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  • Small Apartment Building Guide | Ecology Center
    the week Once full roll your carts to the curb in front of your house by 7 AM the day your trash is collected Make sure your carts are in plain view To help discourage theft and litter problems put your carts out in the morning rather than at night Use the Blue Topped Cart For glass bottles and jars steel tin aerosol and aluminum cans clean rigid plastic containers aluminum foil and pie plates Please NO plastic bags straws Styrofoam window glass ceramics Pyrex or crystal Remove food and rinse containers before recycling Flatten plastic Caps and lids are allowed if attached to containers Use the Brown Topped Cart For newspapers and inserts office paper small cardboard pieces paperback books and phonebooks mail magazines and catalogs paperboard like cereal boxes or egg cartons Please NO food soiled paper or wax cartons tissue or paper towels soymilk or juice boxes or plastic or foil coated paper or cardboard Do not wedge large cardboard boxes in your cart Cut to fit in cart or flatten into a 3 x3 x1 bundle and place next to your cart for pick up BACK TO RECYCLING Inspiring and building a sustainable healthy and just future for the East Bay California and beyond Donate Subscribe Thanks for signing up Stay in the loop with our events news and alerts The Ecology Center will never sell or share your contact information Email Address First Name Last Name Get Email Updates By submitting this form you are granting Ecology Center 2530 San Pablo Avenue Berkeley California 94702 United States http ecologycenter org permission to email you You may unsubscribe via the link found at the bottom of every email See our Email Privacy Policy for details Emails are serviced by Constant Contact Get Involved Facebook Twitter RSS

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/recycling/apartments/ (2016-04-30)
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  • About Berkeley Recycling | Ecology Center
    off to become a successful wine bottle recycling business that is still operating In the 1980s the Ecology Center was instrumental in the first statewide recycling conference a meeting that led to the founding of the California Resource Recovery Association In 1988 the Ecology Center convened a task force with Berkeley officials to author the styrofoam ban that serves as a model for many such ordinances across the country Recycling education is still a key component of our work Pioneering non profits like the Ecology Center gave birth to the recycling industry but few non profits remain in the recycling business today Unlike for profit haulers our successful recycling program supports community education maintains high standards in recycling as the industry matures and keeps resources in our local community No income earned through this contract goes to corporate headquarters elsewhere The resources stay here providing good green collar jobs and supporting our community in reaching Zero Waste climate action and food policy goals As a mission driven nonprofit we maintain and insist on the highest standards possible to assure that the materials we collect are actually recycled back into the highest end use possible This helps close the loop when a glass bottle becomes a glass bottle again rather than asphalt or sand And we won t collect materials unless there is a demonstrated recycling market for that material if it s not recyclable we won t mislead you We view recycling as part of a whole urban environmental system We participate in advocacy efforts around Zero Waste and Extended Producer Responsibility and support policies that end the age of waste BACK TO RECYCLING Inspiring and building a sustainable healthy and just future for the East Bay California and beyond Donate Subscribe Thanks for signing up Stay in the loop

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/recycling/about/ (2016-04-30)
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  • Report Poaching Violations | Ecology Center
    Cold Call You saw the person take your recyclables last night Call the Ecology Center Hot Line at 527 5555 and leave a message Your information will be used to help establish a pattern for this vehicle Information Gather as much of this information as you can to give to your beat officer or Ecology Center staffer Date and Time of the incident Address or area e g the 1600 block of Prince Street License Plate partial is better than none Description of vehicle e g black Ford pickup truck Direction the vehicle was moving if it is a hot call What you saw the person doing Your address and phone number if you want to be contacted What Will Happen Your information will be used to identify frequent offenders and establish a pattern that we can use to apprehend them in the future The license plate will be checked for other offenses and warrants An officer will respond to a hot call if an officer is available The officer can cite if he she sees the person poaching If the officer does not view the offense the citizen who witnessed the offense can sign a complaint but will have to appear in court Note An officer may not be available to respond Please call anyway The information is being compiled and arrests ARE taking place BACK TO RECYCLING Inspiring and building a sustainable healthy and just future for the East Bay California and beyond Donate Subscribe Thanks for signing up Stay in the loop with our events news and alerts The Ecology Center will never sell or share your contact information Email Address First Name Last Name Get Email Updates By submitting this form you are granting Ecology Center 2530 San Pablo Avenue Berkeley California 94702 United States http

