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  • Historical overview - NIKK
    partners have arranged events for climate experts and decision makers to examine the relationship between climate change and gender equality and have brought women from the Southern Hemisphere into the climate negotiations by financing their participation More than 3 000 experts and decision makers have taken part in these events and the number of female delegates at the climate conferences has been growing and five adaptation programmes incorporating a gender equality perspective have been completed The most important points make reference to women s active participation eight times Gender and the Kyoto Protocol A total of 184 countries have ratified the Kyoto Protocol since it came into effect in January 2007 Thirty seven industrialized countries and the EU committed to reduce their emissions levels by about 5 from 1990 levels before 2012 The signatories to the Convention meet once a year at so called COP meetings to evaluate the Convention s progress These conferences have yielded a series of activities and recommendations concerning the gendered aspects of climate change Women are named officially for the first time in the text of the resolution from the COP7 meeting in Marrakech in 2001 Read more about the inclusion of gender in the COP process here p 30 or about gender equality related events arranged during COP meetings here Ten years after Rio de Janeiro in 2002 a summit on sustainable development the Rio 10 was arranged in Johannesburg The summit took up Agenda 21 from a gender equality perspective and concluded that developments were going in the right direction internationally nationally and locally but that progress was often splintered and ad hoc In 2003 the Commission on Sustainable Development selected gender as one of the central themes in its work up until 2015 United Nations women s conferences The United Nations has raised the connection between gender and climate change at a number of its women s conferences In Nairobi in 1985 the focus was on the interconnectedness of development gender equality and women s participation The United Nations Environment Programme UNEP arranged a special session on women and the environment In Beijing in 1995 the environment was identified as one of twelve critical areas for women The Beijing Platform for Action talks about the connection between women and the environment Read more about the work done by the European Institute for Gender Equality EIGE in regards to this matter The UN Commission on the Status of Women CSW has also focused on gender equality and climate change Starting in 2002 it was required that a gender equality perspective be integrated into all research concerning the impact and causes of climate change In 2008 the Commission declared that the effects of climate change are not gender neutral and that they directly affect the lives of women as a consequence of the tasks traditionally assigned to women The Commission called for financing for gender equality work and for governments to gender mainstream their national environmental policies to strengthen their mechanisms and to support

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/historical_overview/ (2016-02-09)
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  • International treaties - NIKK
    1995 the document aims to improve the status of women locally nationally and globally in a number of areas The Platform for Action identified women and the environment as an important area and developed three strategic objectives the active inclusion of women at all levels of all decision making connected to the environment integrating a gender perspective into programmes for sustainable development and creating and strengthening mechanisms at the national regional and international levels for analyzing the effects of development and environmental policies on women More about Section K here Climate Convention UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol Most nations ratified the international climate convention in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 which came into effect in 1994 Its aim is to delay the Earth s warming and its impact The original Convention included no obligatory limits for greenhouse gas emissions at the national level and no enforcement guidelines and it was therefore not considered binding Instead the Convention included the possibility of amendments or protocols that could establish binding limits for emissions The primary protocol is the Kyoto Protocol which many countries have approved It is more binding and is considered stronger than the Convention itself The Secretariat of the UNFCCC supports all institutions involved in the climate change process Read the Convention here Read the Kyoto protocol here Convention on Biological Diversity CBD The Convention came into effect in December 1993 Its aim is to preserve biological diversity use the components of biological diversity in a sustainable manner and to divide equally the benefits achieved through the use of genetic resources More about the Convention here Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women CEDAW The Convention was approved by the UN General Assembly in December 1979 It defines discrimination

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/international_treaties/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Abbreviations and definitions - NIKK
    s chairperson Norway s then Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland The report declared that all people must change their living habits in order to avoid unprecedented human suffering and environmental destruction Read the report here Cancun Adaptation Framework CAF Adopted at COP16 in Cancun Mexico Signatories affirmed that adaptation measures must be undertaken with the same urgency as mitigation measures The goal is to develop adaptation measures and international cooperation Improved ability to act will help diminish the vulnerability of developing countries and build their ability to combat the effects of climate change More information about CAF here Carbon trading An exchange system in which countries can buy or sell units of greenhouse gas emissions Climate change Long term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over a long period of time from decades to millions of years Climate change can manifest as changes in mean weather phenomena for example more or less severe storms with changes that may affect only one region or the entire world Climate Convention UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Most nations ratified the international climate convention in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 which came into effect in 1994 Its aim is to delay the Earth s warming and its impact The original Convention included no obligatory limits for greenhouse gas emissions at the national level and no enforcement guidelines and it was therefore not considered binding Instead the Convention included the possibility of amendments or protocols that could establish binding limits for emissions The primary protocol is the Kyoto Protocol which many countries have approved It is more binding and is considered stronger than the Convention itself The Secretariat of the UNFCCC supports all institutions involved in the climate change process More information here Commission on Sustainable Development CSD The Commission was created in December 1992 to ensure that the resolutions reached at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio in 1992 are followed up Conference on Environment and Development UNCED United Nations Rio Earth Summi t The UN Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro Brazil in June 1992 At the conference 178 states ratified Agenda 21 the Rio Declaration on the environment and development as well principles for the sustainable management of forests Commission on the Status of Women CSW The UN Commission on the Status of Women focuses on gender equality and the advancement of the status of women The Commission was established in June 1946 and convenes once a year in New York to evaluate women s progress Conference of the Parties COP The governing body of the Climate Convention It convenes once a year to monitor the progress of the Convention Read more about various gender equality events within COP here Convention on Biological Diversity CBD The Convention came into effect in December 1993 Its aim is to preserve biological diversity use the components of biological diversity in a sustainable manner and to divide equally the benefits achieved through the use of

