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  • Energy sources: What are the Pros and Cons | DLIST Benguela
    to cancers socio economically and politically as well as environmentally Nuclear energy is a hot topic that has always generated intense debate Find out more on the websites of the World Information Service on Energy World Nuclear Association the Chernobyl Legacy and Greenpeace RENEWABLES Renewable sources of energy such as solar wind geothermal biomass and tidal are increasingly used in face of diminishing fossil fuel resources and concerns over their impacts on the environment While the cost of renewable energy technologies remains high increased demand can lead to economies of scale and a wider deployment especially in developing countries where energy demand is increasing and many renewable resources are plentiful Read more about the different sources of renewable energy below and explore more about the topic on the websites of the Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa the World wide Information System for Renewable Energy WIRE the Information Gateway for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency REEGLE and the European Renewable Energy Council or for Portuguese speaking readers on the Portal das Energias Renováveis The IEA s Fact sheet about Renewables in Global Energy Supply provides a good overview of the current renewable energy situation Wind Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of renewable energy sources around the world Wind machines use blades to collect the wind s kinetic energy Windmills work because they slow down the speed of the wind The wind flows over the airfoil shaped blades causing lift and making them turn The blades are connected to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator to produce electricity There are two types of wind machines horizontal axis the majority and vertical axis wind machines One wind machine can produce 1 5 to 4 0 million kilowatthours kWh of electricity a year That is enough electricity to power 150 400 homes Wind turbines start operating at wind speeds of 4 to 5 metres per second Wind speed increases with altitude and over open areas with no windbreaks Therefore good sites for wind plants are the tops of smooth rounded hills open plains or shorelines and mountain gaps that produce wind funneling Pros wind turbines have a low impact on the environment they produce only low frequency noise It is safe and produces no by products The turbines do not disturb livestock on farms and the land can continue to be used for grazing and crop production There are no interferences as in the past with television or radio frequencies Cons At times when the wind is not blowing other types of power plants must be used to generate electricity Wind turbines may have a negative effect on wild bird populations as well as a visual impact on the landscape There is also the impact on the land during construction Capital costs are high Read more about the topic on the websites of the Global Wind Energy Council the British Wind Energy Association Solar Everyday the sun gives us 20 000 times more energy than the entire

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/burning-issues/energy-sources-what-are-the-pros-and-cons/ (2016-02-18)
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  • Energy: An Introduction
    to generate electricity Wind turbines may have a negative effect on wild bird populations as well as a visual impact on the landscape There is also the impact on the land during construction Capital costs are high Read more about the topic on the websites of the Global Wind Energy Council the British Wind Energy Association Solar Everyday the sun gives us 20 000 times more energy than the entire planet needs This statement alone illustrates that the sun is not only the primary energy source for most living things but also a major potential for energy production Yet up until now the sun s energy has not been harnessed to its full potential thermal hot water Electricity can be produced from sunlight through direct heating of fluids to generate steam for large scale centralized electrical generation Solar hot water heaters use the sun to heat either water or a heat transfer fluid in collectors A typical system will reduce the need for conventional water heating by about two thirds High temperature solar water heaters can provide energy efficient hot water and hot water heat for large commercial and industrial facilities electric photovoltaic Electricity can also be produced from sunlight through a process called photovoltaics Photo refers to light and voltaic to voltage Thus the term describes a solid state electronic cell that produces direct current electrical energy from the radiant energy of the sun Solar cells are used to generate electricity for household power street lighting highway telephones calculators and watches water pumping and other applications passive solar energy passive solar heating cooling and daylighting are techniques that make use of the steady supply of solar energy by means of careful building design These techniques use building elements such as walls windows floors and roofs in addition to exterior building elements and landscaping to control heat generated by solar radiation Passive heating collects and stores thermal energy from direct sunlight passive cooling uses shading and generation of air flows with convection ventilation to minimise the effects of solar radiation and daylighting design optimises the use of natural daylight contributing greatly to energy efficiency Buildings can incorporate design features such as large north facing windows and building materials that absorb and slowly release the sun s heat Incorporating passive solar designs can reduce heating bills as much as 50 percent Pros solar energy production is safe renewable clean pollution waste and noise free It can be used on a small scale for domestic and household use as well as for larger operations The area needed to build a solar plant is less than half the area needed to build a coal plant Passive systems require no additional mechanical equipment and are thus simple and require minimal maintenance Cons only slight environmental impacts are experienced with the construction of more large scale solar panels The cost of generating solar energy is much higher than that of fossil fuels although costs are decreasing Reduction of costs and increase in efficiency becomes progressively more important as the world s developing nations are situated in regions that receive vast amounts of solar radiation For more information on how the suns energy is harvested see the chapter on solar energy of The Energy Story or explore the Green Building Geothermal Geothermal energy originates from natural processes beneath the earth s surface and is recovered as steam and hot water Underground hot rocks heat water to produce steam This steam is accessed through drilling and exploration which is then purified and used to drive turbines and electric generators Pros Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect Power stations do not have much impact on the environment No fuel is needed Energy may be needed to run pumps but this can be taken from the energy being generated Cons One of the negative aspects of geothermal energy concerns geography and geology There are not many regions where a geothermal plant can be built as hot rocks of a suitable type at a suitable depth need to be found Sometimes a geothermal site may run out of steam perhaps for decades which has to do with geological processes Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground and can be difficult to safely dispose of Visit the International Geothermal Association for information on the use of geothermal energy around the globe Tidal According to the British Wind Energy Association some studies suggest that the marine environment stores enough energy in the form of heat currents waves and tides to meet total world wide demand for power many times over But although the energy supply is dependable and abundant converting it into useful electrical power is not easy and there are few technologies that have gone as far as full construction and testing One of the methods used is a tidal barrage in which a dam or barrage is built across a river estuary When the tide goes in and out the water flows through tunnels in the dam The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine or it can be used to push air through a pipe which then turns a turbine Offshore turbines are also utilized and they are structured much like an underwater wind farm This method is much more cost effective to build and does not have the environmental problems that a tidal barrage would bring Pros it produces no atmospheric waste It needs no fuel It is not expensive to maintain Tides are predictable Offshore turbines and vertical axis turbines do not have a large environmental impact and are less costly to maintain but can be expensive to build Cons A barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build and affects a very wide area the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream Many birds rely on the tide uncovering the mud flats so that they can feed There are few suitable sites for tidal barrages And