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/recycling/poaching/ (2016-04-30)
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  • PLASTICS TASK FORCE | Ecology Center
    OF THE BERKELEY PLASTICS TASK FORCE Click here for the full report as a pdf SUMMARY OF REPORT FINDINGS The Berkeley Plastics Task Force report included the following findings A link exists between the promotion of plastics recycling and an increase in production of virgin resin Plastic packaging production in recent years has outstripped plastic recycling by as much as a six to one margin and most of that production is from virgin materials Plastic packaging is not produced from petroleum waste but from natural gas that could be used otherwise or not extracted at all Although all plastic containers bear the recyclable symbol most are not recyclable Picking up plastics at curbside costs about 800 of taxpayer money or more per ton Much of the plastic collected for recycling is shipped overseas and processed under at best dubious conditions Many of the products made from the plastic resin that is being recycled are not themselves recyclable making the recycling only temporary diversion from landfill Many of the chemicals used to produce plastic resins pose serious health risks Significant toxic emissions into air and water have been associated with plastics plants with the plastics industry contributing 14 of the national total of air emissions Emissions of contaminated wastewater are estimated to be 300 500 gallons a minute per plant PLASTICS TASK FORCE MEMBERS Authors Richard Lindsay Stover chemical engineer Kathy Evans recycling consultant Karen Pickett Ecology Center Contributors Charles Gary Ecology Center Mark Gorrell architect Copy Editors Daniel Knapp Urban Ore Mary Lou Van Deventer Urban Ore Berkeley Plastics Task Force Members Pam Belchamber Community Conservation Centers Leona Benten Ecology Center Kathy Evans Recycling Consultant Charles Gary Ecology Center Emma Gilbride Ecology Center Mark Gorrell Architect Judy Johnson Environmental Educator Daniel Knapp Urban Ore Nick Morgan Environmental Engineer Karen Pickett

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/plastics/ptf/ (2016-04-30)
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  • PTF: ALTERNATIVES | Ecology Center
    substantial reduction in the demand for disposable plastic The direct result is reduced use of materials and energy with the consequent reduced environmental impacts In addition some important indirect benefits stem from container reuse If reuse becomes a market objective resin and container designers will take into account the fate of the container beyond the point of sale and consider the service the container provides Design for service differs sharply from the design for disposal paradigm underlying most plastic packaging today As with take back programs reuse makes new demands on both the material and the infrastructure Container makers can directly participate in developing a refilling infrastructure and encouraging public participation An innovative approach to encourage consumers to choose reusable and refillable containers could be to include these containers in curbside collection services The benefit of such an approach or any public education program that promotes reuse would be a higher level of public awareness about how their choices in consumption affect the environment Require producers to take back resins Getting plastic manufacturers directly involved with plastic disposal and waste closes the materials loop which can lead to developing more recyclable materials and establishing an infrastructure to accomplish the reprocessing Closing the loop stimulates designers and manufacturers to consider the product s life cycle from cradle to grave Container makers can make reprocessing easier by limiting the number of container types and shapes using only one type of resin in each container making collapsible containers using water dispersible adhesives for labels and phasing out associated metals such as aluminum seals Resin manufacturers can limit the variety of resins within each resin type avoid using pigments and formulate resins to better withstand post consumer processing Both container and resin makers can help develop the reprocessing infrastructure by taking back plastic from consumers Legislatively require recycled content Requiring that all containers sold contain a percentage of post consumer material reduces the amount of virgin material consumed Although not as effective as other source reduction techniques mandating recycled content is one way to implement primary recycling and as a result to close part of the materials flow loop Worn out refillable containers could become a source of feedstock Incorporating primary recycling into a system of container reuse would be straightforward since established transportation lines exist between container makers and filling locations If container makers were required to use recycled material designers would be stimulated to create containers that are more recyclable If resin producers participated in post consumer plastic processing polymer materials would be altered to be more recyclable In these ways instituting recycled content practices would lead to life cycle consideration during design and manufacturing Standardize labeling and inform the public No matter what kind of program is adopted for dealing with plastics standardized terms and labels are necessary for the sake of clarity and fairness The chasing arrows symbol is an example of an ambiguous and misleading label Significantly different standardized labels for recycled recyclable and made of plastic type x

