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  • Overview of the Mughal Gardens Catalogue — Dumbarton Oaks
    Indo Gangetic plain was a region favorable for garden life This sample ranging from hunting grounds to tombs is of court commissioned gardens that found their way into chronicles Most useful to the contributors are the memoirs of the late sixteenth century Mughal emperor Jahangir Tūzuk i Jahāngīrī which provides detailed architectural information of some of the imperial gardens e g the tank complex of Hiran Minar Sheikhupura It would greatly benefit the researcher to read each of the catalog entries in tandem with the rich and complex garden histories of the Mughal dynasty that the original contributors offer below beginning with the legacy of Babur the first Mughal ruler who transported the Iranian garden and landscape tradition to the subcontinent This catalogue is limited to gardens commissioned by the Mughal court and located on the Grand Trunk Road It should therefore be kept in mind that this only takes a limited view of Mughal garden culture The full list of gardens is listed below or you can search by various criteria here Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Safavid Gardens Multilingual Glossary Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia Historical Dictionary of Ottoman Turkish Terms for Gardens and Gardening Market Gardens Bostans in Istanbul Market Garden East of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Bordering the Eastern Wall of Fenari İsa Mosque Wells and Cistern Southeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Northeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Remains of Market Garden Lykos Bayrampaşa Valley Market Garden in Samatya Istanbul Walls at Yedikule Fortress Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule Fortress Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule Fortress General View of the Northwestern Part of the Land Walls including the Blachernai

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/mughal-gardens (2016-02-18)
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  • Overview of the Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Catalogue — Dumbarton Oaks
    gardens such as al Yaqubi s ninth century Buldan Countries and al Khatib al Baghdadi s eleventh century Tarikh i Baghdad History of Baghdad or on contemporary archaeological work performed on hydraulic remains Herzfeld Creswell and Northedge Entries emphasize the location of the cultivated gardens vis à vis the availability of water sources rivers aqueducts basins channels and fountains as well as their intriguing mediatory positions between the private quarters and the more public spaces monumental baths mosques and audience halls of the individual palaces The architectural remains of these gardens have signal the development of a tradition that would prevail in much of the later Islamic world Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Safavid Gardens Multilingual Glossary Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia Historical Dictionary of Ottoman Turkish Terms for Gardens and Gardening Market Gardens Bostans in Istanbul Market Garden East of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Bordering the Eastern Wall of Fenari İsa Mosque Wells and Cistern Southeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Northeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Remains of Market Garden Lykos Bayrampaşa Valley Market

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/early-islamic-gardens-of-greater-syria (2016-02-18)
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  • Overview of the Safavid Gardens Catalogue — Dumbarton Oaks
    Ottoman miniatures of the sixteenth century e g Matrakçı s drawings of the first Safavid capital Tabriz to the sketches of European orientalists from the nineteenth century e g Pascal Coste s plans of the Khoy gardens The variegated illustrations in the catalogue entries are supplemented by the contributor s extensive use of court chronicles e g Astarabadi s Tārīkh i Sulṭānī on Shah Ismail s reign that described the use and appearance of these courtly spaces be it hunting grounds or interstitial transitional spaces between the public and private realms of the palaces Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Safavid Gardens Multilingual Glossary Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia Historical Dictionary of Ottoman Turkish Terms for Gardens and Gardening Market Gardens Bostans in Istanbul Market Garden East of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Bordering the Eastern Wall of Fenari İsa Mosque Wells and Cistern Southeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Northeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Remains of Market Garden Lykos Bayrampaşa Valley Market Garden in Samatya Istanbul Walls at Yedikule Fortress Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/safavid-gardens (2016-02-18)
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  • Introduction to the Multilingual Glossary — Dumbarton Oaks
    into Persian and Ottoman texts The contributors to this glossary Mahvash Alemi Nurhan Atasoy Yücel Dağlı Mohammed El Faïz Expiración García Sánchez Yizhar Hirschfeld Abdul Rehman selected the most commonly used words 1 for describing ancient gardens in Judea by archaeologists 2 in technical texts in al Andalus 3 in texts about gardens written by authors of the sixteenth and seventeenth century Persian Ottoman and Mughal empires and indirectly related to royal gardens All other terms were excluded such as those regarding plants which deserve a multilingual vocabulary of their own The contributors agreed upon a few common rules First the transliterated words are listed in alphabetical order Second a short translation into English is provided and accompanied by an etymology only when it adds to the understanding of the translation Third whenever available indications of a vernacular source or of the use of the term by a European traveler have been provided The definition for the glossary s Persian words come with longer descriptions that underline some of the controversies surrounding their meanings These descriptions will be made available as PDFs in the future Each word is followed by an indication of the language for which the definition is provided This makes it possible to check the variations of meaning for related words Bibliographical references are indicated by an acronym Each definition is followed by an indication of the author and the date of the entry Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Safavid Gardens Multilingual Glossary Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia Historical Dictionary of Ottoman Turkish Terms for Gardens and Gardening Market Gardens Bostans in Istanbul Market Garden East of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Bordering the