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/book/export/html/983 (2016-02-18)
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  • Bursaries | DLIST Benguela
    in need of financial assistance Bursaries do not need to be repaid The only case of repayment occurs if the student has failed the degree or course Different Types of Bursaries Bursaries may be established through major private companies government departments the tertiary institution to which the student is applying or academic foundations Certain sources of bursaries cover the full cost of tuition while others contribute to a portion of the tuition fees Private companies and government departments In the case of private companies and government departments most of them cover the full tuition costs and surplus for transport needs and study materials They also have the expectation that the student will be employed at the company for a predetermined amount of time after the student has qualified This may have its benefits as it not only secures funding for studies but also the student is assured of a job once they graduate Organizations and academic foundations In the case of assistance from organizations and academic foundations the monetary subsidiary is sometimes less than that of major private companies They may contribute a small amount toward the tuition fees during each year of study Tertiary institution Bursaries through the institution at which the student will be studying is particularly competitive and is usually awarded to students with outstanding academic or sporting performance and potential How to Apply for a Bursary Firstly you have to gain a good understanding of the course you want to pursue Once you know what course you want to undertake and which field it falls under then go about finding the company which best suites your course For example if you want to study engineering the best companies to solicit bursaries from would be Eskom Nampower De Beers etc for Information and Communication Technology ICT try

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/burning-issues/bursaries (2016-02-18)
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  • Scholarships | DLIST Benguela
    Commonwealth Scholarships The Commonwealth Scholarships are open for all students intending to study in the United Kingdom UK in all fields These are however applied for through the British Council as direct applications are not accepted All applicants should apply through the British Council and ask for advice and information on specific questions regarding eligibility criteria application procedures and deadlines as they may vary Information on general application criteria can be accessed at www csfp online org If you are in Namibia more information can also be obtained from The British Council Fidel Castro Street Windhoek Contact details Telephone 264 61 226 776 Fax 264 61 227 530 E mail infona britishcouncil org If you are in South Africa more information can be obtained from British Council Johannesburg Ground Floor Forum 1 Brampak 33 Hoofd Street Braamfontein Contact Details Telephone 0860 01 22 33 Fax 0860 10 35 55 Email information britishcouncil org za Cape Town 3 rd Floor Associated Magazines House 21 St John s Street Cape Town Telephone 0860 01 22 33 Fax 0860 10 35 55 Email information britishcouncil org za Commonwealth shared Scholarships Scheme The Commonwealth Scholarships Scheme offers awards to students from developing Commonwealth countries that are not already living in and have not already studied in a developed country This scheme is aimed at supporting the taught postgraduate courses at participating academic institutions in the UK Applications for scholarships are made directly to the university or college at which the candidate wishes to study Further details on application procedure are available at this website www csfp online org Please note that only a small number of general scholarships is available for all funded courses both for the under and post graduate students therefore competition is very high More information on funding for studies in