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/plastics/ptf/report10/ (2016-04-30)
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  • PTF: COSTS & BENEFITS | Ecology Center
    Average used as basis 35 000 households x 16 lbs yr x 71 participation x 65 capture 2000 lbs ton 129 tons year capturable in Berkeley These calculations can be further refined by using the capture rates for each bottle type These are 48 for custom PET 60 for soda PET and 70 for natural HDPE The resulting tonnages are shown in the following chart Table 6 Second Estimate of Plastic Bottles Capturable in Berkeley Basis San Francisco tons yr Basis Bottle Bill States Average tons yr PET soda 9 7 8 2 PET custom 16 7 14 3 Total PET 26 4 22 5 Natural HDPE 49 6 109 6 Total PET and HDPE 76 0 132 1 The PET tonnage is lower than the estimate of 50 tons made in 1995 by the Ecology Center CCC and City staff The HDPE tonnage is considerably lower than the 200 annual tons first estimated Until a better estimate is available the bottle bill states average of 132 1 tons will be assumed to approximate the tonnage of plastic bottles available for collection in Berkeley To gain a fuller understanding for good program planning however we need not just an average tonnage but an anticipated range for both tonnage and volume For reference we will set the anticipated HDPE tonnage range at a low of 76 tons per year and a high of 160 with an average of 132 Now the volume of the materials must be found The APC study found the average density of materials set out for curbside collection to be 32 pounds per cubic yard for PET soda and custom and 20 pounds per cubic yard for natural HDPE For the anticipated annual tonnage the collection program would be expected to pick up a low of 25 5 cubic yards a high of 58 cubic yards and an average of 47 cubic yards every day five days a week 52 weeks per year The APC uses another method to calculate truck requirements for bottles and cans It recommends using data they collected on average set out volumes and set out rates This method results in somewhat higher capacity requirements but is perhaps more accurate since it is derived by measuring actual set outs in the study areas The APC s data reflects an assumed set out rate of 48 and 1 000 households per route In Berkeley an average of 7 000 households are served per day With those assumptions the APC s calculation can be applied to Berkeley with the following results Table 7 Average Daily Volume Capturable in Berkeley Using APC Assumptions Material Average Daily Volume Cu yds route 1 000 households Cu yds day 7 000 households Cans 4 6 32 2 Glass 5 6 39 2 Plastic 8 2 57 4 Total 18 4 128 8 Therefore average daily volume can be estimated at 129 cubic yards per day for all container types with plastic bottles accounting for 57 4 cubic yards per day The Ecology Center has five high capacity trucks each with a capacity of 30 35 cubic yards two 1990 bin trucks at 17 cubic yards and two older bin trucks for backup The seven trucks in regular use have a combined capacity for glass and cans of just over 60 cubic yards Thus if each truck could make two full trips every day and every route were average only a few yards of extra capacity would be required and could probably be accommodated with the backup trucks This calculation also assumes that plastic could be collected commingled with both cans and glass Commingling adds processing costs but avoids the additional costs associated with supplying and collecting an additional curbside tote box In Berkeley demographics terrain and the existing refuse collection days require curbside recycling collection routes that vary widely from the statistical average The routes with highest participation are often the least efficient to collect because they are far from the recycling yard the stops are far apart and narrow and dead end streets require extra time for maneuvering Therefore it is not always possible to collect two full trucks in an eight hour shift from routes on the eastern side of Berkeley Also in high participation areas one route cannot serve a thousand houses per day so more and smaller routes are necessary Replacing the two bin trucks with high capacity trucks would add about 9 cubic yards for glass cans and plastics increasing capacity to 70 cubic yards without requiring additional staff If the bin trucks were also used on heavy days total capacity would be over 80 cubic yards for one trip with an additional 40 50 cubic yards available for second trips and the remaining 30 40 cubic yards available for overtime collection on heavy days One option is to add plastic compactors to all seven trucks to increase collection capacity The APC study did extensive testing of several different makes and models of on board compactors They increase loading time on the route but also increase collection capacity somewhat Overall however the study found on board compaction to be of marginal use in bottle bill states using commingled collection Adding compactors in the space behind the cab of the Lodal trucks two bin trucks and three high capacity trucks and under the frame of the other two high capacity trucks might provide necessary overflow capacity to prevent the container compartments from filling up before the paper sections This installation would require the collectors to manually sort plastic at the curb adding considerable time to the collection Also all the compactors tested in the APC study had features that made them either inconvenient or difficult to load and unload One of the test routes in West Linn Oregon used a compactor for commingled cans and plastic The test showed that there was no problem with interlocking the materials which could be routinely processed at the sorting facility The particular compactor tested in the study is