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/multilingual-glossary (2016-02-18)
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  • Introduction to the Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia — Dumbarton Oaks
    Wafid eleventh century IH Al Muqni fī l filāḥa a work originally attributed solely to the agronomist Ibn Hajjaj eleventh century but which in reality also contains the agricultural treatise by Ibn Wafid above IW IB Kitāb al qaṣd wa l bayān by Ibn Bassal eleventh century AKh Kitāb al filāḥa by Abu l Khayr eleventh twelfth century TG Kitāb zuhrat al bustān wa nuzhat al adhhān by the agronomist al Tighnari eleventh twelfth century UM Umdat al tabīb fi ma rifat al nabāt li kull labīb Umda a botanical work attributed to the twelfth century agronomist Abu l Khayr IA Kitāb al filāḥa by Ibn al Awwam twelfth thirteenth century IL Kitāb ibdā al malāḥa wa inhā al rajāḥa fī uṣūl ṣinā at al filāḥa an agricultural poem by Ibn Luyun fourteenth century It is convenient to previously clarify the concept of species which this glossary has organized in all its references Each of their names appears as a heading directly derived from the Arabic word used for the botanical species Based on this its taxonomic classification is identified from the perspective of modern plant systematics seeking its correspondence with the scientifically recognizable botanical species Finally this taxonomic identification is transposed into the popular names of the English language followed by their respective names in modern Castillian Spanish References used for each species include the following fields The Arabic term spelled in Arabic script and romanized for the plant in question Please note that this site uses the ALA LC romanization tables for the transliteration of technical vocabulary Proper names including those of people places and gardens use a simplified scheme Andalusian authors and works which mention the species identified by the acronyms listed in the table above Complete taxonomic characterization English and Spanish name scientific name and author synonyms and family A brief commentary dealing with the difficulties of a botanical agronomical and linguistic nature which have arisen throughout the preparation of this work At times it alludes to emphasized uses or other significant aspects indicated by the authors that facilitate the correct identification of the species logically the intermediate phases of the discussion have been omitted On occasions the diagnostic elements found in the texts make it possible to verify profile and sometimes seriously question the identification of the species that would proceed from simple translation In other cases they only allow us to note several possibilities without being able to make a clear identification This commentary also indicates what could and could not have been cultivated due to ecology and climate of al Andalus We must note that this catalogue only contains the species mentioned by the agronomists those which they cultivated or which were known for their consumption or by means of reading other earlier texts many more species were possibly known judging from a study of the contributions from botanists and pharmacologists of that time Finally we must clarify that the species selected as trees in this work correspond more specifically to the botanical