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/burning-issues/scholarships (2016-02-18)
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  • Loans | DLIST Benguela
    loan has to be repaid The taking out of a student loan is one of the most utilized options for students Different Types of Loans Institutional Loans Some tertiary education centres offer student loans at preferential rates of interest Ask the Financial Aid Bureau at the university where you intend to study if the university manages a loan scheme for students Find out what the interest rate is that the education centre offers and how it expects you to repay the loan Bank Loans Most banks offer student loans at relatively attractive interest rates Student loans must be repaid once you have graduated and most banks will require some form of surety or security before they grant a student loan If you interested in applying for a student loan it is always best to approach the bank where you or the person who will sign surety for your loan already has a bank account How to Apply for a Loan Compare the options of various banks and financial institutions to be able to negotiate the best interest rate Here are some important contact details ABSA www absa co za or 0860 008 600 First National Bank www fnblifestart co za

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/burning-issues/loans (2016-02-18)
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  • Financial Aid | DLIST Benguela
    Financial Aid is assistance that is provided to students to help cover the cost of their studies Almost all of the tertiary institutions offer financial aid to their students in the form of student loans A loan is an amount of money that has to be repaid on completion of studies Different Types of Financial Aid The National Student Financial Aid Scheme NSFAS is a loan scheme designed for financially needy students whose parents family members may not qualify to sign surety for a bank loan All tertiary education centres in South Africa allocate NSAFS funds It offers the means to attain a tertiary education through offering loans at low interest rates without guarantees and a reasonable repayment plan How to Apply for Financial Aid Anyone can apply for financial aid from Financial Aid Bureaus at the university or technikon where you are intending on studying The interest rate on a NSAFS loan is charged at a rate much lower than a bank will charge you Application for a NSFAS loan is assessed on the basis of the National Means Test NMT which takes the following criteria into account Gross family income Number of dependants Net Value of Assets For

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/burning-issues/financial-aid (2016-02-18)
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  • Resources | DLIST Benguela
    Resources Funding Introduction Indigenous Knowledge Introduction Marine Litter Introduction Property development along the South African West Coast Resources Sponsorship Lists for South Africa and Namibia There are a number of donors that give awards to students intending to pursue their studies in various fields Here we provide you with information on the donors eligibility of candidates fields of studies that can be funded and the contact details of sponsors as

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/burning-issues/resources (2016-02-18)
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  • Student funding: introduction
    private companies They may contribute a small amount toward the tuition fees during each year of study Tertiary institution Bursaries through the institution at which the student will be studying is particularly competitive and is usually awarded to students with outstanding academic or sporting performance and potential How to Apply for a Bursary Firstly you have to gain a good understanding of the course you want to pursue Once you know what course you want to undertake and which field it falls under then go about finding the company which best suites your course For example if you want to study engineering the best companies to solicit bursaries from would be Eskom Nampower De Beers etc for Information and Communication Technology ICT try firms such as Telkom Telecom Namibia Vodacom etc After ascertaining whether these companies do offer bursaries you can then call their human resources department to enquire about the bursaries All companies have different procedures in some cases bursary seekers have to call and ask for application forms and in others they write letters of interest and motivation in applying for a bursary What are the Requirements for Applying for a Bursary The best option is to contact the organization or company that you are applying to In many cases the awarding of bursaries has certain requirements For instance the student has to be a SADC country resident may have to undertake a period of employment for the company on the completion of the course or degree have to have at least a matriculation or equivalent qualification etc Scholarships pc web long jpg What is a Scholarship Different Types f Scholarships How to Apply for a Scholarship What are the Requirements for Applying for a Scholarship What is a scholarship A scholarship is financial assistance given to a student based on the various criteria It generally reflects the principles and purposes of the donor The actual monetary amount of the scholarship varies according to the institution or company awarding it A scholarship does not need to be paid back and it does not have a recruitment obligation attached to it Different types of Scholarships Below are some of the different types of scholarships although there are numerous scholarships awarded that do not fall into these categories Merit based in which case the student may show exceptional academic athletic artistic or other abilities Thus the scholarship is awarded to further develop these skills Sports Students who excel in a particular sport often score sports scholarships Needs Based these are awarded to those students in need of financial aid or financial assistance Ethnicity or Religious many religious organizations or outreach foundations award scholarships to students in need who fall part of their denomination The Commonwealth Scholarships The Commonwealth Scholarships are open for all students intending to study in the United Kingdom UK in all fields These are however applied for through the British Council as direct applications are not accepted All applicants should apply through the British Council and ask

    Original URL path: http://www.dlist.org/book/export/html/1016 (2016-02-18)
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