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/abbreviations_and_definitions/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Best practices - NIKK
    hospital for this purpose For a male dominated workplace the city selected a police station Special night bus stops for improved safety The female high school students hospital workers and police all brought up the issue of safety The students and hospital workers felt unsafe using public transportation at night and representatives of the police referenced both their own professional experience and their concern for family members Many municipalities have worked with safety issues taking measures such as removing bushes and shrubbery adjacent to bus stops and eliminating dark tunnels to access the stops In Kalmar night time security has been improved by having night buses drop off passengers in between regular bus stops nattstopp night stop which can be a way for passengers to ensure that they are getting off alone Common to focus on men As part of the project the city arranged a focus group discussion with public officials and politicians asking them how they viewed the relationship between gender and public transport It emerged that there was a major focus on men as a group on the one hand the problematic older men who were the hardest to convince of their driving being a threat to the environment and on the other hand the quality conscious men who could be convinced as long as public transportation was adapted to their needs It is the latter group to which public transportation should be made attractive Ana Gil Sola studies commuting to and from work from a gender and mobility perspective at the School of Business Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg Zeroing in on men as a potential group for increasing the share of public transportation is something she recognizes From an environmental standpoint it may be the right tactic but not necessarily from a

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/transport/best_practices/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Fascinating figures - NIKK
    other words gender alone does not determine differences in transport patterns A Danish study examined the linkage between choice of transportation and gender and level or urbanization 5 As the illustration shows the choice of transport is dependent on gender but also on whether a person lives in Copenhagen outlying suburbs or a smaller community In general the smaller the town or village the more driving was done by both women and men In all categories men nevertheless drove more than women The least driving was done by women living in Copenhagen The most driving was done by men living in communities with fewer than 2 000 inhabitants Cycling was most popular in big cities but declined in popularity in cities with fewer than 100 000 inhabitants In Copenhagen clearly more women took the train than men while in outlying suburbs and small towns the situation was reversed In terms of private cars women were clearly more likely than men to be in the passenger seat This can have implications later in life when women again need their ability to drive for example if the man is no longer able to drive It can also lead to problems like social isolation if a woman has not been able to maintain her ability to drive 6 Besides urban dwelling labour market position and age also affect the choices women and men make in modes of transportation creating a more complex picture of patterns of travel 7 According to research from Sweden higher incomes are associated with an increase in transport and travel The 20 percent with the highest income earners use nearly twice the amount of energy on trips abroad compared to those with the lowest incomes 8 Men dominate in decision making and the workplace Many of the sectors that play an important role in decision making concerning the climate are strongly male dominated including areas such as urban planning the energy sector and the climate negotiations themselves This is also true in the transport sector 9 It is important that in transportation both women s and men s needs and interests are being taken into account It is also necessary to ensure that women and men are equally represented in decision making As things are now men are over represented in the transport sector both in terms of employment and political decision making on transport 10 For example 95 of the members of the European Rail Research Advisory Council ERRAC are men The situation is slightly better at the European Road Transport Research Advisory Council ERTRAC where men make up 72 percent 11 The state of things in the individual Nordic countries is often similar In terms of women s and men s representation in transport related committees only Sweden can boast an equal distribution In Finland the proportion of men is 70 percent and in Denmark 88 percent as detailed in the table below 12 Men and women in national traffic committees Men Women Denmark 88 12 Finland

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/transport/fascinating_figures/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Gender mainstreaming transport - NIKK
    the norm while encouraging everybody to make shorter trips take public transportation use the bike or walk The latter scenario has been concluded to be more climate friendly 2 The gendered transport sector The transport sector is largely a male dominated workplace Research has shown that the transport system is dominated by masculine values and associated with dirty noisy and tough environments which means that many women do not even consider applying for a career in the transport profession As the European transport sector is affected by globalization and demographic change the composition of the work force is changing and women represent a large part of the available human resource Women s high levels of education mean that they increasingly will be important for developing the future transport sector The competences and resources of both women and men are a key part of prodiving better tools and new technology Innovation is a result of differences in perspectives and ways of thinking generally women are more likely to think about the consequences of production e g sustainability while men are more inclined to think about productivity and the production itself From this perspective a more equal gender balance would spur the kind of major innovations that will help to create a more sustainable sector 3 There are a number of arguments for the need to achieve gender equality in the transport sector The resource argument Women might have different experiences from men and can add new perspectives and themes to the agenda Accordingly the transport sector should use all available competencies and resources as well as possible Research has shown that companies with an equal balance of gender are twice as innovative as other companies Researchers calculate that businesses can boost their innovation capacity by 110 by increasing the share of women from 25 to 40 4 The interest argument To benefit both transport users and employees interests women s interests should be represented in the transport sector as the male dominance in the workforce might ignore women s interests However women s interests may vary due to ethnicity class nationality or age and we also need to think in terms of diversity The justice argument Women have a right to participate on an equal footing with men both individually and as a group This is a fundamental democratic principle A gender balanced transport sector is therefore important to ensure justice between women and men at an individual level just as it will help ensure equal rights at a societal level Gender mainstreaming transport Gender mainstreaming is a productive strategy for incorporating a gender perspective in the transport system It is a means to achieve the goal of equal opportunities for all by integrating a gender perspective in all stages of decision making processes the use of public resources planning implementation evaluation and follow up processes The strategy involves assessments of how decisions affect both women and men s lives and positions And it means taking responsibility to change decisions if