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/al-andalus-glossary (2016-02-18)
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  • Historical Dictionary of Ottoman Turkish Terms for Gardens and Gardening — Dumbarton Oaks
    not particularly included in our search within the dictionaries However from time to time some explanations are provided for the ones frequently used in literature Use of plants in medicine names of therapeutic drugs prescriptions or recipes Seaweeds Aphorisms related to plants Metaphorical meanings or meanings not related to our field e g slang This work is based on the Turkish Language Institution Dictionary and synonyms to a particular entry found elsewhere are given after the entry even if the definition is the same in order to show that it does not appear in one dictionary only Sources are indicated by a parenthetical acronym at the end of each entry A key may be found here or at the beginning of the downloadable PDF However not all the information found in source dictionaries has been imported Neither etymology nor gender nor word root are indicated Scholars who need them should search the abbreviation of the source they want to consult in the list of sources Whenever several meanings are given for a particular entry in a source dictionary only meanings related to plants and gardens are included and whenever necessary the entries are renumbered Synonyms or names with very similar spellings one or two letter differences for the same plant are placed together in the same entry Names of plants formed by compound nouns are variously combined separated or hyphenated according to the writers preferences In this dictionary the common usage in source dictionaries is followed Please note that the form of the dictionary available here for download is based on the version available on the original project website as of October 1 2014 Original errors have been retained Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/historical-dictionary (2016-02-18)
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  • Market Gardens (Bostans) in Istanbul — Dumbarton Oaks
    suburbs More information on the bostans of Istanbul can be found at City and Agriculture Studying and Preserving the Historic Gardens of Istanbul Exhibit Items Market Garden East of Fenari İsa Mosque Nicholas Artamonoff View from the minaret May 1937 Market Garden Bordering the Eastern Wall of Fenari İsa Mosque Photograph by Robert Van Nice 1939 Wells and Cistern Southeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Photograph by Arthur Kingsley Porter 1940 Market Garden Northeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Photograph taken during the Byzantine Institute restorations 1961 Remains of Market Garden Photograph taken during Byzantine Institute restorations of Fenari İsa Mosque 1964 Lykos Bayrampaşa Valley Photograph by Nicholas Artamonoff 1930s Market Garden in Samatya Istanbul Nicholas Artamonoff remains of Marmara sea walls at Samatya looking toward the sea March 1936 Walls at Yedikule Fortress Nicholas Artamonoff View of the land walls and the northwest tower at Yedikule seen from the southwest June 1935 Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule Fortress Photograph by Nicholas Artamonoff February 1937 Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule Fortress Photograph by Nicholas Artamonoff Summer 1938 General View of the Northwestern Part of the Land Walls including the Blachernai and Theodosian Walls Photograph by Cyril Mango 1979 Market Garden and Tower of Isaac Angelos Blachernai Walls Photograph by Nicholas Artamonoff October 1936 View of the Eyüp Valley from Anemas Tower Photograph by Nicholas Artamonoff Spring 1937 Theodosian Walls Northeastern Section Market gardens photographed by Cyril Mango 1979 Orchards and Agricultural Land in Dolmabahçe Valley Nicholas Artamonoff View of the construction of İnönü football stadium Dolmabahçe Camii and market gardens and orchards 1940s Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Safavid Gardens Multilingual Glossary Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/market-gardens-in-istanbul (2016-02-18)
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  • Transliteration Conventions — Dumbarton Oaks
    names including those of people places and gardens use a simplified scheme Please note that if the names of gardens or garden areas even if using technical vocabulary e g chahārb ā gh b ā gh dawlatkh ā nah ṭavīlah etc do not use diacritics Document Actions Print this Share Middle East Garden Traditions Browse the Catalogue Ottoman Gardens Andalusian Gardens Mughal Gardens Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria Safavid Gardens Multilingual Glossary Glossary of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Species of Andalusia Historical Dictionary of Ottoman Turkish Terms for Gardens and Gardening Market Gardens Bostans in Istanbul Market Garden East of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Bordering the Eastern Wall of Fenari İsa Mosque Wells and Cistern Southeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Market Garden Northeast of Fenari İsa Mosque Remains of Market Garden Lykos Bayrampaşa Valley Market Garden in Samatya Istanbul Walls at Yedikule Fortress Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule Fortress Yedikule Market Gardens Seen from Yedikule Fortress General View of the Northwestern Part of the Land Walls including the Blachernai and Theodosian Walls Market Garden and Tower of Isaac Angelos Blachernai Walls View of the Eyüp Valley from Anemas Tower Theodosian Walls Northeastern Section Orchards and Agricultural Land

    Original URL path: http://www.doaks.org/resources/middle-east-garden-traditions/transliteration-conventions (2016-02-18)
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