partnership In true stewardship we must take time to listen and learn from one another Australians have a saying I m alright Jack meaning What s your problem In other words whatever problems exist the speaker owns none of them True partnership in missions cannot be done with this attitude So long as the churches in the West take for granted that others have problems that they can

    Original URL path: http://www.directionjournal.org/28/1/partnership-in-gospel-misers-accountants.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Direction: Ethnicity: Friend or Foe?
    us a specific view of reality Within our cultural worldviews we classify sort out and reflect on events that affect us Hopefully we learn and therefore we direct our behavior to enhance our well being Third it is in our cultures that we forge our identities Fourth culture defines what is virtuous and what is evil It rewards those who embrace the cultural good and punishes those who flout it Fifth it is in our mother culture that we are given a place to belong Sixth cultures define the rites of passage from conception to death and sometimes even after death Seventh in our cultures we are taught the basic humanizing lessons of privilege and obligation Eighth our cultures enable us to view others as similar human beings with their cultures In addition ethnicity has many positive practical aspects including 68 economic and sometimes political security This holds true particularly when the state collapses and is unable to enforce control A recent example of this is the former Zaire under President Mobutu As the state went bankrupt the districts essentially ethnic regions took up the slack and provided a modernized form of a tribal safety net Ethnicity was strong enough to sustain the services normally rendered by the state If states destroy all ethnicity an impossibility surely in the name of national patriotism what happens when the state fails Many people in Zaire owe their lives to the fact that ethnicity is still strong FRIEND OR ENEMY Ethnicity presents another face fearsome and destructive We are very familiar with this face It is Arabs against Jews Hutus against Tutsis Irish against British Basques against Spaniards Kurds against Iraqians Croats against Serbs Ukrainians against Russians Tamil Nadir against Sri Lankans These catch the headlines yet they are only the tips of the iceberg Scratch almost any state and just under the surface lies not a seamless cultural fabric but a mosaic of groups tribes languages and nations It is trouble waiting to happen 10 In his controversial article The Coming Anarchy which appeared in the February 1994 issue of The Atlantic Monthly Robert D Kaplan described a future in which ethnicity runs rampant He wrote the article while residing in Sierra Leone where the people fell to fighting along ethnic lines 11 Kaplan believed that what was happening in Sierra Leone will happen in other African states with similar violent results He predicted a future in which states will weaken and tribal wars will increase He alluded to the power of ethnicity in the former Soviet Union Yugoslavia Iraq among Kurds and others Kaplan predicted that as populations grow and as pollution spoils our planet every group will fight for its share of the dwindling resources That is the anarchy which he foresaw with no way out of an impending global tailspin Missiologists must do better than that Ethnicity cannot be erased from the human heart Patriotism is one of the strongest emotions similar to the emotion stirred by religious convictions To ignore the awesome power of whatever one might call it patriotism nationalism tribalism sectionalism is to walk blindly into the future Missiologists must examine the nature of ethnicity and the role of the state A TEST CASE AN EAST AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE Having lived in East Africa for many years I had the opportunity to ponder the role of ethnicity in the state in the church and in politics 69 Before the coming of the colonial powers the people lived in ethnic units usually centered on land the burial place of the ancestors They defended their lands and their resources against any who would dare to attack Sometimes groups made treaties and alliances for purposes of mutual defense but no single tribe dominated the others Life in tribes marked the precolonial era The only significant cohesive cultural structure then was the ethnic structure Each culture in East Africa had its own worldview that set it apart as different The worldview enabled them to rationalize life and to control their circumstances Each tribe in turn viewed itself as an entity a people that included every one of them the living the departed and the unborn All of those included in the mystical group living and dead were us all others were them Since no tribe could isolate itself they learned how to inhabit the same geographic area Each tribe related to persons of other tribes in ways that were different from the way they interacted among themselves So each was a self contained universe yet each interacted in some way with neighbors both hostile and friendly Not only was the ethnic unit their universe it was designed to meet all of their needs so that they could survive as a people Their primary needs included security a rule of law economic viability a place to belong and group organization that enabled them to raise their families in peace East Africa had no empires Surviving in those days was not easy They managed by enforcing strict ethnic coherence The colonial powers stepped into this state of affairs and were confronted by a tenacious ethnicity that had served those tribes well through the years On one hand the colonial powers deplored it and did what they could to make it disappear On the other hand they employed the chieftain structures for their purposes of indirect rule Unwittingly they strengthened ethnicity While deploring tribalism they exploited it in their colonial ruling system When the states became independent the leaders waged war against ethnicity and regionalism They assumed that the states formed by the Berlin Conference in 1884 1885 were the future realities One writer has noted They the state boundaries remain unchanged today because the leaders of these artificially defined states all recognize that an attempt to rationalize frontiers would produce chaos 12 Some worked hard to create a national culture Tanzania under President Julius Nyerere was highly successful in spreading the Kiswahili language through the entire state With it a mildly identifiable Tanzanian

    Original URL path: http://www.directionjournal.org/28/1/ethnicity-friend-or-foe.html (2016-02-16)
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