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/transport/gender_mainstreaming_transport/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Fascinating figures about gender and energy - NIKK
    disparity was 23 000 versus 32 000 MJ The gender differences stem largely from the fact that the average single man spends more on vehicles and fuel than the average single woman In Norway the difference between women and men was substantially smaller with single men using only 6 percent more energy than single women 6 The explanation for this is that energy consumption goes hand in hand with earnings That no statistically significant difference was found between women s and men s consumption inNorwayrepresents a textbook example of that very phenomenon according to Carlsson Kanyama who was involved in the study 7 In Sweden too income and energy use are well correlated The wealthiest one fifth of the men who earn four times as much as the lowest earning men are also responsible for twice the energy consumption This pattern is repeated among women 8 Attitudes towards energy conservation Households are responsible for 26 percent of total energy use according to 2001 figures and of the energy used by households heating accounts for 70 percent within the EU 9 Studies show that women use more energy in the home 10 According to Swedish research women shower more often than men for example 41 percent of women showered every day whereas the figure for men was only 28 percent Besides women took longer showers than men thereby consuming more energy in the process 11 Another study conducted in Sweden that asked women and men what they could imagine doing to reduce carbon dioxide emissions showed that women were consistently more willing to change their own behaviour 67 percent of women reported that they could imagine driving less compared to 46 percent of men who responded similarly With regard to meat eating 49 percent of women and 23 percent of men could imagine eating less meat When asked about willingness to reduce electricity consumption at home 81 percent of women were willing to do so compared to 74 percent of men Among women 66 percent were positively inclined to reducing indoor temperatures compared to 57 percent among men Seventy three percent of women were willing to wash laundry at 40 instead of 60 degrees compared to 63 percent of men 12 Men make the most energy decisions Overall men dominate the decision making processes concerning climate policy to an exceptional degree This is true also in the sector of energy not least in the petroleum sector 13 When it comes to who is sitting in the boardrooms of energy companies a Swedish investigation reveals that 72 percent of the board members were men On the other hand there were substantial differences between the companies themselves the boards of 52 energy companies were made up exclusively of men whereas at 11 companies women s board representation exceeded 40 percent The explanation for why some boards of directors had a more equal gender distribution seemed to have to do with company size 14 Research shows that men are clearly over represented in the

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=529 (2016-02-09)
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  • NIKK
    give themselves ecological action space in how they view environmental questions and deal with everyday life If there is an expectation that women are interested in environmental issues this too can have consequences for their action space Taken together all of these factors result in differences in women s and men s patterns of travel In order to target investments most efficiently and create a sustainable system of transport it is necessary to know about the differences that exist Studies and research point to the following differences in women s and men s use of transportation 4 Modes of transportation Men use cars more often than women and women use more public transportation than men Women are more likely than men to be in the passenger seat Men have greater access to cars Of those without a driving permit 70 percent are women Travel distances Men generally travel for longer distances than women which can be partly explained by their greater access to cars Another explanation for the difference is that people in higher labour market positions travel longer distances Travel patterns A typical trip for a man is between home and work Women are more likely to make trips with multiple stops for example home preschool work shop preschool home and to drive children to school and free time activities Men take more business trips than women Timing of travel Men are most likely to travel during rush hour and for longer distances Women are more likely to travel outside the busiest times of day and to make more trips in the near vicinity Access to a car Men have greater economic might and are more likely to have a driving permit and therefore also have better opportunities for driving The situation appears to be changing as more women enter the labour market younger women are more likely to have a driving permit and a car than older women Attitudes The relationship of women and men to cars and the environment is different Women are more focused on functionality men on engine capacity and performance Men s potential to drive more is higher than women s while women are more willing to use other modes of transportation in order to reduce their own car use Factors beyond gender As can be seen from the above gender alone does not determine travel patterns Living in an urban area age and labour market position all contribute to transportation habits The group responsible for the most travel are those aged 25 54 an age group that includes a high proportion of wage earners People with higher education travel the longest distances while those with only basic education travel the shortest distances 5 Both men and women who live in rural areas drive more than those living in urban areas High income earners drive more frequently than low income earners 6 The question is whether declining gender differences will enhance other differences for example those connected to class age and ethnicity 7 Is

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=279 (2016-02-09)
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