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/plastics/ptf/report7/ (2016-04-30)
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  • PTF: DISCARD STREAM | Ecology Center
    of plastics burned or buried in landfills 8 1 million tons or 63 pounds per person per year was plastic packaging materials In states where beverage containers have redemption or deposit value the proportion of these containers in the garbage has dropped significantly For example an estimated 28 of all PET bottles sold in the US is recovered and 90 of those came from states with bottle bills or mandated deposits Nevertheless even as plastic reprocessing rates have increased the amount of virgin resins produced has risen much faster Berkeley CA discard stream composition estimates A study of Berkeley California s waste stream which totaled 100 4 thousand tons after diversion in 1991 showed the following major components Table 3 Composition of Berkeley s Municipal Waste Stream 1991 Material Type Amount Wasted thousand tons Percent of Total Paper and Paperboard 35 2 35 0 Food and YardTrimmings 23 2 23 1 Wood 8 4 8 4 Plastics 6 5 6 5 Metals 4 9 4 9 Glass 3 1 3 1 Other 19 1 19 0 Totals 100 4 100 0 The quantity of plastic in the Berkeley waste supply is compared with the quantities of other materials in the pie chart below Figure 3 Waste Composition After Diversion Berkeley CA 1991 Of the plastics discarded in Berkeley in 1991 almost 47 was film plastics such as bags and wrapping and 43 was mixed plastics including polystyrene foam Seventy tons was PET and 582 tons was HDPE Since PET and HDPE are the only plastic resins that have accessible markets this means that only 10 of plastic discards or less than 1 of Berkeley s total waste stream would be targeted for recycling As will be discussed in the following section a curbside collection program could capture only a fraction

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/plastics/ptf/report6/ (2016-04-30)
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  • PTF: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS | Ecology Center
    Less visible but very serious is the pollution generated by producing plastic resin As ethylene is polymerized the reactive mixture is scrubbed with dilute aqueous caustic solutions that become high volume pollutants The refining process uses waste minimization methods but point source air emissions are still high because of inherent difficulties in handling large flows of pressurized gases Manufacturing PET resin generates more toxic emissions nickel ethylbenzene ethylene oxide benzene than manufacturing glass Producing a 16 oz PET bottle generates more than 100 times the toxic emissions to air and water than making the same size bottle out of glass Producing plastics can be hazardous to workers too Serious accidents have included explosions chemical fires chemical spills and clouds of toxic vapor These kinds of occurrences have caused deaths injuries evacuations and major property damage A review of the US EPA s data base of 10 000 accidents and spills from 1980 87 shows that nearly 1 600 16 of industrial accidents were associated with producing plastics or plastic constituents Negative health effects toxic additives migration into food In addition to creating safety problems during production many chemical additives that give plastic products desirable performance properties also have negative environmental and human health effects These effects include direct toxicity as in the cases of lead cadmium and mercury or carcinogens as in the case of diethyl hexylphosphate DEHP Problem chemicals are used as plasticizers antioxidants colorants flame retardants heat stabilizers and barrier resins A single resin type might be mixed with many such additives adding complexity to the chemical composition and possibly generating new classes of incompatible resins within the grossly simplified SPI resin code An example of internal incompatibility is resin type 2 noted earlier as a recycling problem because the blow mold resin grades and injection mold grades must be separated for most primary recycling applications People are exposed to these chemicals not only during manufacturing but also by using plastic packages because some chemicals diffuse migrate from the packaging polymer to the foods they contain Migration potential exists for traces of monomers oligomers additives stabilizers plasticizers lubricants anti static nucleating agents and reaction products of the polymer or its additives Such substances may be toxic Diverting solid waste Curbside plastic collection programs are driven in part by a wish to minimize municipal solid waste Indeed most legislation dealing with discarded containers has focused on creating mechanisms that would divert municipal plastic waste from incinerators or landfills These initiatives include container deposit laws and landfill use reduction laws Although important such measures do not solve the problem of over packaging or reduce the production of plastic packaging Only source reduction can do this As discussed in section 8 Germany recognized the need to implement aggressive source reduction and passed a law requiring all manufacturers to arrange to pick up discarded packaging usually at the point of sale such as the supermarket This requirement has encouraged industry to reduce packaging In addition as noted earlier providing recycling for plastic

    Original URL path: http://ecologycenter.org/plastics/ptf/report3/ (2016-04-30)
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